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THE CHANTS OF THE 
VATICAN GRADUAL 

By Dom Dominic Johner 



Translated from the German 

By Monks of 

St. John's Abbey 




St. John's Abbey Press 

CoUegeville, Minn. 

1940 



JG 9 1943 






Imprimi potest: 

i^ALCUINUS DEUTSCH, O.S.B. 
Abbas S. Joannis Bapt. 

Nihil obstat: 

ALEXIUS HOFFMANN, O.S.B. 
Censor Deputatus 

November 22, 1934 

Imprimatur: 

C. THIEBAUT, V.G. 

Adm. Dioec. S. Clodoaldi, Minn. 



November 26, 1934 



aJ L 



Copyright, 1940 

ST. JOHN'S ABBEY PRESS 

Collegeville, Minnesota 



CONTENTS 

Foreword by the Translators vii 

Foreword to the First German Edition ix 

Bibliography xii 

Literature xiv 

Introduction — Structure and Expressiveness of the Variable 

Mass-Chants 1 

THE MASSES FOR SUNDAYS AND FEASTDAYS ACCORDING 
TO THE LITURGICAL SEASONS. {Proprium De Tempore). 

First Sunday of Advent 13 

Second Sunday of Advent 20 

Third Sunday of Advent 27 

Fourth Sunday of Advent 34 

Vigil of the Nativity 41 

Christmas Day- — Midnight Mass . . . . . . . . . .45 

Christmas Day — Third Mass 50 

St. Stephen, First Martyr 57 

St. John, Apostle and Evangelist 62 

The Holy Innocents 66 

Sunday within the Octave of Christmas 69 

The Circumcision of Our Lord 74 

The Holy Name of Jesus 75 

The Epiphany of Our Lord Jesus Christ 79 

The Holy Family 85 

Second Sunday after Epiphany 88 

Third Sunday after Epiphany 93 

Septuagesima Sunday 97 

Sexagesima Sunday 101 

Quinquagesima Sunday 106 

Ash Wednesday Ill 

First Sunday in Lent 118 

Second Sunday in Lent 126 

Third Sunday in Lent 130 

Fourth Sunday in Lent 137 

Passion Sunday 142 

Palm Sunday 150 

Maundy Thursday 161 

Good Friday . 167 

Holy Saturday . 173 

Easter Sunday 178 

Easter Monday 184 



iv Contents 

Low Sunday 188 

Second Sunday after Easter 191 

Third Sunday after Easter 194 

Fourth Sunday after Easter 198 

Fifth Sunday after Easter 202 

Rogation Days 207 

The Ascension of Our Lord 211 

Sunday with the Octave of the Ascension 215 

Whitsunday 219 

Monday in Whitsun week 227 

Trinity Sunday 229 

Corpus Christi 232 

Sunday within the Octave of Corpus Christi 240 

The Most Sacred Heart of Jesus " . . 245 

Third Sunday after Pentecost 252 

Fourth Sunday after Pentecost 256 

Fifth Sunday after Pentecost 263 

Sixth Sunday after Pentecost 267 

Seventh Sunday after Pentecost 270 

Eighth Sunday after Pentecost 275 

Ninth Sunday after Pentecost 279 

Tenth Sunday after Pentecost 283 

Eleventh Sunday after Pentecost 287 

Twelfth Sunday after Pentecost 292 

Thirteenth Sunday after Pentecost 298 

Fourteenth Sunday after Pentecost 303 

Fifteenth Sunday after Pentecost 307 

Sixteenth Sunday after Pentecost . 312 

Seventeenth Sunday after Pentecost .317 

Eighteenth Sunday after Pentecost , . . 321 

Nineteenth Sunday after Pentecost 326 

Twentieth Sunday after Pentecost 331 

Twenty-First Sunday after Pentecost 335 

Twenty-Second Sunday after Pentecost 342 

Twenty-Third Sunday after Pentecost . . . . . . . . . 346 

SPECIAL FEASTS OF OUR LORD AND THE SAINTS 

(Proprium De Sanctis.) 

St. Andrew, Apostle 353 

The Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary . . . 357 

St. Thomas, Apostle • . 362 

Purification of the Blessed Virgin or Candlemas 362 



Contents v 

St. Matthias, Apostle 370 

St. Joseph, Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Confessor . . . 372 

The Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary 376 

St. Mark, Evangelist 381 

SS. Philip and James the Younger 381 

The Finding of the Holy Cross 385 

Solemnity of St. Joseph 387 

Nativity of St. John the Baptist 391 

SS. Peter and Paul, Apostles 397 

The Most Precious Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ 403 

Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary 407 

St. James, the Elder 413 

St. Anne, Mother of the Blessed Virgin Mary 414 

The Transfiguration of Our Lord Jesus Christ ...... 417 

St. Lawrence, Deacon and Martyr 420 

The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary 424 

St. Joachim, Father of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Confessor . . . 431 

St. Bartholomew, Apostle 434 

Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary 435 

The Exaltation of the Holy Cross 435 

The Seven Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin Mary 437 

St. Matthew, Apostle and Evangelist 444 

The Dedication of St. Michael the Archangel 448 

The Holy Guardian Angels 452 

The Most Holy Rosary of the Blessed Virgin Mary . . . . . 453 

The Maternity of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary 456 

St. Luke, Evangelist 459 

SS. Simon and Jude, Apostles 459 

Kingship of Our Lord Jesus Christ 460 

All Saints Day 466 

All Souls Day 472 

The Dedication of a Church 484 

Asperges Me and Vidi Aquam 490 

A Last Word 493 

Index 497 



FOREWORD BY THE TRANSLATORS 

In response to many requests for a book descriptive and explanatory 
of the Gregorian Mass chants, the monks of St. John's Abbey, College- 
ville, Minn., undertook the translation from the German of Dom 
Johner's work: Die Sonn- und Festtagslieder des Vatikanischen Graduale, 
under the above title. In the foreword the author indicates the scope of 
his work. He writes: "The present work is intended chiefly to serve as 
an aid to the prayerful rendition of the variable chanted parts of the 
Mass. At the same time it aims to be a guide for the worthy and artistic 
rendition of those chants which have been handed down to us from an 
age of strong faith and noble taste." Chant is essentially a form of wor- 
ship offered by the faithful and as such is an integral part of the liturgy. 
It is intimately connected with the very source of all Liturgy, the Eu- 
charistie Sacrifice, and attempts to interpret and express in music the 
sentiments which the text expresses in words. 

Individual consideration is given to the texts of the Introit, Gradual, 
Alleluia- verse, Tract, Sequence, Offertory, and Communion. These texts 
are given in Latin and in English, and are arranged in parallel columns. 
They are studied in their historical and liturgical setting, and their sen- 
timents of joy and sorrow, hope and fear, gratitude and penance, are 
pointed out and developed. In this sense also the intimate relationship 
existing between these various texts is indicated; all are integrated into 
a unified whole and referred to the life of Christ and His Church. Fol- 
lowing this short meditation, the author analyses the musical score ac- 
companying the text, and attempts to show how Gregorian Chant inter- 
prets these various sentiments and gives adequate expression to them — 
in short, how Gregorian Chant is the prefect yet simple medium of tran- 
lating religious emotion into the language of music. 

An indispensable condition for the intelligent use of this book as a 
guide -for interpretation is the simultaneous use of the Vatican Gradual, 
since musical notation has not been included in the present work. How- 
ever, only a minimum and very elementary knowledge of Gregorian 
Chant is necessary for the fruitful use and understanding of the book. 
Further knowledge is given in a very significant Introduction, which 
describes the structure and expressiveness of the variable Mass Chants. 
The original German, as also the English manuscript, have been made 
the basis for a very successful summer school course in the study of Gre- 
gorian Chant. The book might adequately be described as "a study in 
the appreciation of Gregorian Chant." 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

The translators gratefully acknowledge their obligations to the fol- 
lowing for the kind permission extended them to use copyrighted mater- 
ial: Msgr. H. T. Henry, for his translation of the Lauda Sion; Messrs. 
Burns, Oates and Washbourne, for the translations of the Dies Irae and 
the Stahat Mater, which appear in Annus Sanctus; P. J. Kenedy, for 
Abbot Cabrol's excellent version of the Roman Missal. 



FOREWORD TO THE FIiJST GERMAN 
EDITION 

The present work is intended chiefly to serve as an aiu to the prayer- 
ful rendition of the variable chanted parts of the Mass. At tht same time 
it aims to be a guide for the worthy and artistic execution of thost? chants 
which have been handed down to us from an age of strong faith and nPble 
taste. Choral music, or chant, is here considered not as a mere historic 
relic of the past, nor is worthy rendition to be understood in the sense 
■of an elaborate concert interpretation of these monodic church compo- 
;sitions of the Middle Ages. Chant is more than this. It is an integral 
part of the liturgy, as much alive and inspiring today as ever. It is the 
praise of the living God by his people in union with Christ. Anyone, 
therefore, wishing to render chant properly must participate in the 
Christ-life of the Church, must seek spiritual nourishment at the heart 
•of the liturgy, which is the Eucharistie Sacrifice. He must desire, as 
Christ did, to honor the Father with due reverence. These few thoughts 
Iiave formed the guiding principles of the present work. 

Questions of purely historical interest have been touched upon only 
.as occasion offered. No attempt has been made to portray the historical 
-development of the different Mass formulas, and still less has any critical 
study of the various readings of texts and melodies been attempted. Nor 
•should the reader expect a systematic introduction to the liturgical year, 
although the author has made an effort to explain the texts in their 
proper liturgical setting in the Church year. 

As the title states, the work has been limited to the Sundays and 
principal feasts of the year. Such feasts of the Saints, which according 
to the rubrics are to be celebrated even though they fall on a Sunday 
are included also. To these have been added Ash Wednesday, Holy 
Week, the feast of St. Joseph, and the Requiem Mass. The second Mass 
of Christmas has not been explained, since it is sung in few churches 
•only. Historical sketches concerning the introduction of newer feasts 
have been given as occasion demanded. Where these sketches are want- 
ing, there is question of feasts which belong to the more ancient liturgy 
and which with their chants are to be found in manuscripts dating from 
the ninth to the tenth century. 

Purely theoretical questions were touched upon only lightly. These 
■can be studied from textbooks treating of chant. The classic work of 
Professor P. Wagner; Einfuehrung In Die Gregorianischen Melodien (3 
vols., Breitkopf and Haertel, Leipzig) is particularly recommended. 

Outside of this one work few others proved to be of any great help 
for the scope of the present undertaking. Betende Kirche (Maria-Laach, 



X Foreword to the First German Edition 

2nd ed., 1926); Reck, Das Missale als Betrachtungshuch (Herder, Frei- 
burg, 5 vols.), and similar excellent works devote little attention to the 
texts that are chanted. Only occasional and very general remarks are 
made concerning the melodies themselves. Periodicals of sacred music 
in Germany, with few exceptions, lack a genuine appreciation of the 
intrinsic value of the melodies of the Vatican Gradual. Periodicals in 
other countries offer more on chant. A pertinent bibliography, as a guide 
to further study of the subject, is subjoined. For the most part, however, 
the author has had to rely on his own resources, and, for this reason, 
feels keenly that his work is that of a pioneer in this particular field. He 
knows well that our modern age listens to ancient melodies with some 
misgivings. He realizes also that melodies have more than one signifi- 
cation and can therefore be interpreted in a manner different from that 
which he has outlined in the following pages. The reader will find that 
the author is not entirely alien to subjectivism, which often adapts more 
than it explains. This fact, however, is not exactly a great misfortune. 
Much greater is the danger that many choirs will sing the chant without 
any feeling or art whatsoever. May this book lead them to the true 
spirit of the chant and effect a more intimate understanding of the 
melodies of Gregorian chant, to the end that these chants may be sung 
as so many prayers by means of which the faithful soul may soar aloft 
to God. May it also inspire the reader to strive after better technique, 
so that he may express outwardly in a more perfect manner that which 
he feels and understands inwardly. 

An essential condition for understanding the content of the follow- 
ing pages is the simultaneous use of the Vatican Gradual. The musical 
notation of the text has not been included in the book, although, without 
doubt, it would have helped greatly for a better understanding of the 
explanations given. Hence, whenever notes are indicated by the use of 
their corresponding letters, the distinction of octaves (G-g-g^) is, as a 
rule, not made. 

Whenever reference is made to some other Sunday or feast for the 
explanation of a designated text, there is always a question of similarity 
of text and melody. If, for example, the explanation of a certain Introit 
is referred to the Introit of another Mass, then the two are to be treated 
alike in their rendition, unless, of course, something else to the contrary 
has been expressly stated. 

Here and there attention has been called to certain imperfections in 
the melody. This has been done not in a spirit of criticism but out of 
sincerity, and only to warn against the false notion that love and enthu- 
siasm for chant must be artifically aroused. This is not at all required. 



Foreword to the First German Edition xi 

It would be astonishing, indeed, if only pearls of great value were to be 
found in its rich storehouse of treasures. These occasional imperfections 
give greater prominence to the beauty and sincerity of expression of the 
other melodies. 

The sequence of the words in the Latin text has, as much as possible, 
been retained in the translation. Those unacquainted with Latin can 
in this way more easily compare the translation with the original text 
and its melody. For this reason, also, the division and phrasing indicated 
by the larger pause signs in the Vatican Gradual has been accurately 
retained and for the sake of clearness is shown here by numbers. 

The present work is the outgrowth of the author's lecture course in 
the High School of Music in Cologne. 

May God bless the work! May it be the means of ever more fully 
realizing the desire of the saintly Pope Pius X, and of teaching the Catho- 
lic world once more to sing as the chant of the Church sings, and to pray 
as it prays! 

Feast of the Purification, 1928, Beuron. 

THE AUTHOR 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Following are some works which might prove of interest to the 
readers of Johner, not because they will find any further and formal ex- 
planation of the Vatican Gradual and its melodies, but because these 
books should be of help towards a better understanding of the Graduale.. 

BOOKS 

Benedictines of Stanbrook, A Grammar of Plainsong, 2nd Ed. (Wor- 
cester, 1926), 128 pp. 

Benedictine Nuns of Stanbrook, A Grammar of Plainsong (Benziger 
Bros.), 80 pp. 

Benedictines of Stanbrook, Gregorian Music (London, 1897), 97 pp. 

Birkle, Dom S., A Complete and Practical Method of the Solesmes Chant, 
translated from the German by A. Lamaistre, (J. F. Wagner, New 
York, 1904), 150 pp. 

Desroquettes, Dom J. Hebert, U Accompagnement Rhythmique d'apres les 
Principes de Solesmes (Tournai), 73 pp. 

Egerton, Clement C., A Handbook of Church Music (London, 1909)^ 
218 pp. 

Ferretti, Dom P., Principii Teoretici e Practici di Canto Gregoriano, 3rd 
Ed. (Rome, 1914), 24. pp. 

Huegle, Dom Gregory, Catechism of Gregorian Chant, (J. Fischer and Bro., 
1928), 115 pp. 

Haberl, F. X., Magister Choralis, A Theoretical and Practical Manual of 
Gregorian Chant, Translated by Rev. N. Donnelly (Ratisbon), 283 pp. 

Johner, Dom D., A New School of Gregorian Chant, Translated from the 
German, 3rd Ed., (Pustet, New York, 1925), 364 pp. 

Johner, Dom D., Erklaerung des Kyriale (Pustet), 128 pp. 

Laroche, Th., Principes Traditionelles d' Execution du Chant Gregorien, 
(Tournai, 1929), 331 pp. 

Leone, Dom G., Grammatica di Canto Gregoriano (Badia di Cava, 1925), 
91 pp. 

Liturgical Movement, The (Liturgical Press, Collegeville, Minn.) 

Missia, F. A., A Church Music, A Brief Guide to its Meaning and Regu- 
lations for its Liturgical Observance. 

Mocquereau, Dom Andre, Nombre Musical, Gregor., Le, 2 Vols. (Tournai, 
1908-1927). 

Mocquereau, Dom Andre, The Art of Gregorian Chant (The Catholic 
Education Press, Washington, D.C.), 24 pp. 

Mocquereau, Dom Andre and Cagin, Dom Paul, Plain Chant and So- 
lesmes, (London, 1909), 71 pp. 



Bibliography xiii 

Potiron, Henri, Cours D' Accompagnement du Chant Gregorien, New 
Edition (Paris, 1927), 134 pp. 

Predmore, Geo. V., Church Music in the Light of the Motu Proprio. A 
Guide for the Catholic Choir Director and Organist, (Rochester, The 
Seminary Press), 82 pp. 

Ravegnani, E., Metodo Compilato di Canto Gregoriano, 5th Ed. (Rome, 
1926), 282 pp. 

Ronan, J. E., Catholic Church Music (Toronto, St. Augustine's Sem- 
inary), 58 pp. 

Schmidt, J. G., Principal Texts of the Gregorian Authors concerning 
Rhythm, (Buffalo Volksfreund Printing Co., Buffalo, N.Y.). 

Schuster, Cardinal Ildephonse, The Sacramentary (Benziger Bros.). 

Springer, Max, The Art of Accompanying Gregorian Chant, translated 
from the German (J. Fischer and Bro., New York), 238 pp. 

Sunol, Dom Gregory, A Textbook of Gregorian Chant, translated from the 
Spanish by G. M. Dunford (Desclee & Cie., 1930), 221 pp. 

Terry, Sir Richard, The Music of the Roman Rite. 

Wagner, Peter, Einfuehrung in Die Gregorianischen Melodien, Ein Hand- 
buch der Choralkunde (Freiburg, Switzerland, 1895), 311 pp. 

Wagner, Peter, Einfuerung in Die Gregorianischen Melodien, Ein Hand- 
buch der Choralwissenschaft, 3 Vols. (Leipzig, 1911-1921). 

Ward, Mrs. Justine, Gregorian Chant according to the Principles of Dom 
Andre Mocquereau of Solesmes (Washginton, 1923), 262 pp. 

White List, The, By the Musical Committee of the Society of St. Gregory 
of America, A Selection of Papal Documents and other information 
pertaining to Catholic Church Music. (J. Fischer and Bro., New York), 
64 pp. 

MAGAZINES 

ENGLISH: The Caecilia, (100 Boylston Street, Boston, Mass.). 

The Catholic Choir Master (Niccola Montani, 1705 Ritten- 

house Street, Philadelphia, Pa.). 
GERMAN: Musica Divina (Vienna, Austria). 

Musica Sacra (Regensburg, Germany). 



LITERATURE 

With Abbreviations Used In Quoting 

Betende^ Kirche (Berlin, Augustinerverlag), 2nd Ed. [B.K.] 
Caecilia, from 1883 (Strassburg). 

Caecilienvereinsorgan, from 1856 (Regensburg, Pustet); from 1924 (M.- 
Gladbach, Volksvereinsverlag). [CO.] 
ChoralUaetter (Beuron), Nos. 1-5. 
David, L., O.S.B., Analyses gregoriennes pratiques (Grenoble, Bureaux 

de la Revue du chant greg.). [Analyses] 
Grisar, H., Das Missale im Lichte roemischer Stadtgeschichte (Freiburg, 

Herder, 1925). [Missale] 
GregoriusUatt, from 1865 (Duesseldorf, Schwann). 
Gregoriusbote (Duesseldorf, Schwann). 
Johner, P. D., O.S.B., A New School of Gregorian Chant (N.Y., Pustet, 

1925), 3rd Ed. [N. Sch.] 

Der gregorianische Choral (Stuttgart, Engelhorn, 1924). 
Jahrbuch fuer Liturgiewissenschaft, from 1920 (Muenster, Aschendorff). 
Katholischer Kirchensaenger, 1910-1911 (Duesseldorf, Schwann). [K.K.] 
Klosterneuburger Liturgiekalendar. [K.L.] 
Kramp, J., S.J., Messliturgie und Gottesreich (Freiburg, Herder, 1921). 

Three parts, in the Ecclesia orans series. 
Musica divina, from 1913 (Vienna, Universaledition). 
Schuster, I., O.S.B., The Sacramentary (N.Y., Benziger, 1924-1931), 

5 Vols. 
Tippmann, R., Die Messen der Fastenzeit (Paderborn, Schoeningh, 1921). 
Wagner, P., Einfuehrung in die greg. Melodien (Leipzig, Breitkopf und 

Haertel). I. Ursprung und Entwicklung der liturgischen Gesangsformen, 

3rd Ed. 1910; II. Neumenkunde, 2nd Ed. 1912; III. Gregorianische 

Formenkehre, 1921. 
Wiener Kirchenzeitung, Volume 8 contains excellent short explanations 

of Mass texts from the pen of P. Simon Strieker (Maria-Laach). [T7.K.] 



INTRODUCTION 

Structure And Expressiveness Of The Variable 
Mass- Chants 

The variable chants of the Mass {Proprium Missae — Proper of the 
Mass) show surprising diversity both in content and in mood. Unlike 
the inflexible sameness of the Oriental liturgy, which practically uses the 
same Mass, formulary day after day, the liturgy of the Western Church 
has since the fourth century witnessed a development so remarkable 
that it now has special texts and melodies for almost every Sunday and 
feast day of the year, including those for each day of Lent. Many of 
these selections are characterized by a joyful and sincere gratitude to- 
ward God; some are filled with the spirit of penance; still others are ex- 
pressive of hopes and fears. As a preliminary to the study of each chant 
selection it is very helpful to determine: (1) whom do the words of the 
text represent as speaking— Christ, the Blessed Virgin, the saints, or 
the Church herself? (2) to whom are the words addressed — to Christ, 
to the saints, or to us? 

There is no close relationship musically between the constituent 
parts of a Mass formulary. There is neither similarity of modes nor of 
motives to unify them. When songs which now immediately succeed one 
another, such as the Graual and the Alleluia (formerly this was not the 
case) have the same mode, it is purely a coincidence. The exclusive de- 
velopment of one thought or mood is likewise of infrequent occurrence» 

The distinctive peculiarities of the chants are due entirely to the 
part they are destined to play in the liturgy of the Mass. On this basis 
they can be divided into two classes. 



The first class of chants embraces all those which are meant to ac- 
company some liturgical action — in a broader sense one might call them 
"processionals." To this class belong the following: the Introit, which is 
to be sung during the solemn procession of the priest to the altar (acce- 
dente sacerdote ad altare, as the Rubrics of the Vatican Gradual have it) ; 
the Offertory, which formerly was sung during the Offertory procession 
of the faithful to the altar; the Communion, which was sung during the 
distribution of Holy Communion. These chants embody all those factors 
which make for a complete and artistic whole — word, song, and action. 
They express effectively the emotions of the soul, at the same time urg- 
ing it on to still further activity. (Cf. Johner, A New School of Gregorian 
Chant, p. 120.) 



2 Structure and Expressiveness of the Variable Mass-Chants 

A. THE INTROIT 

The Introit is made up of an antiphon, a simple psalm- verse with 
the Gloria Patri, and the repetition of .the antiphon. It has the schematic 
form ABA. Formerly the whole psalm was sung, or at least a goodly- 
number of verses, and the antiphon was repeated after each verse. In 
fact, to arrive at a full understanding of most Introits, a thorough study 
of the entire psalm from which the Introit has been taken is necessary. 
The verse has a distinctive melody for each of the eight modes. These 
typical melodies remain unchanged and therefore are not influenced by 
the subject matter or the spirit of the feast. The individual antiphons 
will be explained in their proper place. As regards the melody of the 
psalm-verse and its underlying text, however, a few remarks may be in 
place. 



In the first, third. 


and £ 


accents: 




1. 


a 


3. 


c 


7. 


d 


ExsuUate 


Deo 


Gloria . . . 


et 


Exsul- 


td- 



and seventh modes the middle cadence has two 



ia) ag ga 
(c) ha ccc 
(e) ed de 
no-stro: 
san-cto : 
Do-mi -no: 



a 


ac (a) a 


c 


d (c) c 


d 


df (e) e 


adju- 


to ri 


Spi- 


ri- tu- i 


te 


ju-sti in 



In the sixth mode the middle cadence has two accents with a pre- 
paratory note: 

1 



aa a g 

ExsuUate Deo adju- 

Exsul-td - te 



6b 


(a)a 


to- 


ri 


ju- 


sti in 



9 (/) / 
no- stro : 
Domi - no : 



In the fifth mode the middle cadence has one accent with a pre- 
paratory note: 



c c c d 
ExsuUate Deo adjuto- ri 

justi in 



d (c) c 
no- stro: 
D6-mi - no: 



In the second, fourth and eighth modes the middle cadence has one 
accent with three preparatory notes: 



2. fe fg g 

ExsuUate Deo ad- ju- to- ri 



fg (/) / 

no - stro: 
Do-mi - no : 



Structure and Expressiveness of the Variable Mass-Chants 3 

In the first, second, third, sixth, seventh, and eighth modes, the 
final cadence begins with the fifth syllable from the end; in the fourth 
mode with the fourth syllable from the end. 



1. 


a 


5 

aca 


4 

9 


3 
/ 


/// 


d 


2. 


f 


Q 


fd 


/ 


ec 


ded 


3. 


c 


cc h 


ag 


a 


b 


ga 


6. 


f 


9 


fd 


f 


9 


f 


7. 


d 


def 


d 


c 


ccc 


ag 


8. 


c 


ccb 


ga 


ch 


a 


9 


4. 


a 


a 


9f 


ga 


9 


e 






5 


4 


3 


2 


1 



jubi-ld - te De - Ja - cob 

Here there is simple enumeration of syllables, with no reference to 
the word-accent. The text is subordinatd to the melodic rhythm, and 
according to Quintilian (A.D. 118), the syllables must then be length- 
ened or shortened to fit the pattern of the melody. Occasionally, in the 
Vatican edition, the sixth and eighth modes form exceptions when the 
verse closes with a dactylic rhythm, as is instanced in the Introit In 
medio : 

f f f 9 fd f\g (/) / 
Do- mi- ni tu- o Al\tis- si- me; 

and in the Introit of the Sunday after Christmas: 

3 2 1 

CC b ga cb\d a g 
fortitudinem et prae\cin-xit se. 

In both cases, therefore, there is one accent with three preparatory notes; 
this makes the rhythm of the eighth mode somewhat uneven. 

Some modes have variant final cadences. These effect an artistic 
linking of the psalm-verse with the repetition of the antiphon. The an- 
cients had a nice sense for the propriety of such a device. Occasionally 
the cadence suggests the beginning of the antiphon. 

The eighth mode closes with the extended cadence c cc b ga cb a 
gadffg when the antiphon rises from a lower note, as for instance on 

Palm Sunday: 

d fg g gag 

Do- mi- ne. 



4 Structure and Expressiveness of the Variable Mass-Chants 

The fourth mode has the final cadence a gf ga g dgff when the anti- 
phon begins with df, as for instance on Maundy Thursday: 

dfe 
nos. 

The first mode has the final cadence /// dcdf, when the antiphon 
begins with cd, as for instance on the feast of the Purification: 

cd dabb a a 

Su- see- pimus. 

Otherwise it has the cadence fga, if the antiphon sets in on a, as^ 
for instance, on the feast of the Conversion of St. Paul; 

a gag 
Sei- 0. 

The fifth mode has the stirring and onward-urging cadence e dh c 
ägdgfg, especially when the antiphon is defined within the tone range 
f-a, as, for instance, on Septuagesima Sunday: 

fa a a a agga f 
Cir-cum-de - de - runt me. 

The sixth mode has the still more impelling cadence fgfdfgfg 
a g when the antiphon sets in on a low pitch, as, for instance, on Low 
Sunday: 

c d d d 
Quasi mo-do 

Evidently the need for contrast also comes into play here. The 
"Concors varietas," as St. Augustine^ has it; the "suavis quaedam et con- 
cordahilis diversitas — smooth and harmonious diversity," as Berno of 
Reichenau^ (eleventh century) puts it. The same becomes apparent from 
the rule for the adaptation of individual phrases of the same composition : 
if one phrase closes on a low pitch, the following will have a tendency to 
rise. Thus in the Offertory of the second Sunday in Advent, the fourth 
phrase begins with g-c, while the foregoing one closes with //. This is 
seen in various Graduals of the third mode, for example, the close and 
the beginning of the first and second phrases of Quinquagesima Sunday? 
three times on the feast of the Holy Name of Jesus; twice on the feast 
of St. Michael. 

On the other hand, if one phrase begins in a high pitch, the follow- 
ing will have a tendency to begin with a low pitch. This is well exempli- 
fied in the Introit of the third Sunday of Advent, where the cadence over 



De Civitate Dei, 1, 17, c. 14. 

Gerbert, Scriptores eccles. de musica, II, 77. 



structure and Expressiveness of the Variable Mass-Chants 5 

hominihus closes on gf with reference to the following phrase, which be- 
gins in a higher pitch, while over solliciti suis the same cadence becomes 
fg with reference to the following phrase, which begins with a lower 
pitch. For the same reason the cadence e g f f e oi the fourth mode often 
becomes e e f; this, in fact, is the general rule whenever the following 
phrase begins with low d or low c. The rule for the adaptation of phrases, 
as will be pointed out later, effects a tension between the phrases and its 
various members. 

B. THE OFFERTORY 

The Offertory is also called an antiphon, although in the oldest 
manuscripts it consisted of several verses with one or more refrains. It 
is, therefore, really a responsory, closely resembling the Gradual respon- 
sories in melodic richness. The Offertory of the Requiem Mass with its 
refrain Quam olim is the sole remaining example of this type of Offertory. 

With truth it has been said that, to explain fully any given excerpt, 
it is best to adduce the entire selection from which the excerpt has been 
taken. In accordance with this, the setting for the Offertory as well as 
the Introit would become much more complete and the excerpted text 
much better understood, if the entire psalm from which the manuscript 
text as a rule is taken, would be subjoined. Such a procedure, however, 
would exceed the prupose and limits of the Gradual. Reference for such 
matter should there be made to commentaries on the psalms.^ 

The Introit and Offertory for the first Sunday of Advent have iden- 
tical texts, albeit the melody of the Offertory is more quiet and severe. 
Similar observation can be made in regard to other Mass texts. This, 
however, would not permit us to generalize and to claim that the Offer- 
tory portrays to a higher degree the activities of the inner soul than does 
the Introit. 

As Wagner (III, 418) has shown. Offertories avoid the lengthier 
syllabic element of chant. There are never more than five successive 
syllables on the same note. Melismas usually occur within the word, 
while at the end of the Offertory and particularly at the end of the last 
verse we find a rather ornate vocalise. The Offertories for the Vigil of 
Christmas and the twenty-second Sunday after Pentecost illustrate this 
well. 

Some Offertories- — Offertories alone — have text repetitions. These 
are introduced possibly for "artistic effect;" more probably, however, 
for a liturgical reason. They were necessitated formerly to occupy the 



3 The author refers to the German work Heilige Gabe, by P. Thomas Michels and Athan- 
asius Wintersig. 



6 Structure and Expressiveness of the Variable Mass-Chants 

time during which the faithful brought their gifts to the altar (Wagner, 
III, 429). 

C. THE COMMUNION 

The Communion, like the Introit, had at one time the form ABA, 
the sole remaining example of which we find in the Requiem Mass of 
today. In addition to the Communions that are practically syllabic and 
differ in nothing from ordinary antiphons, there are many which surpass 
the Introit in richness of melody, and others which are sung in extended 
responsorial form at the Night Office. 

II. 

In contrast to the above chants which originally accompanied some 
liturgical action, we might designate those chants which occur between 
the Epistle and Gospel as chants of rest, since they accompany no litur- 
gical action. Historically this latter class is the older of the two. The 
early Church utilized these chants as a means to impress on the hearts 
of the faithful the lessons inculcated by the Epistle, and to make them 
the more readily susceptible for the Gospel. Clergy and laity should, 
without any further ado, be enabled to devote themselves entirely to 
the contemplation of the chant and its import. 

"The Epistle and Gospel are chanted in simple, recitative style, 
generally monotone, with simple, stereotyped variations at the more 
important punctuation marks. And rightly so. Here the important fea- 
ture is the word which leads to the comprehensive understanding of the 
text. Between the Epistle and Gospel, however, there are responsorial 
chants of the richest lyrical melodies. And this with wise forethought, 
for it accords with the laws of aesthetics in regard to contrast. These 
chants act as a counterpoise to the external musical simplicity of the 
Epistle and Gospel."^ 

D. THE GRADUAL RESPONSORIES 

The Gradual responsories formerly had a refrain (hence the usual 
form ABA). Without this refrain, text and melody are at present some- 
times unintelligible, as for instance, the Gradual on the feast of St. John 
the Baptist. Present usage, however, permits the addition of the refrain. 
According to the notation of the Vatican edition, the Gradual is divided 
into a corpus and a verse. The corpus, as a rule, is more quiet, simple, 
and reserved, and not infrequently assigned to a plagal mode. According- 
ly, it may be well rendered by a small, choice choir. The verse is con- 



i Gregoriusblatt, 50, 18. 



Structure and Expressiveness of the Variable Mass-Chants 7 

ceived as a solo, which moves upward brightly and joyfully. Generally 
a very extended melisma occurs after the first or second word. 

The Graduals employ a series of typical melodies which are fre- 
quently adapted in their entirety to various other texts. Still more gen- 
eral is^the use of about fifty typical formulas which in part may be as- 
signed to various modes (shifting melismas'^) and yet are combined in a 
pleasing manner. Some conclude a selection (final or codal melismas); 
others begin a selection (initial melismas), others again give prominence 
to the punctuation (caesural melismas), while others are found in the 
middle of a phrase (inner melismas), mostly over the accented syllable, 
at least in the verse. The favored mode of Graduals is the fifth. Only 
eighteen Graduals are assigned to the third mode and only three to the 
eighth mode. 

At times the melody forms a recitative on the dominant, thus effect- 
ing a striking contrast to the preceding and subsequent melismas, which 
are interwoven in the chief parts of the text. 

Combined with the subsequent Alleluia, technically the Gradual 
forms the artistic apex of the High Mass. 

E. THE ALLELUIA 

The Alleluia with its verse retains to the present time the form 
ABA, and hence belongs to the responsorial chants. A rich, jubilant 
melody (juhilus, neum, sequence) continues the melody over the word 
Alleluia. 

Over the word Alleluia we generally find two motives. They are 
distributed in such a way that the first and lower-pitched comes over 
the first two syllables, while the second and higher-pitched comes over 
the last two syllables. In the ensuing juhilus plain chant displays its fine 
sense of form. It favors the repetition of a member, in such a manner, 
however, that a real development of the melody takes place. Thus, for 
instance, there would not simply be a a but a 6} (ninth Sunday after 
Pentecost), or a öl? h\?- (twelfth Sunday after Pentecost), or a a a^ 6b^ 
(twenty-third Sunday after Pentecost), or a a hb c (eighteenth Sunday 
after Pentecost). Over and above repetition, plain chant also uses "the 
technique of motivation, which effects a more intimate connection be- 
tween the various parts of the juhilus."'^ 

No less than 170 juhilus precede their final note with a pressus; 
thus the third mode has f e f g ff e, the eighth mode has g a c b aa g. 01 
the remaining 64 closing melodies, 53 are assigned to the first and sec- 



Wagner, III, 376 ff. 
Wagner, III, 411 flf. 



8 Structure and Expressiveness of the Variable Mass-Chants 

ond mode and have mostly the concluding form d e f d { = a b c a) or c e 
f d, six to the third and fourth mode, mostly with the concluding form 
a b c g. The pressus is thus most adaptable for concluding the jubilus 
melody. 

The Alleluia-verse often bears the same relation to the preceding 
Alleluia and jubilus as do the variations of a theme to the theme itself. 
Seldom is every such relation absent. The first words of the verse fre- 
quently repeat the melody of the Alleluia. As in the Gradual verse, one 
syllable (which is, as a rule, the accented one) has a florid melisma and 
is finely membered, like that of the jubilus. Reference might be made 
to odorem in the Alleluia for the feast of St. Andrew. 

It is proper to designate the systematical division of the various 
chants of the Gradual by a a^ b, etc., and to designate identical and simi- 
lar passages with a circumflex either above or below the neums. The 
singer is thus afforded a general view of the whole composition and ac- 
quires that self-confidence which is consonant with the spirit of prayer. 

As a rule, the verse has the same rich closing melody, the same 
jubilus as the Alleluia. Only a few melodies, among them those of the 
three Christmas Masses, have a different ending. They were most likely 
composed at a time when the sense of the symmetrical rounding-off of 
phrases was not so well developed. Wagner (III, 398 ff.) assigns them to 
an older (archaic) form. Neither is the inner development of these melo- 
dies so clearly arranged as that which marks other melodies (cf. Pal. 
mus., Ill, 53 ff). 

F. THE TRACT 

As a rule, the text of the Tract is taken from the Psalms or the Can- 
ticles. Its several verses have psalmodic structure. Tracts were invariably 
assigned either to the second or eighth mode. The first verse generally 
has an extended beginning and the last verse a rich closing melisma. 
The mediant divides each verse into two halves; in the following it is 
indicated by f. 

The most frequently occurring form of mediant of the second mode 
is that which, for instance, is found in the first Tract of Good Friday 
over timui, cognosceris, mea, veniet, eius, and is characterized by the 
descent of a fourth with a pressus and close on c. A few other forms (in 
the same Tract over innotesceris) occur less frequently, but close on c. 
Between the beginning and the mediant, but more frequently the medi- 
ant and the closing cadence, a number of caesuras are now and then in- 
serted, which as a rule have a melodic upward tendency and close on /, 
as, for instance, in the second Tract of Good Friday over iniquo, die, 

lum. In the following the caesura is indicated by ( — ). 



structure and Expressiveness of the Variable Mass-Chants 9 

The form of mediant of the eighth mode is similar to that of the 
second. We have an instance of it in the Tract Sicut cervus of Holy Satur- 
day over aquarum, vivum, node. This form is also characterized by the 
descent of a fourth, pressus, and close on /, hence a whole step below the 
finale of the mode. A caesura is also inserted here, and that mostly after 
the mediant, as in the above Tract over ad te Deus. Thus melodic orna- 
mentation is found where the text is set off by a punctuation mark, or 
where the singer finds it necessary to breathe. This melismatic punctu- 
ation is not proper to the Latin language. On account of its melodic 
structure, we must consider the Tract above all as the first fruits of 
Christian Mass chants.' 

As a general rule, texts of a serious and pleading character prefer 
the second mode, which has a minor third over its tonic and as such gives 
us the effect of a modern minor key. On the other hand, texts of a joy- 
ful nature prefer the eighth mode which has a major third over its tonic, 
and as such gives us the effect of a modern major key. The sentiments 
expressed in the Tract of Laetare Sunday and in all the Tracts of Holy 
Saturday are well adapted to the eighth mode. 

ARE THE VARIABLE MASS CHANTS EXPRESSIVE 
OF EMOTION? 

The answer to this question is more than a matter of mere simple 
formula. Above all must be kept in mind the fact that in their essence 
the choral chants are liturgical chants. "Liturgy, however, directs all 
things to God and is governed by reverence for God. The goal of plain 
chant, therefore, must primarily be the glorification of God and not the 
reaction it has on man's ideas and sentiments. Hence it depicts rever- 
ential worship of the majesty of God, wonderment over His beauty, 
amazement over His divine deeds for us, trustful hope in Him whose 
impenetrable Wisdom guides all things — and then again a fervent, even 
joyful, gratitude for His love. 

"Plain chant, therefore, knows no exuberance of sentiment, no pre- 
dominance of mood in the face of quiet and serene reasoning. For this it 
is altogether too intimately connected with its text. 

"It is prayer devoid of external manifestation and false pathos; it 
is direct as the words of a child to its father, plain and simple as the eve- 
ning prayer of an innocent soul."^ 

Liturgical prayer and chant differ greatly from private devotion. 
Liturgy, according to its very name, presupposes a fellowship of spirit. 



7 Wagner, III, 352 ff.; Gregoriusblatt, 50, 3 ff.; 42, 3 ff. 

8 Johner, Der greg. Choral, 76 flF. 



10 structure and Expressiveness of the Variable Mass-Chants 

This naturally demands a restraint of the purely personal element and 
a renunciation of those traits which correspond to the inclinations and 
experiences of the individual. 

The reverence for God and the attitude of the community often 
effect this community of sentiment, which is indicated rather than ex- 
pressed. Religious activities are, in fact, less demonstrative. 

This is especially noticeable in those chants which were designated 
above as "chants of rest," namely, Gradual (Alleluia-verse), Tract, and 
also the psalm- verse of the Introit. They are either composed entirely 
of typical melodies, which are adapted to different texts, moods, and 
feasts, or they make liberal use of typical forms. And it is precisely this 
that distinguishes religious and sacred art, that it rises above the natural 
propensities of the individual, and that it has a style of its own. All the 
forms of religious art — painting, sculpture, architecture, and also music 
and song — have these characteristics. 

The melody in these cases does not serve as an interpretation, but 
rather as an embellishment of the text; it clothes the text with a more 
or less festal garb. Occasionally interesting attempts are made to sacri- 
fice the typical form for individual expression. 

Gregorian music, however, is not merely a music of embellishment; 
it does not describe the text in the manner in which a garland entwines 
itself about a pillar, effecting no inner connection with it. Chant can also 
make the text interpretative, expressive, and explanative. It often brings 
its gradations at the very point where a declamatory rendition of the 
text grows in warmth, and it emphasizes that word which marks its 
climax. Much would be gained for the proper understanding and rendi- 
tion of the melody if we would first ask ourselves the question: How would 
I read or render this text according to its sense? It will become evident 
that chant unites text and melody well, and that there is an intimate 
relationship, a union of spirit, between them. Choral music, morevoer, 
makes prominent use of the esthetics of the interval. 

The chants referred to above as processional hymns may be de- 
scribed as expressive of emotion. True, they make use of many typical 
forms, but the more these hymns are studied and analyzed the more 
apparent it becomes that they are more than mere feelers in the realm 
of emotionally expressive music. It is difficult to reconcile the opinion of 
Oswald Spengler^ when, writing of the church music of the early Middle 
Ages, he says that its subjective emotions and sentiments are not con- 
ceivable by us. Indeed, plain chant with its limited means and devices 
to portray emotion and expression will not create the immediate reaction 



9 Untergang des Abendlandes, 1, 224. 



Structure and Expressiveness of the Variable Mass-Chants 11 

today that it did in bygone centuries. After all, those ages knew nothing 
of the enticing charms of modern harmony, chromatics, and rhythm, 
and were, therefore, more susceptible to the chaste allurements of mono- 
phonic melodies. Nevertheless, it still radiates today a warmth which 
effectively influences the religious life of the soul; it imparts faculties 
which enable us to soar over mundane things to the very Mystery of the 
altar, to union with God. 

Plain chant like all vocal music utilizes two features or forms to render 
the melody expressive. The one endeavors to reproduce the single uniform 
mood as indicated by the liturgy. It does not center and concentrate 
itself on individual words but rather pervades the entire text; it per- 
vades every phrase of the whole composition, just as the soul is found 
in every part of the body. This form of expressiveness is the one most 
frequently used in the so-called processional hymns. 

Another form stresses the import of the individual words and is 
known as specific expressiveness of music. Plain chant, especially the 
Communion, knows many such rich genre pictures. 

Let us endeavor to know and realize in our singing the spirit of each 
individual melody, but above all let us conceive it as prayer. Prayer is 
the raising of the heart and mind and the entire man to God. The ob- 
jective in the liturgy should become our personal conviction, our per- 
sonal property. 

Pius X in his Motu proprio of November 22, 1903, says: "The pro- 
per aim of the melody is to add greater efficiency to the text, in order 
that through it the faithful may be the more easily moved to devotion 
and better disposed for the reception of the fruits of grace belonging to 
the celebration of the most holy mysteries." The same pertains also to 
the actual rendering of the melodies. We should penetrate deeply into 
the feeling of the liturgical chants. Our song rendered with reverence 
and love in the presence of God and of the faithful should portray that 
which we ourselves have experienced. The knowledge that we have 
imparted our own inward happiness to others and have been instrumental 
in leading them to the altar and closer union with God will then afford 
us a goodly measure of spiritual joy and delight. 

The following observations should be noted in regard to the melody 
of newer feasts: 

1. Their text and melody as such are taken from an older Mass 
formulary (cf, what is noted concerning the Introit and Gradual of the 
feast of Corpus Christi). 

2. They adapt an older melody to a newly selected text (cf. Offer- 
tory and Communion of Corpus Christi). At times similarity of text or 



12 Structure and Expressiveness of the Variable Mass-Chants 

word seems to have occasioned the choice of the melody: Videhunt (Com- 
munion Ldnceae et Clavorum) and Viderunt (third Mass on Christmas) ; 
Sta-{bant) (Introit of feast of Seven Dolors) and Stä-{tuit) (Common of 
Martyr-Bishop); qui vocdtur Christus (Communion for Solemnity of St. 
Joseph after Easter) and qui dicitur Christus (Vigil of St. Andrew); in 
generatione (Introit for the Sacred Heart feast) ; and a generatione (Tues- 
day after the first Sunday in Lent). 

3. They borrow individual phrases from various Mass formularies 
(Offertory and Communion on the feast of the Kingship of Christ). 

4. They employ an altogether new composition; this, however, is 
of rare occurrence (Offertory for the feast of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion, and Sequence Stabat Mater). 

Cf. Revue, 6, 158 ff. 



The Masses For Sundays And 

Feastdays According To The 

Liturgical Seasons 

(Proprium de Tempore) 

FIRST SUNDAY OF ADVENT 
INTROIT (Ps. 24: 1, 3) 

1. Ad te levavi animam meam: 1. To thee have I lifted up my 

Deus mens in te confido, non eru- soul: in thee, my God, I put my 

bescam: 2. neque irrideant me in- trust, let me not he ashamed: 2. 

imici mei: 3. etenim universi qui neither let mine enemies laugh at me: 

te exspectant, non confundentur . 3. for none of them that wait on thee 

Ps. Vias tuas, Domine, demonstra shall he confounded. Ps. Show, 

mihi: * et semitas tuas edoce me. Lord, thy ways to me: * and teach 

me thy paths. 

"Lift up (levate) your heads, because your redemption is at hand." 
Thus the Lord consoles us in the Gospel for today, which, in the main, 
is intensely serious. He wishes to come as our Redeemer on Christmas 
night, and for this the Advent season, now beginning, is to prepare us. 
He wants to free our soul from the foes that press it from every side, 
from enemies who think they can already rejoice at our defeat. Although 
we may often have looked up (levavi) to some vain thing, considering 
its attainment our life's ambition, there has always come a time when 
we realized the nothingness of it all, realized that God alone can be our 
ideal, our goal. Only when we take cognizance of His ways (vias tuas, 
Domine) and walk accordingly, can we find true happiness. God alone 
can guard the beauty and nobility of our soul against its every enemy. 
At the beginning of the liturgical year our soul strives, therefore, to 
elevate itself, definitely and decisively, to Him who by His incarnation 
becomes its God (Deus meus) and who wishes to be intimately united 
with it in Holy Communion. For this reason Deus meus sounds almost 
jubilant. For this reason, too, strong accents are placed over in te con- 
fido; and non erubescam and neque irrdieant sound more like a song of 
victory than a suppliant petition. 

"Lift up your heads, for your redemption is at hand." Some time it 
will come, the perfected redemption, when the Son of Man will come in 



14 First Sunday of Advent 

the clouds of heaven "with great power and majesty." Then all the world 
will see that no one who trusts in God is ever confounded. Then those 
who put their faith in men will stand abashed. Then the longing of all 
those (universi) who were turned toward God will be fulfilled and all the 
desires (exspectant) of the human heart will find their complete satis- 
faction in God. 

The antiphon is formed of the first verses of Psalm 24. In cases of 
this kind, the verse which immediately follows generally supplies the 
psalm-verse for the Introit. Here, however, the fourth has been chosen, 
the preceding verse having been passed by, most likely because it ex- 
presses the same thought as its predecessors. 

According to the Vatican edition this virile melody is divided into 
three phrases, all having the same range and stressing the full step be- 
low the tonic. This gives added firmness to the chant. The first and third 
phrases have almost the same closing cadence. Meam and mei close on /. 
The most ancient reading, according to the German tradition of the 
Middle Ages, has this Introit rising from a low pitch (d c f g), like other 
Introits of the eighth mode, e.g., those of Palm Sunday and of Whit- 
sunday. Amen at the close of the psalm- verse has not the usual cadence, 
but g a d f f g, which acts as an introduction to the repetition of the 
antiphon. The fact that this cadence is given here indicates that in its 
original form this Introit began on low d, thus representing the lifting 
up of the soul to God in a more graphic manner. Animam seems like a 
reverent look at God, while meam is filled with childlike submission. We 
become more fully conscious of the force in confido if we first sing its 
half tone and full tone in the reverse order c h\? h\? a, and then sing the 
notes as given. After h a, non has a triumphant ring. The same spirit is 
retained in the following phrase, which sets in with an interval of a 
fourth and twice has a vibrating tristropha. Thus this prayer almost 
becomes a command: Lord, Thou canst not do otherwise than help me 
against my enemies. 

Revue, 19, 69 ff. 

As an antithesis to g-c over änimam we have c-g over (irride) 
-ant me. 

Rhythmically the close over (inimi)-ci mei is related to (con)-fido. 
Now the song becomes more serene. The final phrase has no more large 
intervals, no more bistrophas or tristrophas. Characteristic of it are the 
thirds and the upward tendency of f a g, g b a, g a c, after had, which 
in the rendition should receive a powerful crescendo. Thus the Advent 
idea (exspectant) is brought luminously into the foreground, and with 
the conviction that the preceding petition will be granted, the song 
comes to a close. 



First Sunday of Advent 15 

Our song should be a prayer, and our prayer a lifting of our whole 
being to God (levavi dnimam meam). Such prayerful song will lift others, 
too, out of the shadowy valleys of this earth. Grace will then light up 
the way to the knowledge of Christ, to union with Him. 

Revue, 19, 69 ff.; Analyses, II, 3 ff.; Johner, N. Sch. 54, 66; C. 0., 
46, 136 ff.; Wagner, I, 219; III, 299.; Gregoriushote, 43, 182 ff. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 24:3, 4) 

Universi qui te exspectant, non None of them that wait on thee 

confundentur , Domine. jl/. 1. Vias shall he confounded, O Lord. ^. 1. 

tuas, Domine, 2. notas fac mihi: Thy ways, O Lord, 2. show thou to 

3. et semitas tuas edoce me. me: S. and teach me thy paths. 

Few Graduals show such a clear and evident difference between the 
quiet, low-pitched corpus of the Gradual and the ornate, richly devel- 
oped, and upward-surging verse with its change of clef. With its deep 
notes and emphasis on the dominant /, the corpus ought really to be 
ascribed to the second mode. The verse, on the contrary, is not satis- 
fied with the dominant of the first mode (a); its actual dominant is a 
third higher. In both parts the incisions are marked with elaborate me- 
lismas: exspectant, Domine, mihi, me. 

Perhaps the florid melody over Universi, rising from a low pitch, 
wishes to portray in tone-painting the large number, the multitude. 
With exspectant the annotated manuscripts call for a broad rendition of 
all notes on the final syllable. This serves to augment the Advent spirit 
of longing and of expectancy, which is already expressed by the melody 
itself. An intense seriousness pervades the entire piece. 

The very first notes of the verse show a combination of the tonic 
with the dominant (d-a), the so-called chief repercussion, thereby in- 
troducing a change of sentiment. Ever more lively, more fervent, and 
more impressive the petition now becomes. The motive /(/ a cc a, striving 

upward and then sinking back again, is repeated with pleasant varia- 
tions four times; c appears five times in the energetic form of the pressus. 
The cadence at the close of Domine might indicate something like 
wearniess, but with unwonted power the melody again soars upward, 
as if to knock at the very gates of heaven and obtain a hearing. Only 
after this does it gradually sink to rest. "Modern music for a long time 
now has looked upon such repetition of motive as one of its most effec- 
tive devices. The passage reminds us of Edward Grieg, the famous 
Norwegian lyrist (Op. 46, Peer Gynt, Suite I, 'Morgenstimmung')."^ 



1 Kreitmaier, Dominantem, 170. 



16 First Sunday of Advent 

Obviously, there must be a certain urgency running through the rendi- 
tion. The annotated manuscripts give evidence of fine musical taste in 
indicating that all the notes of this motive are to be sung broadly. The 

close 6 b gg f of Domine is answered by a egg f over mihi. Once again the 
abovementioned motive returns in a slightly different form over et 
semitas. "The singer is reminded of the grace of Christ which mercifully 
descends upon man. With graceful condescension the melody bows 
down at semitas tuas, as if to show how lovingly the grace of Christ is 
communicated to the suppliant."^ The final me should be given a pro- 
nounced ritardando. 

The text of the Gradual is already known to us from the close of the 
Introit and from its psalm- verse. But the Gradual, following the more 
ancient translation of the Scriptures, the Itala, has notas fac instead of 
demonstra. It seems that the ancient liturgy preferred to take the In- 
troit and the Gradual from the same psalm. The preceding Epistle with 
its admonition: "It is now the hour for us to rise from sleep," sheds ad- 
ditional light on our present text. We must be of those who watch ex- 
pectantly, otherwise understanding will come too late. We must "put 
on the Lord Jesus Christ," must become acquainted with His ways. His 
works. His manner of life. These we must learn to know and appreciate 
in all their awe-inspiring, adorable greatness. We sing therefore and pray 
with utmost fervor: "Show thy ways to me, O Lord!" And when we con- 
sider the many ways in which the human heart can go satray, the many 
paths not illumined by the light of truth, then shall we begin to share 
the motherly solicitude of the Church, and from the bottom of our hearts 
we shall sing and pray: "Lord, teach us to tread thy paths!" 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 84: 8) 

1, Ostende nobis Domine mi- 1. Show us, O Lord, thy mercy: 

sericordiam tuam: 2. et salutare 2. and grant us thy salvation, 
tuum da nobis. 

Ever since the first sin was committed, this cry has been ascending 
almost ceaselessly to heaven: "Show us, O Lord, thy mercy!" And never 
is it uttered in vain. The riches of divine mercy are infinite, inexhaustible. 
But men wish to see God's mercy, to feel it, to touch it bodily. Incarnate 
Mercy came to this earth when the only-begotten Son of God became 
man. His merciful love urges Him to seek that which was lost, to preach 
the Gospel to the poor, to heal wounded hearts, to speak that divinely 



'^Gregoriushote, 43, 185. 



First Sunday of Advent 17 

effective word: "Thy sins are forgiven thee; go in peace." Lord, come 
Thou again into our hearts, into the hearts of all men, work the marvels 
of Thy forgiving love, and grant us Thy salvation! Such is the heart- 
felt supplication of this Advent song. 

This melody with its archaic form has been thoroughly discussed 
by Dom Mocquereau in the second number of his Monographies gre- 
goriennes (Tournai, Desclee). For much of what follows we are indebted 
to that excellent work; we are also allowing ourselves some additional 
observations. In the most ancient manuscripts this melody is found ac- 
commodated to various texts. In the present instance, however, text 
and melody fit so perfectly that one may without hesitation say that 
the verse Ostende is the original. Besides, in no manuscript has it a dif- 
ferent melody than that assigned to it here, a fact which likewise testi- 
fies to its great age. Alleluia and juhilus are clearly joined by the final 
pressus on a. But they also show inner relationship. Compare, for in- 
stance : 

a g a b c h ä c 
Alle- lü- ia and 

Alleluia. g f a b cc b g c 

The verse has two parts with two large subdivisions. Ostende sets in 
lively and fervently with an interval of a fourth on the dominant of the 
eighth mode, as if to recall the words of St. James: "But let him ask in 
faith, nothing wavering" (1:6). However energetic this introduction 
should be, allowance must be made for a corresponding increase with 
Domine and above all with (miseri)-c6rdiam. The cadence of (Dömi)-ne 
keeps the melody suspended; then before the next word-accent it sinks 
to b a. Now the word misericordiam can shine forth in all its splendor. 
Upon this upward flight follows relaxation from tuam on, until the melody 
finally rests upon the tonic. 

At its beginning the second phrase recites on the tonic, reminding 
us, with its porrectus on the word-accent, of, the solemn psalm-intona- 
tion of the eighth mode. Corresponding to c e d over (miseri)-c6rdiam in 
the first phrase, everything here must be fitted to the principal accent 
of tu-(um), which we should like to place on d e c a following the tris- 
tropha. According to the annotated manuscripts, however, only c a of 
this pes subbipunctus and the subsequent torculus b d b are to be sung 
with added emphasis and expression. Thus we have d c b c g and b\? a 
g a f corresponding to one another. No one will experience much diffi- 
culty in discovering the similarity of tuam in the first phrase and tuum 
in the second: 



18 First Sunday of Advent 

ag ccbg a b\? a f g h\? a g 

tu . am 

ca chgacaf hi} ag 
tu um 

The final member (da nobis) moves more quietly and prepares for 
the close. Its melody never goes above c; several times it rests upon low 
/. The resulting tritonic tone-sequences f a h and b g f are somewhat 
grating. But it is just this which makes them fit so well to the supplicat- 
ing spirit of the whole. In the second last group of neums, &[> is occa- 
sioned by the following /, just as b in the last group by the following g. 
The verses of Tracts in the eighth mode end on a. Compare: 

Alleluia: cc a g a b\? g f ccagabaag 
Tract: cc a g a bh g f acabggaag 

The closing neum differs from that of the Alleluia jubilus; it has 
the archaic form. We find the richest melismas over tuum and nobis, as 
if the meldoy wished to say: Only Thy mercy, Thy salvation can help 
and heal us. 

In its adaptation to other texts, the melody occasionally receives 
the character of a florid psalmody with intonation, dominant, and ca- 
dence. Compare, for example, the second phrase of this Alleluia with 
that of the feast of SS. Simon and Jude: et salutdre with nimis confo- 
tdtus est. 

Ostendel How often we pray to the Mother of God in the Salve 
Regina that after this exile she may show us her Son Jesus! Today, 
since at Rome the principal service (the statio) is being held in St. Mary 
Major, we cry out to her also, imploring her to show us here in our exile 
the incarnate Love which she once bore under her virgin heart. 

OFFERTORY 

This Offertory has the same text as the Introit. But it inserts "O 
Lord" among the words: "To thee have I lifted up my soul." 

We sing this song while the priest is offering the sacrificial gifts and 
lifting his eyes heavenward. We also lift up our souls to Him who is 
fidelity unchanging. The heavenly bodies will one day be destroyed; 
terrible will be the roar of the ocean; cries of horror will escape from the 
terrified peoples; all worldly hopes will fail. One alone will remain ever 
the same. Therefore, O Christian soul — thus the Church admonishes 
again — let your confidence be unshakeable, even in the storms of the 
present life, even when you must bring also other than symbolic gifts to 



First Sunday of Advent 19 

the altar, even when your vocation and your duties demand sacrifices 
from you which cut deeply into the heart, even when your fidelity re- 
sults only in derision for yourself (neque irrideant). Then pray and sing 
with your whole soul: "My God, I put my trust in Thee. I shall not be 
confounded." And behold. He for whom your heart longs will come to 
you in Holy Communion, to be your light and your strength! 

Even more clearly than in the Introit does the melody here "lift" 
itself from the depths. Eruhescam, a heightened repetition of (d)-nimam 
meam, is much like the eruhescam of the Introit. The division of the 
phrases, moreover, is almost identical; in other respects, however, this 
Offertory travels its own path. The predilection of the second mode for 
the frequent combination of the tonic and dominant (d-f) determines 
the melodic line; in fact, the melody extends but a single tone above its 
dominant. The motive over (D6)-mine is found again over (confun)- 
dentur, with a slight variation over mei, and, taking its rhythm into 
consideration (2+4 + 2 [4]), also over te, d-(nimam), Deus mens, and con- 
fido. All this assures the song a feeling of deep rest and unimpassioned 
reserve. But we must not forget that in early times the Offertory had two 
more verses, of which especially the last had a florid close. Deus meus, 
non, and neque set in on the dominant. The effect varies, however, de- 
pending on whether the preceding note rests on the same pitch, or a 
third or a fourth lower. As a result of its intonation, non (eruhescam) 
possesses special force, heightened by its pressus-like accent, the only 
one in the entire piece. While the Introit and the Gradual make exspect- 
ant prominent, our present song stresses universi with its interval of a 
fourth. But the melody is more subdued and quiet than in the corres 
sponding passage of the Introit. It would seem that the subsequent Sec- 
ret already exerts its influence upon this song. According to the position 
it occupies liturgically, plain song knows how to give the same text its 
proper character, its own spirit. Animam meam, words and melody, is 
found also on the feast of St. Joseph of Cupertino. That song uses also 
the last phrase of today's Offertory, though with a different text. 

Revue, 8, 49 ff. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 84: 13). 

1. Dominus dahit henignitatem: 1. The Lord will give goodness: 

2. et terra nostra dahit fructrum 2. and our earth shall yield her 
suum, fruit. 

All the chants of this Sunday are fervent and touching supplica- 
tions. Here we have the answer to all these petitions, and especially to 
that of the Alleluia- verse, which is taken from the same psalm as the 



20 Second Sunday of Advent 

Communion. Our prayer is not in vain. The Lord gives His blessing: a 
joyous animation runs through the melody with these words. What co- 
pious blessings has the Lord poured upon this earth, and what a plen- 
titude of grace has He again placed in our souls in Holy Communion as 
seed for eternity! Wherever this seed falls upon rich soil, in souls who 
recognize that the one thing necessary is to do the will of God, there it 
bears rich fruit. 

In the Blessed Virgin, however, this Communion finds its finest 
realization. Hitherto our earth had brought forth but thorns and thistles. 
We are, as Adam of St. Victor sang in the twelfth century, a thornhedge, 
lacerated by the thorns of sin; but Mary knows nothing of thorns. She 
is so richly blessed that the angel can greet her as "full of grace." The 
heart of this ancilla Domini was fertile soil, moistened by the dew of 
heaven. Soon she will present us with the most beautiful flowerlet, the 
ripest and most luscious fruit which has ever graced the face of the earth, 
a fruit so precious that mankind, generation after generation, will never 
weary of calling out to her: "Blessed art thou amongst women, and 
blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus!" 

The first phrase has a range of a ninth; with (benigni)-tätem it lets 
the blessings drop gently from above. The second phrase, which treats 
of the fruits of the earth, does not extend above the dominant of the 
mode (a). Both phrases descend in a gentle line to low c and begin the 
following member with an interval of a fourth. A fluent and bright ren- 
dition should characterize the whole piece. 

This melody is sung also on the feast of St. Ignatius (July 31). 
"Lift up your heads;" in Holy Communion "your redemption is at hand." 



SECOND SUNDAY OF ADVENT 

Today the Introit, Gradual, and Communion speak of Sion, i.e., of 
Jerusalem. The Alleluia-verse also alludes to this. For at Rome the prin- 
cipal service was held in the Church of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem, close 
to the Lateran. Formerly it was a royal palace; now it shelters a most 
venerable relic of the holy cross. Our present Sion is the Catholic Church. 
It is also our individual soul, and likewise the church building in which 
we look for the Redeemer today. Here it is that we are being prepared 
for the heavenly Sion. 

INTROIT (Is. 30:30) 

1. Populus Sion, ecce Dominus 1. People of Sion, behold the 

veniet ad salvandas qentes: 2. et Lord shall come to save the nations: 



Second Sunday of Advent 21 

auditam faciei Dominus gloriam 2. and the Lord shall make the glory 
vocis suae, 3. in laetitia cordis of his voice to he heard, 3. in the joy 
vestri. Ps. Qui regis Israel, intende: of your heart. Ps. Give ear, O thou 
* qui deducis velut ovem Joseph. that rulest Israel: * thou that lead- 

est Joseph like a sheep. 

How different is the effect of the ascending fourth in today's Introit 
from that of the descending fourth in last Sunday's! One seems to hear 
a herald proclaiming to the people of Sion the most important news ever 
told, the tidings which mankind had been awaiting for centuries. The 
messenger commissioned by the Lord Himself, would have this mes- 
sage of joy j>enetrate into all hearts: "The Lord shall come to save the 
nations." And you yourself may listen intently for the voice of the Lord. 
For He will speak as one who has power; He will speak of His grace and 
transcendent truth and glory. His voice will cause the heart to overflow 
with joy. 

Where such great things are promised, the petition of the psalm- 
verse comes to mind spontaneously: "Give ear, thou that rulest Israel." 
Help us to live ourselves into this season of grace. For most lovingly 
didst Thou lead Joseph from imprisonment to the regal throne. 

The words of the antiphon were verified when the Lord came. Joy 
filled the hearts of the shepherds when the Lord, through His angels, 
announced to them the message of peace. And although the Child of 
Bethlehem could not at that time speak a word, He has often conversed 
secretly with our souls in laetitia cordis. A day will come when His voice 
will resound majestically over the millions of men who have ever in- 
habited the earth, announcing eternal joy to them who have listened to 
it during their lifetime. 

Three phrases are discernible in the melody, all beginning with the 
same, or at least a similar, motive: Populus and ei auditam g c c d and 
in laetitia g g a c c d. Still more evident is the agreement of the closing 
motives: gentes and vestri g a g g, and suae a fifth higher, d e d d. The real 
dominant of the first and third phrases is c; that of the second, d. 

Like Populus, Dominus stresses c. Before this, however, the fifth over 
ecce fixes the attention. And then it is as if the Lord Himself slowly and 
solemnly came into view. Hitherto He had sent the prophets; now He 
Himself appears. He comes not to judge, however, but to redeem; He 
comes to bring redemption to all the nations. This thought is given a 
more detailed treatment in the Epistle; and in the Gospel the Lord 
speaks of His activity: "The blind see, the lame walk, the lepers are 
cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead rise again, the poor have the gospel 
preached to them." He comes to redeem the gentiles. At this gracious 



22 Second Sunday of Advent 

manifestation of divine favor the melody bows down in gratitude. In 
the Sequence-like melody it is best to consider the torculus the points of 
support, and to rhythmize in a movement resembling five-eights time: 

dd\ cdb ag\ heb ah \ gag g 
ad sal- van- das gen-tes. 

Thus the word-accents are clearly brought to the fore. 

The second phrase begins with the same motive as the first, but its 
span is greater. After the accented c and the following d it does not sink 
back to c, but establishes itself on d. However insignificant this small 
note may appear, it wields great power, urging up to the high /. After 
the ascent over faciei comes a brief relaxation. But then follows a mighty 
cry (obviously the text has influenced the melody) — gloriam vocis suae. 

The third phrase portrays the effects of this message. With full, 
round tones it soars upward from g to e^, stressing this, as it afterwards 
does c. Then with an interval of a fourth it descends to the tonic and to 
the final cadence. 

Revue, 19, 139 ff.; Analyses, II, 12 ff. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 49:2-3, 5) 

1. Ex Sion species decoris ejus: 1. Out of Sion the loveliness of 

2, Deus manifeste veniet. S. 1. Con- his heauty: 2. God shall come mani- 

gregate Uli sanctos ejus, 2. qui festly. '^. 1. Gather ye together his 

ordinaverunt 3. testamentum ejus saints to him, 2. who have set 3- his 

super sacrificia. covenant before sacrifices. 

When the Lord will come. He will bring joy to the hearts of men: 
that is the promise of the Introit. The Epistle closed with similar words: 
"Now the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing." This 
thought is prolonged by the Gradual. It speaks of the beauty of Him 
who is to come. All beauty, and especially that of the coming Messias, 
cannot but produce joy: that is the theme of this bright song. Not in- 
frequently does it remind us of our modern major scale. In other passages 
the Psalmist has painted the beauty of the Messias in brilliant colors, 
describing Him as the most beautiful of the children of men. Now He is 
to come — and manifeste, in visible form. But this Ruler will not isolate 
Himself from His subjects, as is the custom of Oriental sovereigns. He 
will show Himself, and with the magic of His beauty He will capture all 
hearts. 

But he does not come alone: a great host accompanies Him. Of this 
the Gradual-verse speaks, as we also read in one of the Advent anti- 



Second Sunday of Advent 23 

phons: "Behold, the Lord cometh and all His saints with Him." When 
He comes at Christmastide, the saints who have sealed the covenant 
with the sacrifice of their blood will surround His cradle; St. Stephen, 
St. John, the Holy Innocents. But the full grandeur of these words of 
the Gradual will be realized only at the end of the world. When the 
angels' trumpets will sound — some persons will perhaps hear their echo 
in the notes of Congregate — then will arise both the wicked and the just, 
the saints who sealed their covenant with God by sacrifice, by loyalty 
to the end, frequently by a martyr's bloody death. Now they all come 
to form the radiant retinue of the Saviour. However enchanting this 
prospect may be, God, the eternal Sun, infinite Beauty, of whom the 
saints are but reflections, will appear infinitely more glorious and re- 
splendent. 

We find the motive of species repeated over (testamentum) ejus, in 
its second half over (De)-us, and in an enlarged form over the signifi- 
cant ve-(niet). The repetition over (ordinave)-runt becomes more intel- 
ligible from this motive. The melody over (Si)-on appears again over 
(mani)-feste', similarly (il)-li sanctos, (te)-stamentum, and (su)-per sacri- 
(ficia) sound much alike. This play of motives heightens the charm of 
the whole song. 

The verse has the same range as the corpus, but surpasses it in the 
richness of its melismas. It begins, like the corpus, with f a c, which we 
may call a resolved major chord, and then toys with the third. Here one 
must distinguish well between what are only dives or bistrophas, and 
the accented pressus. In any case, the form accede, which occurs 
twice, must enliven the whole. In order to warn against any heaviness 
in the rendition of this passage, the annotated manuscripts give a light 
construction to all the neums over Congregate except the last four notes; 
besides, they have "c" { — celeriter, rapidly) marked over it in two places, 
the first one covering the first three thirds; and also "st" ( — statim, con- 
tinue immediately). The entire passage must therefore be light and airy, 
and not as if the angels had to drag the saints onto the scene. It is at the 
very beginning of the verse that we find the florid melisma: possibly 
this is a reference, in tone-painting, to the multitude of saints. In con- 
trast to the tender neums over the first word, the annotated manuscripts 
demand a broad, serious, solemn rendition of Uli sanctos ejus. 

The second phrase (qui ordinaverunt) is somewhat difficult to sing 
properly. Here we also have an example of the small zigzag oscillations 
of imitative figures with short motives peculiar to the Dutch School. 
This, however, does not justify anyone in generalizing and saying that 
thereby "the ideal melody, the beautiful upward and downward line of 
movement, is essentially blotted out." The divisions of the melody are 



24 Second Sunday of Advent 

evident enough. First it descends three times to g, and then thrice down 
to a. Toward the end, / gains prominence and calls for ob in place of &, 
which dominated the second phrase. 

Hear the soft yet persistent undertone: Gather ye around Him, all 
ye His saints! Let us be mindful of our vocation to aspire to sanctity, 
since we are privileged to assist at the holy Sacrifice of the Mass. Here we 
should renew the covenant with Christ which He sealed with His bloody 
sacrifice. Perhaps Congregate was intended to urge the early Christians 
to lead many of their pagan relatives and friends to Sion, to the Church 
(W. Dauffenbach). 
N. Sch., 246. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 121: 1) 

1. Laetatus sum in his quae 1. / rejoiced at the things that 

dicta sunt mihi: 2. in domum Do- were said to me: 2. We shall go into 
mini ihimus. the house of the Lord. 

Alleluia with its two ascending fourths begins with an energetic 
swing, making one surmise that a greater development is to follow. In 
the jubilus and the verse, however, the melody rises but one full tone 
higher. The two members of the jubilus resemble each other: 6b c bb a 
h\> g f g a and fagedecefg. The first part of the verse seems to have 
been formed from a typical antiphonal melody of the first mode, such 
as we find on Palm Sunday in the song Pueri Hebraeorum: dfdcfaaa 
a c a g f g a. Dicta sunt mi-(hi) exhibits a sort of sequence of thirds: ga 
fg ef de. Domum with its fifth, its pressus, and the broad torculus, possesses 
the greatest inner tension, the expression of sparkling joy. Such a me- 
lisma is also found on June 11, closing the word fructus, singing of the 
rich fruits of divine grace and vocation. A second higher Domini has 

motives of the second member of the jubilus: f efd fgdag e-e dec efggfd. 
Alleluia, Laetatus sum, and the beginning of ibimus show variations of 
the same motive. 

The ancient plain-song manuscripts add a second verse to that 
given here: "Our feet were standing in thy courts, O Jerusalem." How 
brightly and spiritedly this song must have come from the lips of those 
who, arrayed in their festal robes, were making their pilgrimage to the 
Temple! Coming now from our hearts, it should have a still brighter 
ring. We are not obliged to make long pilgrimages to the house of the 
Lord; our Temple is our parish church, in which the true Emmanuel 
(God with us), He for whom the centuries longed, dwells and immolates 
Himself for us. 



Second Sunday of Advent 25 

In olden times the neophytes used to sing this song during the pro- 
cession of thanksgiving which each day during Easter Week led them 
to the baptismal font. There had they received grace, truth, and divine 
adoption. We also belong to the number of those fortunate ones. How 
happy we shall be when we can enter our celestial home, the heavenly 
Jerusalem whose streets re-echo with the cry of Alleluia! 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 84: 7-8) 

1. Deus tu convertens vivifica- 1. O God, turning, thou wilt 
bis nos, 2. et plebs tua laetabitur in bring us life, 2. and thy people shall 
ie: 3. ostende nobis, Domine, miseri- rejoice in thee: 3. show us, O Lord, 
cordiam tuam, 4. et salutare tuum thy mercy, 4. and grant us thy sal- 
da nobis. vation. 

For a musician the change in the character of the melody at the 
beginning of the third phrase over ostende with the resolved chord gb 
bdb is obvious enough. Here and in the parallel sentence which follows 
we have the expression of the great Advent petition contained in Psalm 
84, which last Sunday formed the Alleluia- verse. And today it is the only 
supplication found in the Mass chants. Hence it is well to leave the pre- 
ceding vivificabis and laetabitur in their future forms; for this reason, 
also, we have purposely selected the translation given above. God Him- 
self will again turn to us and bestow new life upon us; He it is who in 
the preceding Gospel Himself said: "The dead rise again." He alone can 
produce such an effect. This is forcibly brought out by the melody over 
tu. Nobis and da, as well as (vivificä)-bis and (lae)-tdbitur, have either 
the same or a similar form of pressus. Care must be taken that these 
forms are not sung too hurriedly; the bistrophas and tristrophas on c, 
on the contrary, should be somewhat less prominent. Over (vivifi)-cäbis 
the ascents gc and ad must not be overlooked. The second phrase re- 
joices in the fact that we are allowed to be God's people (plebs tua), and 
that He so graciously takes us under His protection. All chants of this 
Sunday stress this joy, even more so than the chants of Gaudete 
Sunday. God wishes to enrich us with sure and lasting joy; hence the 
quiet seconds from (laetä)-bitur on. All this is not so much a supplication, 
but rather a happy experiencing. With ostende begins the petition, borne 
aloft by the joyous confidence of the first part. Tender half tones are 
heard over misericordiam. In fact, it almost seems as if this feeling had 
already influenced the close of Domine, so that the interval occurs five 
times in all. Compare with it the beginning of the Introit for the second 
Sunday after Easter, where the mercy of God is also expressed in half 
tones, as well as the passage Domine, suavis ac mitis es from the Introit 



26 Second Sunday of Advent 

of the sixteenth Sunday after Pentecost with its semitones and minor 
thirds. These supply the small stones in the material necessary for the 
construction of an aesthetic of intervals in plain song,^ In accordance 
with the rules for the adaptation of phrases, the beginning of et salutäre 
(gc) is preceded by the low-pitched d e d. From et salutäre on, with its 
introductory fourth and the fourth that follows it, the singer feels im- 
pelled to present his petition in an especially pleading manner. To this 
the pressus over tuum contributes considerably, and especially the de- 
velopment over da, which is to be sung with a marked crescendo. In case 
breath should not suffice, but only in that case, a brief pause may be 
made after the low /, after which the ascent from the prolonged g should 
be made slowly and prayerfully. 

COMMUNION (Bar. 5: 5; 4: 36) 

1. Jerusalem surge, et sta in 1. Arise, Jerusalem, and 

excelso: 2. et vide jucunditatem, stand on high: 2. and hehold the joy 
quae veniet tibi a Deo tuo. that cometh to thee from thy God. 

Subdued joy, the quiet happiness of Advent, inspires this melody. 
It knows that the hopes of the soul are not in vain, that its expectation 
will surely be fulfilled. It has not that bright ring which is characteristic 
of the second mode for example in the second antiphon of Lauds at 
Christmas, which sings of the virgin motherhood of Our Lady; gaudia 
matris habens cum virginitdtis honore. But neither has it the seriousness 
of the Offertory of the first Advent Sunday, which never dared to rise 
above g. Here we have not that solemn jubilation with which the Grad- 
ual-verse for Epiphany sings its Surge et illumindre; nevertheless, surge 
of this Communion also penetrates deeply into the heart. Here we have 
a major third. It is a cry harking back to the spirit of today's Introit. 
Solemnly it continues — in accordance with the ancient annotated manu- 
scripts, which give almost each note the broad form — "stand on high"; 
rise above your environment; despise what is earthly, as the Postcom- 
munion puts it; view all things in their proper proportions. One thing 
alone can fill your heart with bliss — the salvation which comes to you 
from your God. 

The Holy Communion which we receive lifts us to the heights of 
the other world, where eternal happiness awaits us in the possession and 
contemplation of God ( Kath. Kirchenzeitung, Salzburg, 1927, 441 J. 

The serious explanation offered by Oberhammer (Im Lichte des 
Christkinds, p. 28J hardly corresponds to the spirit of the melody. Ac- 



1 N. Sch. 247 ff. 



Third Sunday of Advent 27 

cording to this commentator, the disciples return home to John and 
relate to him what they have seen and heard; and in his prison in the 
fortress Machairus, on the other side of the Dead Sea, John now rises 
up and for the last time calls to his people: Jerusalem, surge. Otherwise 
the same fate awaits you as that to which the depths of the Dead Sea 
bear testimony. 

The passage / efd fa g over (Jerüsa)-lem surge corresponds to d cec 
ded over vide. Now the melody becomes livelier. The endings over (ex)- 
celso and (jucundi)-tdtem, fg ed and fgfe, sound almost alike. Over veniet 
tibi the melody shows the form of a melodic sequence. After the descent 
over tibi, we meet a bright major chord over Deo. Finally, the words 
Deo tuo should find an echo in our souls. 

Jerusalem (thou ,0 Christian soul), "behold the joy that cometh to 
thee" and listen intently to that which thy Saviour wishes to tell thee 
*'to the joy of thy heart." 

^ ^ ^ ^ 

THIRD SUNDAY OF ADVENT 

INTROIT (Philipp. 4: 4, 6) 

1. Gaudete in Domino semper; 1. Rejoice in the Lord always: 

iterum dico, gaudete: 2. modestia again I say, rejoice: 2. let your 

vestra nota sit omnibus hominibus: modesty be known to all men: S. for 

3. Dominus prope est. Nihil sol- the Lord is nigh. Be nothing soli- 

liciti sitis: 4. sed in omni oratione citous: 4. but in every thing, by 

petitiones vestrae innotescant apud prayer let your petitions be made 

Deum. Ps. Benedixisti, Domine, known unto God. Ps. Thou hast 

terram tuam: * avertisti captivi- blessed thy land, O Lord: * thou 

tatem Jacob. hast turned away the captivity of 

Jacob. 

Some Sundays of the liturgical year sum up their character and 
spirit in the very first word of the Introit. Thus in today's Introit: 
Gaudete — "Rejoice." The altars are decked with flowers as for a feast; 
rose-colored vestments are used; we again hear the organ. What is the 
meaning of all this? What kind of joy is to be expressed today? Some- 
one has written (Feck, Das Missale als Betrachtungsbuch, I, 41): "The 
second Sunday of Advent already voiced joyous tones ... On the present 
Sunday joy is to sound forth unrestrained." But is that really the case? 
He who lets the Introit Gaudete work upon him will think differently. 
One will never come to a correct understanding of a liturgical text unlesss 



28 Third Sunday of Advent 

one views it in conjunction with the melody which proceeds from its 
inmost spirit. The praying and singing of plainsong, and therefore of 
the liturgy in general, express more shades of meaning and a richer 
gradation of feeling than is generally recognized. Advent and Christmas 
joy, for instance, differ greatly from the exultation of Easter time. 
There, indeed, one may speak of full-voiced rejoicing. The Introit Lae- 
täre, with its extended intervals, already acclaims the victorious King 
who soon will enter in the fullness of His strength. But the Introit Gau- 
dete with its initial seconds and minor thirds has in mind the beautiful 
Babe of Bethlehem who "is near at hand," who out of pure love for us 
appeared in utter poverty and took on the weakness of an infant, though 
He is infinitely rich and mighty. The joy in this song, therefore, sinks 
into the heart slowly, sweetly, like gentle dew from heaven. The sim- 
plicity which the second phrase voices is already indicated by the mel- 
ody of the first phrase. 

The phrase Dominus prope est occupies the central position in the 
piece, dominating the whole more by its florid neums than by its pitch. 
Since the Lord is nigh, we are exhorted to be: (1) joyous, (2) modest 
and friendly, (3) without solicitude, (4) persevering in confiding prayer 
— a veritable Advent program; a program, in fact, for the whole of life, 
including in itself our relations to God and to our fellowmen, and placing 
everything on the golden basis of true joy of heart. 

It is surprising that the melody never employs the note b, which 
generally characterizes the Doric mode; the repeated 6b tends to make 
the melody tender and mild. The first and fourth phrases have almost 
the same close, but a different range. A pause on the dominant of the 
mode is made by the first three phrases. The first phrase may be taken 
as a model of phrase structure in chant: an ascent from the tonic to the 
dominant, a halting on the dominant, then a descent to the tonic. Each 
of its members moves within a different tetrachord: c-f, /-bb, d-g. The 
continuous growth of the melody in the first half of the verse portrays 
gradations of feeling: Rejoice; then more: Rejoice in the Lord; then still 
more: Rejoice at all times. Here a crescendo is obviously demanded. 
What follows is somewhat surprising. Where we would sing iterum dico 
quietly, to give that feeling of expectation, and then gaudete very em- 
phatically, choral by its simple return to the tonic tells us: Let your 
Christmas joy be interior, heartfelt! 

The ancients called for ascensiones pudicas in the melodic line: a 
modest, chaste rising upward. This is satisfied in the second phrase. There 
is some resemblance to Domino semper; but here the melody does not 
reach high ob by means of a thrid, but with ascending seconds. The pro- 
longation of the dominant a over omnibus ho-(minibus) and the exten- 



Third Sunday of Advent 29 

sion of / over petitiones in the fourth phrase, according to some, portray 
the immense multitude of men, or perhaps their petitions. Then, all 
aglow with light, comes Dominus prope est. A hidden urge must character- 
ize the three porrectus; a note of joyful victory should resound in Nihil 
solliciti sitis. Here we find practically the same cadence as over fho)- 
minihus. 

Solemnity and impressiveness should mark the last phrase. Its low 
pitch and its emphasis on the dominant / puts it in marked contrast to 
the preceding. Oratione alone seems to indicate that prayer is a lifting 
of the entire being to God. Sed in omni and innotescant are similar. The 
pressus over omni effectively accents the thought that our prayer must 
be fervent. In free translation one might expand this to: everything in 
our lives should be transformed into prayer. 

The psalm-verse stands out prominently, especially because several 
times it extends to high c, while the antiphon never went above hb. 

Revue, 20, 12 ff., Analyses, 2, 22 ff., N. Sah. 211 f. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 79:2, 3, 2) 

1. Qui sedes, Domine, super 1. Thou, O Lord, that sittest 

Cherubim, 2. excita potentiam, tuam upon the Cherubim, 2. stir up thy 
etveni. S^. 1. Qui regis Israel, inten- might, and come. jil. 1. Give ear, O 
de: 2. qui deducisvelutovem Joseph. thou that rulest Israel: 2. thou that 

leadest Joseph like a sheep. 

Gradual-responsories in general present many difficulties, and this 
is especially true of today's. It does not at all develop the way we should 
expect. We should undoubtedly have stressed the second phrase in the 
corpus, but we find it, in relation to the first, quite in the background. 
It supports itself on the tonic, not at all in the manner of the authentic 
mode, and even sinks below it four times. The descending fifth a-d over 
tuam acts as an antithesis to the high fifth over super. The second half 
of the second phrase is a more gratifying melody to sing than the first. 
Does the low-pitched melodic line perhaps aim at portraying the mys- 
terious coming of God and His activity? 

Perhaps the composer could not resist the temptation of showing, 
in tone-painting with the high super, how far God surpasses the Cheru- 
bim. Rightly does Wagner (III, 300) say: "Here the details are detri- 
mental to the harmonic coherence of the single parts, thereby detracting 
from the artistic value of the whole. Such passagse, however, are excep- 
tional." Some other pieces also show a predilection for tone-painting, 
much to the detriment of the leading thought; for example the Alleluia 
for the feast of St. Agnes. Here the confusion of voices at the announce- 



30 Third Sunday of Advent 

ment of the coming of the bridegroom is realistically indicated, but the 
leading idea: "Go ye forth to meet Christ the Lord," suffers thereby. 
The Communion Quinque prudentes Virgines, on the contrary, brings it 
into prominence in a most captivating manner. The antiphon on the 
feast of the Transfiguration portrays the Lord's going up to the summit 
of a hill, but the Transfiguration itself is given less attention. On the 
feast of the Ascension the Magnificat antiphon for second Vespers draws, 
a picture of Christ's ascent; the accompnaying petition, however: "Leave 
us not orphans," which is less developed melodically, deserves more fer- 
vent expression. St. Peter's, where the liturgy is celebrated today, per- 
haps suggested tone-painting. There, gleaming from the mosaic above 
the altar, was a representation of the Lord ruling from His heavenly 
throne. Still, the composer may not have intended this as tone-painting 
so much as a development of the thought that God thrones above the 
Cherubim in absolute quiet, transcending all change and transitoriness,, 
perfectly happy in Himself, needing nothing to add to His bliss. If we, 
notwithstanding His august majesty, are the recipients of untold favors 
at His hands, that but makes His goodness appear all the more brilliant 
before our eyes. 

Owing to its abundance of melismas, the verse predominates over the 
corpus, although it has the same range. Its first phrase is the arsis, the 
rising, and closes on the dominant; its second phrase is the thesis, the 
relaxation, or rest, and closes on the tonic. In the verse we should have 
stressed the word intende, as it is done, for instance, in the Gradual for 
the vigil of Christmas. The technique of Gradual- verses, however, calls 
for a florid melisma at the beginning. Today we have time to consider 
how God led His people, how long they wandered in the desert until they 
finally reached the Promised Land. The same florid melisma stands at 
the beginning of the verse on the twenty-third Sunday after Pentecost. 
Similarly prolonged passages occur in the Gradual for Wednesday after 
the third Sunday of Lent. The bending upward of the last note of a 
group is peculiar to the melisma over regis: dcbga, hagagfg, dcdfg, 

dedchcdd. A feeling of relaxation is introduced by the clivis over 

intende, though not yet a feeling of perfect rest. The melody over (de)~ 
ducis merely repeats what was sung toward the end of the first member 
of regis. 

ALLELUIA VERSE 

1. Excita, Domine, poteniiam 1. Stir up thy might, Lord^ 

tuam, 2. et veni, 3. ut salvos facias 2. and come, 3. that thou mayest 
nos. save us. 



Third Sunday of Advent 31 

The initial motive of Allehiia (cf. Caecilia, 29, 69 ff.) is heard again 
over Domine. In the latter case, however, the high a is strengthened by 
a pressus. The second motive over Alleluia is actually repeated four times 

in the juhilus in a motivated elaboration: äb\?aggf, dbbagge, gag 
f €> f 9 f f e, but with pleasing wave-like variations, fully corresponding 
to the great desire of the singer's heart. Over (poten)-tiam tuam the last 
groups are to be sung as two measures in two-fourths time : a f e d e g 
f d d. The second member must not be sung too rapidly; the first notes 
of each clivis (a, g, f) should be taken more broadly. By its mora vocis on 
g, veni is admirably divided. Thus we have the proportions ah g e g (g) 
and dhfdff with their continuation. The avoidance of h gives the piece 
a tender, devout ring. 

This melody is employed in several Masses; keeping within the limits 
of this book, we might, besides this Sunday, mention also the second 
Sunday after Epiphany, Ascension Day, and Pentecost. The Alleluia 
for the feast of Holy Innocents, which has been borrowed from the Sa- 
turday of Easter Week, has a similar verse. Several reasons support the 
contention that originally the melody belonged to the first Alleluia-verse 
of Pentecost. At Milan a similar melody has since early times accomp- 
anied the text Emitte Spiritum. One might also adduce a certain ancient 
Greek melody for comparisou {Musica s., 44, 194). 

The present verse with its fervent Advent petition which, incidental- 
ly, formed the first part of the Collect of the first Sunday of Advent, re- 
sembles most closely the suppliant character of the verse on Pentecost 
Sunday. A kind of daring, added to a deep faith, breathes from this 
supplication. Though it does not express the anxiety, akin to despon- 
dency, which seized the disciples when the Lord slept during that storm 
on the lake, it does state, with unmistakable conviction, that there is 
only One who can bring salvation and redemption: the Lord God with 
His all-powerful love. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 85:2) 

1. Benedixisti, Domine, terram 1. Thou hast blessed thy land, 

tuam: 2. avertisti captivitatem Ja- O Lord: 2. thou hast turned away the 

cob: 3. remisisti iniquitatem plebis captivity of Jacob: 3. thou hast for - 

tuae. given the iniquity of thy people. 

In the Gospel John the Baptist could announce that the Messias 
stood in the midst of His people. For faithful souls this was a message 
of great joy; now indeed God had sent His richest blessings upon this 
earth. The first phrase (Benedixisti) forms the theme of the Offertory; 
the two subsequent phrases but develop it. Gradually the melody grows: 



32 Third Sunday of Advent 

Benedixisti has as range d-a; Domine, e-b; terram, d~c. The pressus mo- 
tive runs through this phrase; in the first word: g a g f f d, in the third 

word: c g f f d and f g f f d. It even goes over to the second phrase; over 

the second word we have a c a a f, and over the third, a c a a g. The 

emphasis of the dominant a in the second phrase is no dout justified. 
If in Offertories we rarely find purely syllabic passages, in which each 
syllable carries but one note, it is still more rare to see passages which 
have the same note for a considerable length of time. Since we find a 
similar construction in the Introit for the twenty-third Sunday after 
Pentecost, and there, too, over the word captivitdtem, we may well con- 
sider it a reference to the depressing fears and anxieties of captivity, to 
the bitter lot of a slave. But now all that affliction is gone. The hour has 
struck; sure and perfect liberty is come. For the soul has been freed from 
her load of sin, from the slavery of the passions; henceforth she is a child 
of God, and His peace will accompany her always. The follwoing verse 
therefore, goes on to say: "Thou hast covered all their sins: thou hast 
mitigated (mitigdsti) all thy anger." Nevertheless, this Offertory does 
not forget that it still is an Advent petition. That this blessing may flow 
upon all men, it continues to pray: "Show us, O Lord, Thy mercy; and 
grant us Thy salvation." Our prayer is soon answered: the victim offered 
upon the altar will become for us the bread of eternal life, the font of joy 
unalloyed. It elevates us spiritually, transforms us to pure men, living 
in and with God. When the bell rings at the elevation, God again shows 
His merciful love; and in Holy Communion He grants us His salvation. 
With artistic finesse the composer has succeeded in presenting the 
motive of the second phrase and the entire melodic line, in fact, in a more 
brilliant form in the third phrase. One need but compare the two phrases: 

avertisti: dg a g a bb a and 

remisisti: dgg a b a g a b c; furthermore, 

captivitdtem Jacob: a a a a a c da f gag and 

iniquitdtem plebis: c c b a cdc b g d g a g f 

Thus remisisti becomes the song of a soul that fully appreciates the 
dealings of God with her, who knows Him who stands in her midst, 
who gratefully acknowledges that this is "the freedom wherewith Christ 
has made us free." 

COMMUNION (Isa. 35: 4) 

1. Dicite: Pusillanimes confor- 1, Say: Ye faint-hearted, take 

tamini, et nolite timere: 2. ecce Deus courage, and fear not: 2. behold, our 
noster veniet, et salvabit nos. God will come and save us. 



Third Sunday of Advent 33 

A mere glance at the melodic construction tells us that we are here 
treating of something out of the ordinary. If we first carefully recite the 
text alone and then sing the melody with it, we shall discover that the 
melody is not only a fine garment for the text, but that the text and 
melody form one whole, an entity as closely united as our intellect and 
will and feeling. 

The song begins quitely, but soon with jubilant upward flight it 
strives to banish from the soul all fear and solicitude, tries to lift it above 
all things mundane and carry it up to that new world in which the angels 
sing a new canticle of peace and redemption. On Christmas night we shall 
hear them saying to the shepherds: Nolite timere — "Fear not; for be- 
hold, I bring you good tidings of great joy. . .This day is born to you a 
Saviour" (salvabit). Hence this Communion, in a way, introduces the 
feast of Christmas, just as in Matins for Gaudete Sunday the Invita- 
tory ran: Prope est jam Dominus — "Already the Lord is nigh." With all 
its jubilation, however, the melody follows a definite plan: confortdmini, 
resting on the dominant of the mode, divides the first phrase into two 
halves. Timere repeats the motive of nolite, and then closes a third lower, 
paralleling the final neums of (confortämi)-ni. These are formulas ex- 
pressive of calm, but at the same time they advance the melodic thought. 
Now comes the joyful news: ecce, solemn and resolute, as one antiphon 
has it: veniens veniet — "He will surely come." Here the melody in a way 
makes a conclusion on the tonic; but it adds another very significant 
thought, and introduces it with a major second below the tonic and the 
F-major chord built on that note: "Behold, this God will be your Sa- 
viour." 

What a magnificent ring the song must have had in the ancient 
basilicas, when the faithful, accompanied by this stirring melody, went 
up to the altar to receive the Holy Euchraist! Into him who approached, 
it instilled courage, for it said: nolite timere. And to him who was return- 
ing from the altar it whispered: ecce Deus noster: He has come to you to 
free you from everything that hampers you, to heal you of every weak- 
ness, to make you cheerful and brave in your work, in your sufferings, 
in your vocation. For how many, likewise, was Holy Communion the 
source of supernatural strength (confortdmini), the Viaticum for martyr- 
dom! 

The song begins with dicite: a command to us singers. We are the 
privileged ones to bring this joyous message into the hearts of the faith- 
ful. Those who are bowed down, who scarcely dare to keep on hoping, 
those we can now console: Behold, God wishes to be also your Saviour; 
in your soul, too, there should be a Christmas. 



34 Fourth Sunday of Advent 

FOURTH SUNDAY OF ADVENT 

INTROIT (Is. 45: 8) 

1. Rorate caeli desuper, et nuhes 1. Drop down dew, ye heavens, 

pluant justum: 2. aperiatur terra, from above, and let the clouds rain 

et germinet Salvatorem. Ps. Caeli the just: 2. let the earth he opened 

enarrant gloriam Dei: * et opera and hud forth a Saviour. Ps. The 

manuum ejus annuntiat firma- heavens show forth the glory of God: 

mentum. * and the firmament declareth the 

work of his hands. 

Perhaps the word caeli, or the word desuper, which in late Latin 
was accented on the second syllable, necessitated the high pitch of the 
first half of the first phrase, just as terra influenced the low pitch of the 
second phrase (Wagner, III, 300). Be that as it may, the chant is not a 
description of the dew descending from heaven. The melody has a quite 
different intent. It has more sublime things to tell: it is the expression of 
a heart full of ardent desires, of intense longing; it would pierce the bleak 
lowering skies of December; it would take from thence Him for whom it 
yearns; it would bring the Just One down to this wicked, sinful, guilty 
world. The soul's emotions are expressed by the large intervals: Rorate 
has an ascending fifth; between desuper and et we have a descending 
fifth; between nuhes and pluant occurs an ascending interval of a fourth. 
They are further manifested in the rapidly soaring melody and the 
powerful accents over caeli, a c c a a g, and (nu)-hes pluant ju-(stum), 

g cc a a gf agf f. 

Isaias, from whom these words have been culled, first of all cries 
for a liberator of the Israelites from their exile and slavery; Cyrus, whom 
he has seen in vision, is but a figure of the Saviour of all mankind. All 
the yearnings of the centuries have been compressed into this Introit. 

What would this earth be without the Messias? A desert, an un- 
charted and arid waste scorched by the sun, having not one little flower 
^r blade of grass. If new life is to spring forth, the ground must be cul- 
tivated, the clouds must send down their rain, the fructifying rain which 
is so valuable that the Portuguese say of the summer showers: "Gold 
pieces are now falling from heaven." Oh, that it might come, this rain, 
to penetrate into the hearts of men and awaken new life! Would that 
the clouds might have mercy! For the Israelites the concept of cloud was 
full of deep meaning: in the column of cloud God led His people through 
the desert; veiled by clouds He manifested Himself on Sinai; in a cloud 
the glory of the Most High descended upon the Temple which Solomon 



Fourth Sunday of Advent 35 

had built. Clouds are the symbol and the containers of life-giving rain, 
as well as of the grace of redemption which comes down to us from the 
heights of heaven, and of all the benefits and glories of the new kingdom 
of the Messias. When these clouds open, new life will bud forth (germinet) 
about Nazareth, a life of unusual beauty, rich in blossoms and fruits. 

The second phrase of the melody is more quiet. We hear the motive 
of terra repeated over (germi)-net. If we take the / on the first syllable of 
the first word as an upbeat, measured groups of two notes result. Con- 
trast is effected by the three-note groups in the second part of this phrase. 
Since it is well to make a pause for breathing after germinet, we have 
up to that point three groups of three notes and afterwards two more 
over Salvatorem — a symbol of energetic sprouting and blossoming. The 
group ah e g over aperiatur corresponds to d e f c over Salvatorem. 

We implore the descent of the Just One from heaven. But His jus- 
tice will not make His countenance the less benevolent, nor His eyes the 
less loving. He comes not to reproach, not to drive sin-laden man away 
in confusion; He comes as the Saviour, calling to Himself all who are 
weary or burdened. 

Already a child of this earth is bearing the Just One in her virginal 
womb. From her will go forth the most beautiful flower (germinet) that 
ever our earth has produced, the rose of sweetest odor. This earth will 
not be opened, for it will be from an intact virginal womb that the 
flower will proceed. 

Upon his cry Rordte the prophet Isaias immediately received an an- 
swer from God: "I, the Lord, have created Him," that is, the Redeemer 
and Saviour. Our petition is answered in the psalm- verse: "The heavens 
show forth the glory of God." Already at the Annunciation the heavenly 
messenger spoke his Ave, gratia plena; soon heavenly messengers will de- 
scend in mighty array to sing their Gloria to the Most High and to an- 
nounce peace to mankind. 

The ancient manuscripts assign today's entire Mass, with the ex- 
ception of the Offertory and Alleluia, to Wednesday in the Ember Week 
of Advent. Formerly the grave Introit Memento nostri was sung on the 
present Sunday. 

Revue, 20, 79 ff.; Analyses, II, 30 ff.; R. gr., 3, 145 ff.; Musica s., 
44, 214 f. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 144: 18, 21) 

1. Prope est Dominus omnibus 1. The Lord is nigh unto all 

invocantihus eum: 2. omnibus qui them that call upon him: 2. to all 
inovcant eum in veritate. ^. 1. Lau- that call upon him in truth. ^. 1. 



36 Fourth Sunday of Advent 

dem Domini loquetur os meum: 2. My mouth shall speak the praise of 
et benedicat omnis caro nomen the Lord: 2. and let all flesh bless 
sanctum ejus. his holy name. 

The corpus of the Gradual supports itself on the tonic / and several 
times descends below it. We find, however, that the closing words of 
either phrase, eum and -te, have a higher pitch and a more florid melody. 
Leaving these two passages out of consideration, we must ascribe the 
piece to the sixth mode. The melodies over the double eum match quite 
well: cbdcggfggf and fgefddcddc. The verse is markedly differ- 
ent. Its lowest note is the tonic /, below which it never descends; its do- 
minant is c, above which the melody soars several times to high /. We 
here have an authentic mode, beyond all doubt. Hence this Gradual, 
with the sixth mode in its corpus and the fifth mode in its verse, may well 
be placed beside that of the first Sunday of Advent, where the corpus 
and the verse exhibit first the second and then the first mode. The re- 
peated accentuation of the c on Domini gives the impression that it is 
trying to resist the descent of the melody, but unsuccessfully. The melody 
passes down to a, g and toward/. But as if to reassert itself, the c prompt- 
ly sets in a fifth higher, and then the melody swings above it. The close 
over (e)-jus corresponds to that of the corpus of the Gradual. . 

"The Lord is nigh." How consoling! That for which we hoped and 
prayed so fervently is really coming true. He will come to us with all 
His love. To all who pray to Him in truth He will reveal Himself and will 
fulfill His word: "Even before ye call upon Me, behold, I am here." But 
our prayer must be in truth; and our supplication must be straight- 
forward, candid. Is my singing and praying all that it should be? Is it 
true, sincere? So I unreservedly place all the powers of my soul, my 
whole heart, in the service of God? How well today's Epistle stresses 
the fact that when the Lord comes, He will disperse the darkness and 
will draw all hidden things into the light! 

The Lord's coming in the near future should evoke from us a song 
of praise and thanksgiving. Would that we had a better appreciation of 
Him and of the immense love that prompted Him to come down to this 
earth! How the mere thought of His coming would then inspire us! The 
Psalmist says: benedicat omnis caro — all mankind, the whole earth, ought 
to join in this song of praise. But what is actually the case? Many do 
not know that this is the time of Advent, that Christmas is at hand, 
that the Christchild stands at the entrance of their hearts. Many do not 
even want to know that today is Sunday; they do not want to come to 
church. And of those who do come some intend merely to beg for this 
favor or that; they seem to know almost nothing of praise or of thanks- 



Fourth Sunday of Advent 37 

giving. All this should fire our zeal, should make this song of praise as- 
cend from our inmost hearts, to help verify the closing thought of to- 
day's Epistle: "Then shall every man have praise from God." 

ALLELUIA VERSE 

1. Veni, Domine, et noli tar- 1. Come, O Lord, and do not de- 

dare: 2. relaxa facinora plebis tuae. lay: 2. forgive the sins of thy people. 

Today's Alleluia begins like that of the Sunday after Epiphany. 
The jubilus has the form a a b. Its first member is formed from gab 
c c dh oi Alleluia. The relation of Alleluia to its verse is not readily ap- 
parent. We find the florid closing melisma of the verse in all its length 
at the close of many a verse in Gradual-responsories of the first mode. 
(Cf. All Saints, the twenty-second Sunday after Pentecost, or Domine 
praevenisti in the Common of Abbots.) But here in the Alleluia after 
ffecis inserted g g f g a, which is wanting in the previous melodies. Not 

only the close but the entire verse bears the impress of a piece of the 
first mode with its continued h. According to the present notation, the 
Alleluia belongs to the third mode, the verse to the first. Originally the 
verse closed on e. And since the melody goes a full tone over e (now d e 
d), it ran e fi^ e; thus the entire piece was sung with /#, so that the verse 
began with d e f^ gg ga. The melody not only had a frequent /#, but in 
the passage over et which now runs / a & c it also had c#. In order to 
write the /?? on lines according to the rules of the ancient notation it 
was necessary here, as in many other selections, to transpose the entire 
piece a fourth higher; then the piece began with g ab c d and closed with 
aba, as, in fact, many of the early sources actually give it. Thus the en- 
tire piece could be written in the customary way, except for the passage 
over et, which even in the transposition retained an /# (the original c#) . 
A second transposition of a fourth made it possible also to write this 
note; then the piece began with c d e f g and the passage in question be- 
came f a b c, the melody remaining intact. But now its relation to the 
Alleluia had been changed. Formerly closing with the same note as the 
Alleluia, on e (or a fourth higher on a), the verse now closed on d and the 
Alleluia on e. If originally, from a purely melodic standpoint (even if 
not theoretically), e f^ e was sung, and afterwards Alleluia with e f e 
was added, this should not seem strange. Similar combinations can be 
found elsewhere in plain song. Thus in the Introit for the fourteenth 
Sunday after Pentecost the first phrase ends with agababha, while 
the second begins with a g ah a a. With the present notation of Alleluia 
and verse a distinctive melodic finesse was lost. After the somewhat 



38 Fourth Sunday of Advent 

harsh ending on e /# e, Alleluia in the repetition entered gently and ten- 
derly with e e f d. 

It is much simpler, of course, to say that Alleluia belongs to the 
third mode and the verse to the first. 

These theoretical considerations should not cause us to overlook 
the delicately sensitive melody of the verse, so full of fervent Advent 
petitions and confiding trust. One cannot but join in with all one's 
heart. 

Using seconds only, the beginning of Veni seems almost timorous; 
et has the first interval of a third. The treatment of the motives c d e f 
then f g ah\>, and finally f ab c is obvious enough. As the motives develop, 
the expression must likewise grow and expand. Then the melody rises a 
fourth and soars above the previous melodic line over tarddre: "O Lord, 
for a long time now Thy people await Thee; leave us no longer in our 
darkness and impotence! Lord, do not delay!" It cannot be mere chance 
that only in this passage and only in this Alleluia-verse the melody ex- 
hibits such tenderness. On the twentieth Sunday after Pentecost and in 
the verse Adducentur from the Mass Loquehar for a Virgin Martyr, which 
employs the same melody, this expansion is not found. It seems quite 
certain, nevertheless, that the verse Paratum cor meum for the twen- 
tieth Sunday after Pentecost must be regarded as the original compo- 
sition. There also the second paratum with its increase is marvelously 
effective. The excessively florid melisma found here over facinora is 
there placed over gloria: "I will sing, and will give praise to Thee, my 
glory." The singer, so the indication seems to be, cannot find sufficient 
outlet for his feelings. Whoever wants to resort to note-counting here 
has a real task. Nevertheless, two groups are quite easily distinguished. 
The one repeats the same motive thrice, but each time with a slightly 
different introduction ; the other extends its motive, especially toward 
the end. Since the word gloria frequently means "harp" in the psalms, 
one might also translate here: "I will play to Thee upon my many- 
stringed harp." Even if we did not know of the Alleluia for the twentieth 
Sunday after Pentecost, and that God is there lauded as our glory and 
our pride, the melody in itself would here not speak to us of the burden 
of sin, for it sounds more like the thanksgiving song of one from whose 
soul a great weight has been lifted. 

We hear this melody likewise on the feast of St. John Damascene. 

Revue, 6, 33 ff.. Rev. gr., 3, 122 ff.; Wagner, III, 402. 

OFFERTORY (Luke 1 : 28) 

1. Ave Maria, 2. gratia plena, 1. Hail, Mary, 2. full of grace, 

3. Dominus tecum: 4. benedicta tu 3. the Lord is with thee: 4. blessed 



Fourth Sunday of Advent 39 

in mulieribus, et benedictus fructus art thou among women, and blessed 
ventris tui. is the fruit of thy womb. 

This Ave Maria belongs to the most beautiful creations of plain 
song. Here we have reverence and wonderment, tenderness, astonish- 
ment, and love. The melody sinks into the deep with gratia, tecum, 
fructus; then it rises slowly with Ave, gratia, ventris; again it floats on 
high with Maria. It grows more ardent (benedicta tu); then it expresses 
profound emotion and humble obeisance, while over all the song there 
hovers an ineffably sweet joy. Thus the Archangel Gabriel may have 
prayed the first Ave Maria; perhaps in his mind's eye he looked into the 
coming centuries, and perceived in millions of human hearts what Mary 
would mean to them, what blessings and what happiness the most 
blessed among women would bring upon this earth. No one can portray 
this adequately, but we get an inkling of it if we let the present melody 
penetrate into our hearts. 

Over Ave the passage f a f g f e is soon followed by the very similar 
f a f g a g. After the upbeat over the first note of Maria, the grouping 
of the neums here given suggests a division into two-note groups: a cc 
cc\ cagf\ gaca\ fgg; this, though serene in effect, resembles a trembling 
with holy joy. The two bistrophas, naturally, are to be sung with a very 
light swing. Plena is made prominent by its pressus, the first in this 
piece. We do not find the passage Dominus tecum in the early manu- 
scripts; its melody is found in the Offertory- verses Posuisti and Ange- 
lus over the words gloria and stetit respectively (cf. Monday in Easter 
Week). With some variations, this tyle of singing the verses was adapted 
to the text of the Offertory Bedta es, which is now sung on September 8 
and on some other feasts. Here the melody occurs over the word vir go. 
The second member is a repetition of the first. The brilliant phrase bene- 
dicta is characterized by its high pitch and by repeated and impressive 
accents: c d e e-c d d c-c d ä a g-g 6 cb; then by the fourths d-a, g-c, a-d. 

These accents are still active in the last phrase: fgdag, gaffe, and 
g a_a gg. 

We may not omit Mary, the Virgin Mother of God, from the litur- 
gy of Advent. On the first Sunday of Advent we were led to her greatest 
shrine in Rome: Saint Mary Major. The vigil of Christmas will most 
appropriately find us there again, and in the Missal, heading the Mid- 
night Mass, we find these words: "Station at Saint Mary Major, at the 
Crib." Almost every day during this season the second Collect is that of 
the Blessed Virgin. In the Divine Office for this time one finds many a 
delicate and charming allusion to her exalted dignity. And the closer 
we come to the feast of Christmas, the more frequently the chants of 



40 Fourth Sunday of Advent 

the Mass mention her. Thus today we sing to her the Ave Maria. How 
marvelously it scintillates in the light of Advent! This blessed one is 
bearing in her womb the Child that is God: Dominus tecum. Just as mo- 
ther and child form a unity, so the Son of God has become one with Mary. 
He is with her, in her, belongs to her, although He is the Lord whom she 
adores. But she wishes to present Him to us for the salvation of the world. 
Therefore do we call thee blessed, O glorious Virgin. Deborah and Ju- 
dith were praised for delivering their people from dire distress; but 
thou hast turned mankind's curse into a blessing, and from thee flow 
streams of grace which shall carry us into a blissful eternity. Ave Marial 

COMMUNION (Isa. 7: 14) 

1. Ecce vir go concipiet, et pariet 1. Behold a Virgin shall con- 

filium: 2. et vocabitur nomen ejus ceive, and bring forth a son, 2. and 
Emmanuel. his name shall be called Emmanuel. 

This Communion has the same mode as that of the first Sunday of 
Advent, the same range, the same divisions, an arsis-movement in the 
first phrase resting on the dominant, then a thesis-movement in the 
second phrase. Both over benignitatem and pariet the pentatony, the use 
of a five-step scale with no semitones, is noticeable. But if we listen 
carefully, we find that the two Communions express quite different 
feelings. The Communion Dominus breathes quiet confidence; hence 
the preference for seconds and thirds. There are, indeed, two intervals 
of fourths, but these occur in a low pitch, and the first one is not unex- 
pected, since it returns to the / which occurred five times in the pre- 
ceding word. Not so with the Communion Ecce virgo. This has descending 
fourths over virgo, g~d, and a fourth higher over pä-(riet), d-a; then as- 
cending fourths over et vo-(cdbitur), g c c. They are the expression of 
great astonishment over the marvel of the Incarnation wrought in the 
most pure womb of Mary. Behold, a virgin shall conceive: thus might 
we recite this passage; but there is even greater wonder: this virgin will 
become a mother and yet remain a virgin: et pariet f ilium. After this great 
upward sweep we meet brighter and more tender notes over et vocabitur. 
At Emmanuel the melody is all reverence and amazement. O Wonder 
beyond human comprehension! The angel said to Mary: "The Lord is 
with Thee." We may now say: "The Lord is with us." And in His Name 
lies our guarantee of salvation and eternal peace and the inalienable 
possession of God. 

When we receive the Saviour in Holy Communion our heart should 
be pure, virgin pure, like to the heart of the Mother of God. Then truly 
can we "put on the Lord Jesus," and make His thoughts and feelings, 



Vigil of the Nativity 41 

His prayers and actions our own, so that that which beams forth in our 
souls through faith will, as the Collect for the second Mass of Christ- 
mas puts it, be reflected in our deeds. 
Rass. gr., 7, col. 41 f. 



VIGIL OF THE NATIVITY 

INTROIT (Ex. 16: 6, 7) 

1. Hodie scietis, quia veniet 1. This day you shall know that 

Dominus, et salvabit nos: 2. et the Lord will come, and save us: 2. 

mane videbitis gloriam ejus. Ps. and in the morning you shall see his 

Domini est terra et plentitudo ejus: glory. Ps. The earth is the Lord's 

* orhis terrarum, et universi qui and the fulness thereof: * the world 

habitant in eo. and all they that dwell therein. 



With these words Moses announced to the people of Israel the man- 
na from heaven during the journey through the desert. With these same 
words Mother Church heralds the true Manna, the Bread of Life, Jesus 
Christ, who is born at Bethlehem, the "house of bread" (Schott, Mess- 
buch.) 

The opening melody is arresting: it challenges our attention, for it 
augurs much. How will it be proclaimed, the message there so solemnly 
introduced? It is a message of mightiest import, spirit-stirring, enrap- 
turing, than which nothing greater can be uttered: The Lord is coming 
as Redeemer; tomorrow He will come. The full meaning of the word 
Dominus is explained by the Apostle in today's Lesson: the Lord comes 
as man, born of the tribe of David. But He is also God, eternal God, of 
the same essence as the Father. This God-man comes to redeem us. In 
spite of His humble condition, however, the spirit of holiness dwells 
within Him, and this leads Him in the end to the great wonder of His 
resurrection. The Lord is coming as Redeemer; tomorrow He will come. 
Tomorrow, after thousands of years of yearning and waiting; tomorrow, 
only a short while to wait, and the hour of deliverance will strike; to- 
morrow, and the glory will be revealed of Him whose rule extends over 
all the earth, as the psalm-verse says, and over all the inhabitants 
thereof. 

And the melody? It is of the simplest style, foregoing all attempts 
at melismatic grouping. After the portentous introduction, it ranges 
itself unpretentiously around the tonic of the sixth mode, nor presuming 
to go more than a single tone above it, but several times sinking a fourth 



42 Vigii of the Nativity 

below it. And the significant mane ("tomorrow") only repeats what has 
already been sung over et salvähit. There are only allusions; nothing is 
definitely stated. The singer seems almost to regret that he spread his 
sails so broadly at the outset, for now he reefs them again. He fears that 
he has already divulged too much of that which is to be expected on the 
morrow. He lets fall the veil which he had scarce begun to lift. Even the 
enticing initial motive of the piece, once we have heard the psalm- verse, 
proves to be nothing else than a fine resume of the middle cadence: 
(ple)-nitüdo ejus = g h[? a g f. Thus the melody would have us be recol- 
lected, meditative; it wishes to give us but an anticipatory taste of the 
mystery of the Holy Night. 

GRADUAL (Ex. 16:6, 7) 

1. Hodie scietis, quia veniet 1. This day you shall know 

Dominus, 2. et salvabit nos: et that the Lord will come, 2. and save 

mane videhitis 4. gloriam ejus t^. us: 2. and in the morning you shall 

1. Qui regis Israel, intende 2. qui see, 4. his glory, jl. 1. Give ear, O 

deducis velut ovem Joseph. 3. qui thou that rulest Israel: 2. Thou that 

sedes super Cherubim, appare. 4. leadest Joseph like a sheep; 3. thou 

coram Ephraim, Benjamin, et Man- that sittest upon the Cherubim, 

asse. shine forth, 4. before Ephraim, 

Benjamin, and Manasses. 

The corpus of the Gradual has the same text as the Introit; in its 
first half, the verse has the same words as the Gradual-verse for the third 
Sunday of Advent. The melody confines itself to the limits which have 
become characteristic of Graduals in the second mode, but, like the 
Gradual for the Midnight Mass, it exhibits some forms of its own. Sev- 
eral passages of both the corpus and the verse repeat the same melismas. 
Compare: 

Et salvabit nos : et mane videbitis = 

qui sedes super Cherubim, appare. 

This last group also serves as a setting for coram Ephraim. More- 
over, gloriam ejus = Benjamin et Manäs-(se). The phrasing which so well 
separates hodie and mane in the Introit is not so successful here. After 
Dominus a large pause is marked which, although melodically justifi- 
able, joins et salvabit which actually belongs to the first phrase, to the 
second. The verse is taken from the psalms, the text of the corpus from 
Exodus. But there is a close relationship between the two. In the corpus 
God shows in a special manner how He cared for His people, how, as a 
good shepherd. He led them into verdant pastures. Then for the last 
time comes the fervent petition: intende and appare. 



Vigil of the Nativity 43 

The luminous cloud of the Lord's glory rested over the Cherubim 
of the Ark of the Covenant, and by night it lighted up the path for the 
tribes of Israel who were wending their way across the desert. The twelve 
tribes were grouped about the Ark in a square, three to either side, three 
in front and three in the rear. Now, when the luminous cloud rose, it 
appeared to'the eyes of those who marched behind the Ark, namely, to 
Ephraim, Benjamin, and Manasses (Betende Kirche, p. 286J. 

We may, if we wish, link the thought of the second half of the verse 
with the preceding Collect: "Grant that we, who now joyfully receive 
Thine only-begotten Son as our Redeemer, may also, without fear, be- 
hold Him coming as our Judge." The Lord will come again, sitting upon 
the Cherubim, all the angels forming His train. Then all the tribes of 
Israel, all mankind, must appear before Him, to hear from His mouth 
judgement irrevocable. Let us pray to Him today: "Lord, be Thou not 
to me a Judge, but a Saviour." 

ALLELUIA VERSE 

1. Crastina die delehitur ini- 1. Tomorrow shall the iniquity 

quitas terrae: 2. et regnahit super of the earth be abolished: 2. and the 
nos Salvator mundi. Saviour of the world shall reign 

over us. 

The Saviour is coming as our Redeemer; the Alleluia again stresses 
this thought. King He will also be, not to impose burdens, but to relieve 
us of them. The King will likewise be the Lamb of God, to discharge 
that immense debt which has pressed upon the world ever since Adam's 
fall. He who will presently be laid in a rough manger will reign from the 
Cross. That is why the mystery which we are about to celebrate makes 
us "breathe anew," as the Postcommunion says. 

In the most ancient manuscripts this melody is assigned to the Mass 
for the feast of the Holy Trinity (q.v.). With the same text as on that 
feast we also hear it sung on the Saturday of Whitsun Week, and with 
a different text on the feast of the Apostles Philip and James (May 1). 

In the first member of the jubilus, dbg over -luia becomes a c b g, 
in the second member b deb a g and acb dg. Much like it is the develop- 
ment of the verse. Over delebitur, g c c of Crastina becomes g d d; and at 
the end of the first phrase the melody again rises to high d. The first 
members of the first and second phrases correspond, and confine them- 
selves to the tetrachord g-c. Over (inlqui)-tas we also meet the de- 
scending motive c b ä g g. 

Let us sing this song with the ardor it deserves. If on Good Friday 
the Jews will cry: "We do not want this man to rule over us!" we shall 



44 Vigil of the Nativity 

today already register a protest against this infidelity by crying: Be 
Thou our King! 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 23: 7) 

1. Tollite portas, principes, ves- 1. Lift up your ]iates, O ye 

tras: 2. et elevamini, portae aeter- princes: 2. and he ye lifted up, O 
nales, 3. et introihit Rex gloriae. eternal gates, 3. and the King of 

glory shall enter in. 

After the delicate and fragrant Introit, this song, solemn and ma- 
jestic in its development, comes as a sharp contrast. It is wholly do- 
minated by the thought of the King of glory; it is filled with deep rever- 
ence, but also with the glowing desire to lay open all things to this King, 
to have everything in readiness for His entrance and to cry to every son 
of man: Open your heart to the King of glory! For He comes to restore 
to your soul its lost nobility (principes). He wishes to impress upon you 
the fact that your soul is eternal and of more worth than all the world. 
He wishes to grant your soul the inheritance rights to eternal glory. The 
previous chants emphasized the Person who is coming and what He, the 
Messias, will accomplish; this Offertory tells us what we must do, 

A throbbing which ever increases, an onward urge ever growing, 
runs through the melody. It comes to the fore in the very first phrase 
with its rising movement. Its low beginning is the only reason why the 
piece was transposed into the upper fifth. Thus it could be written with- 
out the aid of ledger lines. Although the first phrase was satisfied with 
thirds and seconds, the second phrase at the beginning and at the close 
is marked by repeated fourths, and with its bold turn over aeterndles 
becomes very impressive. Between these two extremes quiet seconds 
are inserted. Because of this wise distribution of sudden fiights and 
rests, the climax at aeterndles becomes all the more effective. We find a 
similar, but calmer, development in the third phrase. Peculiar to it is 
the repeated use of the interval cad: once over (intro)-ihit and twice over 
(gl6ri)-ae. In the somewhat difficult melisma the clivis d c might be given 
slightly more prominence than the bistropha and the other notes. One 
all but hears a second voice, a voice which, when the text speaks of the 
King of glory, quietly and fervently adds: "Oh, do raise the gates: open 
your hearts! The Christchild must not again be turned away, as He was 
on that wintry night at Bethlehem." The striking close with the fourth 
c g a makes this petition all the more fervent, seems almost like a ques- 
tion, as if there were some fear that His people might this time also neg- 
lect to receive Him. Yet He is the King of the entire earth, and all men 



Christmas Day — Midnight Mass 45 

are His subjects — a truth which is emphasized by the first verse of this 
Offertory in the ancient manuscripts. 

The whole song should resemble a glimpse into eternity, a foretaste 
of heaven's glory, and a joyous expectation, based on faith, of the dawn 
of that great day which will shine as no other. Donee veniatl 

N. Sch. 242, 246, 254, 265. 

COMMUNION (Isa. 40: 5) 

1. Revelabitur gloria Domini: 1. The glory of the Lord shall he 

2. et videbit omnis caro salutare revealed: 2. and all flesh shall see 
Dei nostri. the salvation of our God, 

In a few short hours the prophecy of this Communion will be ful- 
filled. The first antiphon for the first Vespers of Christmas runs thus: 
"The King of peace is mighty indeed, whose face the whole earth de- 
sireth." Soon we shall be privileged to look upon His countenance, to 
gaze into the blue eyes of the divine Child. At first this chant tells of 
His glory with quiet reserve, with emphasis on the dominant /, as if we 
had here a plagal mode. To the d f g over glör-(ria), g f g f d over (Do)- 
mini comes as answer. The notes f e f d over the final syllable of the first 
word correspond to f e g f f over caro. But then the melody sings jubi- 
lantly of the salvation of our God: salutare Dei nostri. Already we can 
hear the joyous bells of Christmas; already we hear the same melody 
and text as in the Communion for the third Mass on Christmas Day. 



CHRISTMAS DAY 
MIDNIGHT MASS 

INTROIT (Ps. 2: 7) 

1. Dominus dixit ad me: Filius 1. The Lord said to me: Thou 

mens es tu, 2. ego hodie genui te. art my Son, 2. this day have I be- 
Ps. Quare fremuerunt gentes: * et gotten thee. Ps. Why have the gen- 
populi meditati sunt inanial tiles raged: * and the people de- 

vised vain thingsl 

With what childlike joy our folksongs speak of the Christchild! 
They try to please Him, to coax a smile from His rosy lips. They speak 
to us in a fresh, direct, intimate way. Not so the texts and the plainsong 
melodies of the Midnight Mass. That Child, lying so poor and helpless 



46 Christmas Day^ — Midnight Mass 

and mute in His rude manger, is the one great Word spoken by the 
heavenly Father before all time, begotten of His own essence. This 
Child is equal in greatness, holiness, sublimity, and beauty to the Fa- 
ther Himself, Dominus dixit ad me- — the Lord spoke to Me who now lie 
in this manger in the form of man: "Thou art my Son," my Image, 
whom I embrace with fatherly affection. Today, on this glorious morn of 
eternity, have I begotten Thee. Today My father's love presents Thee 
to the world to be its Redeemer and King. That is truly a gaze into 
eternity, into the essence of the divinity, into the heart of the heavenly 
Father; a view so sublime and exalted that the soul, overcome with won- 
derment, bows down in silent adoration. Enraptured it contemplates 
the mysterious mutual relationship in the life of the divinity, its eternal 
bestowing and receiving, its eternal being and begetting. And this glo- 
rious light of the eternal divine life of joy breaks forth in the dark night 
of this world, is made manifest in the weak form of an Infant and shines 
from the mild, gentle eyes of the newborn Child as the aurora which 
heralds a sun still hidden in a fleecy veil of clouds. 

Could such sublime thoughts be sung more worthily, and at the 
same time more simply, than is done in this Introit? Just as the eternal 
sonship is necessary, just as it is something perfectly evident to God 
Himself, so is there likewise an obvious something in this fragrantly 
tender song that melts away every last vestige of doubt. An effect is 
thus produced which, in the field of the liturgy, would be quite unattain- 
able by any elaborate tonal effort. (N. Sch. 225 f). 

The antiphon consists of two phrases similar in structure and with 
the same range of a fifth. They begin with the same motive (Dominus = 
ego) and close with the same serene rhythm: dedc\c = gfef\d. Both 
linger on /, and thereby make the song more meditative. The cadence 
over meus es tu is frequently found in Introits of the second mode. 

The psalm- verse gives us the world's view of this Word of God. 
There are men who oppose it, fight against it, persecute it. The child in 
the manger can already see the persecution that awaits Him, from that 
of Herod to the fateful morning in the court at Jerusalem and up to 
Golgotha. But the same verse tells us also: meditdti sunt indnia. All this 
raging and fury, all this mad behavior, is futile, like the breaking of a 
mighty wave that falls back upon itself. He who sits upon the heavenly 
throne derides them. He has set up His Son as King, and gives Him all 
the nations of the earth for His inheritance. 

At the Gloria in excelsis Deo we shall, with heartfelt joy at the 
blessed fact of the Saviour's coming, sing the song which the angels first 
intoned during the Holy Night on the fields of Bethlehem. 

Musica s., 13, 138 ff.; Gregoriusbote, 33, 84 ff.; 24, 86 ff. 



Christmas Day — Midnight Mass 47 

GRADUAL (Ps. 109: 3, 1) 

1. Tecum principium in die vir- 1. With thee is the principality 

tutis tuae: 2. in splendor ihus sane- in the day of thy strength; in the 

tor urn, ex utero 3. ante luciferum brightness of the saints, from the 

4. genui te. Si . 1. Dixit Dominus womb 3. before the day star 4. / be- 

Domino meo: 2. Sede a dextris meis: got thee. S^. 1. The Lord said to my 

3. donee ponam inimicos tuos, 4. Lord: 2. Sit thou at my right hand, 

scabellum 5. pedum tuorum. 3. until I make thine enemies 4. 

a resting place 5. for thy feet. 

All the songs for today participate in the splendor radiating from 
the Introit of the Midnight Mass. It is not so much the poor manger at 
Bethlehem, but rather the eternal procession from the Father that is the 
central point from which all the movements of spirit and heart draw their 
impulse and life. The Gradual continues the thought of the Introit. 
From all eternity the Father has begotten the Word, before the day- 
star was made, before any creature had been called into being. From the 
very beginning the Word was, and the Word was God, and all things that 
have been made were made by the Word. The Word shines in a sea of 
infinitely holy light; of this light the day-star is but a tiny spark. "The 
newborn Child is 'God' from His very birth. From the very beginning 
He was therefore charged with the fulfilment of His two-fold mission: 
the destruction of the enemies of God and our salvation. His birthday is 
the day of His strength and of His victory" {B.K., p. 290). 

With the words of this verse the Word of God, now become man, 
will later give testimony before His enemies of the divine dignity and 
majesty that is His. These words far transcend the present temporal 
order. Even today, at the beginning of Jesus' earthly life, they envisage 
His transfiguration on the day of the Ascension ; and the Father will one 
day force every hostile power to pay homage, to bow down, and adore 
as the true Son of God the Child who now lies here in the manger. 

It is, therefore, the eternal, the sublime, that determines the ar- 
tistic form of these chants. Hence we ought not to be surprised to note 
that basically the Gradual employs a quite common, and therefore 
typical, melody of the second mode (cf. the first Sunday of Lent). The 
beginning with the solemn fourth a-e, which occurs only once in the 
piece, up to the passage over virtü-(tis) is proper to this Gradual. It 
also has a few passages in common with the melody for the vigil of 
Christmas, not found in the typical melody; and over tuos occurs a ca- 
dence of the fifth mode, which, to quote but one example, is sung in the 
Gradual for the feast of the Assumption over aurem tuam. 



48 Christmas Day — Midnight Mass 

I, signifies the corpus of the Gradual; II, the verse; a, the passages 
of the Midnight Mass; b, those of the Mass for the vigil of Christmas: 
I a, in splendorihus sanctorum \ ex utero = 

b, et salväbü nos et mane \ videbitis 
II a, donee ponam inimicos \ tuos = 
b. qui sedes super Cherubim \ appdre. 

Furthermore, in this Gradual the words ante luciferum genui te and 
scabellum pedum tuorum, which immediately follow la and IIa, have 
the same melody: considerable reptition therefore results. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 2: 7) 

1. Dominus dixit ad me: Filius 1. The Lord hath said to me: 

meus es tu, 2. ego hodie genui te. Thou art my Son, 2, This day have 

I begotten thee. 

In this verse we meet the same text as in the Introit. We heard the 
melody for the first time on the first Sunday of Advent (q.v.)- With 
holy joy we sing the florid melisma over the word hodie on this blessed 
night. The subsequent Gospel in its first part contrasts strongly with 
these solemn words. With striking simplicity it relates how Mary wrapped 
her Child in swaddling clothes and placed Him in a manger, because 
there was no place for them at the inn. In the second part, however, 
the newborn Child is announced to the shepherds as the Saviour, as 
Christ the Lord; and the angels' Gloria in excelsis Deo sounds like the 
echo of the mighty word: "Thou art my Son!" 

Springer, Kunst der Choralbegleitung, 244 ff.; Wagner, III, 400 ff.; 
Musica divina, 3, 298 ff. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 95: 11, 13) 

1. Laetentur caeli, et exsultet 1. Let the heavens rejoice, and 

terra 2. ante faciem Domini: quo- let the earth be glad. 2. before the 
niam venit. face of the Lord, because he cometh. 

On this sacred night the Offertory is the only text of the Mass which 
transmutes directly into joy the solemn grandeur proper to the previous 
texts and chants. It calls upon the earth to rejoice as the heavens also 
are rejoicing. What wondrously sweet and overflowing joy marked the 
visit of the angels! What happiness filled the souls of those two heavenly 
souls kneeling before the divine Child: Mary in the radiant purity of 
her unique virgin motherhood, and the quiet, reserved St. Joseph! We 
also shall participate in this rejoicing. The melody, however, is stili 
dominated by the feelings which filled the previous chants. No buoyant 



Christmas Day — Midnight Mass 49 

jubilation here, no singing contest with the angels. A word like exsultet 
surely can be sung in a different fashion than is done here; in many other 
chants it does receive a prominence commensurate with its meaning. 
The melody scarcely rises above /, which note acts as a kind of dominant 
in the first phrase. Somewhat more animated is the second phrase; 
which has a higher melodic line and for its dominant the note a, stressed 
twice over the significant word Domini. Joy comes more to the fore in 
the two verses which in the ancient manuscripts followed the Offertory 
proper/ both beginning with the words: "Sing ye to the Lord a new 
canticle" and with the same motive. A fine effect was no doubt achieved 
in former times when, after each verse, the second half of the Offertory 
was repeated : ante faciem Domini, quoniam venit. Now has the Lord re- 
vealed Himself (cf. the Communion for the vigil of Christmas). Now 
we can gaze upon His face; now He is here. The innumerable cries of 
Veni, which for countless centuries were storming the gates of heaven, 
have now been answered. 

The favorite motive, d g f e, is introduced in various ways: first with 
a salicus, then with a minor third, and twice with a fourth. 

The melody is also used for the feast of the Holy Family, and the 
greater part of it likewise is fittingly borrowed for the feast of Christ 
the King. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 109: 3) 

In splendoribus sanctorum, ex In the brightness of the saints, 

utero ante luciferum genui te. from the womb before the day-star 

I begot thee. 

This Communion belongs to the few pieces that make a prominent 
use of pentatony (the five-step scale). F g a must be regarded as the nu- 
cleus. The melody ascends a third above it to c and descends a third be- 
low it to d, each time with avoidance of the semitones. Simplicity is the 
obvious characteristic of the melody. Only at luciferum does it become 
somewhat more elaborate. The first and fourth members have corre- 
sponding endings; so also the second and third. The descending g f d 
over the final syllable of utero and luciferum appears in an inverted form 
over ge-(nui) as d / g. 

Once again we hear expressions of the eternal generation of the 
Word from the Father. In the Introit and in the Alleluia-verse the New- 
born One Himself spoke of it. In the first part of the Gradual and in 
our present chant the Father is the speaker. This difference between the 



Wagner, III, 420. 



50 Christmas Day — Third Mass 

Introit and the Communion is clearly indicated in the annotated manu- 
scripts. In the Introit practically all the neums have the simple and light 
form; almost everything is tender, fragrant, naive: the divine Child is 
speaking. In contrast to this, almost all the neums of the Communion 
are given the broad form. Here we hear the Father, serious and solemn; 
He is, so to say, conferring upon His Son the dignity of King and Priest. 
One cannot but admire the delicate artistic sense here displayed in the 
annotated manuscripts. 

Christ accepts our sacrificial gifts, just as He assumed our human 
nature in order to endow it with His own divine life (cf. the Secret). 
Thus we are also made to participate in His generation from the Father. 
To each one of us the Father therefore says: "In the brightness of the 
saints I begot thee." Instead of "in the brightness of the saints" some 
translate "in the splendor of holy followers." "We form the brilliant 
host of His followers, celebrating together with Christ His ultimate day 
of victory and triumph" (Betende Kirche, p. 290 f.). 

Revue greg., 9, 227 ff.; N. Sch., Musica Sacra, 50, 120. 

THE THIRD MASS 
INTROIT: Isa. 9:6) 

1. Puer natus est nobis, et filius 1. A Child is born to us and a 

datus est nobis: 2. cujus imperium Son is given to us: 2. whose govern- 

super humerum ejus: 3. et vocabi- ment is upon his shoulder: 3. and 

tur nomen ejus, magni consilii his name shall be called the Angel 

Angelus. Ps. Cantate Domino can- of great counsel. Ps. Sing ye to the 

iicum novum: * quia mirabilia Lord a new canticle: * for he hath 

fecit. done wonderful things. 

Solemn and sublime were the chants of the Midnight Mass, Now, 
in the Introit of the third Mass, a new tone is heard. This Introit has 
not exactly the spirit of the popular In dulci jubilo, but approaches it 
more closely than any of the songs of the Midnight Mass. Indeed, one 
might almost say that this Introit supplied the inspiration for the song 
In dulci jubilo. After Puer with its dulcet fifth comes d e d; the second 
half of the phrase begins in the same manner. There can hardly be any 
doubt that the parallelism of the text (Puer— filius) influenced the for- 
mation of the melody. The difference in the effect of this parallelism 
compared with that of the first Mass of Christmas with its minor thirds, 
reminding us of the semidarkness of that night, is well marked. It is 
well to note, however, that childlike joy, the kind heard in this first 



Christmas Day — Third Mass 51 

phrase, does not always demand new forms of expression, and that the 
repetition of a favorite motive is one of its chief characteristics. The 
tristropha brings a relaxation, allowing the following nobis to be sung 
with more color. For us has He been born, this wondrously gracious 
Child. We bask in His peace, in His benevolence. Rightly, therefore, 
does this nobis receive special emphasis in both parts of the phrase, once 
with its close on the dominant, the other time on the tonic of the mode. 
Yet, notwithstanding rhythmic relation in the two instances, the dy- 
namics are different. In the first nobis the second clivis exercises a de- 
cided predominance over the first, while in the second nobis the first two 
notes receive the greater prominence. The same holds true of natus 
compared to the first nobis. Thus there results a beautiful melodic inter- 
play, reminiscent, one might almost say, of a cradle song for the Christ 
Child. 

The first phrase sings of the Infant, the second stresses His domin- 
ion and divine dignity. Here the Christianized Roman sees realized his 
old dream of the imperium, of the universal kingdom {B.K., p. 292). 
The melody attains its peak at imperium. One best averts the danger of 
rushing to the highest note at the expense of the others by following the 
indication of MS. 121 of Einsiedeln, which gives the third note a slightly 
broader marking. Thus the melodic line can ascend with full solemnity. 
Care must likewise be taken that the single notes on the first three sylla- 
bles of this phrase be not sung too short, for they should have the ring 
of definite and positive avowal. In all this, however, one idea must stand 
out pre-eminently: this Child exercises His kingly rule peacefully, with 
unmeasured mildness and love. For this reason it is that the sweet mo- 
tive which gives such warmth to the first nobis again occurs here. Then 
the melody sinks, slowly and deliberately, like the folds of a king's mantle. 
Indeed, it almost seems as if a shadow settled upon it. For the royal 
dignity also reminds us of the burden which already at Christmas rests 
upon the shoulders of this Child: the burden which will grow and de- 
velop until it becomes a heavy cross. 

In contrast to this minor third and the semitones we hear a bright 
major third over et vocäbitur. It is as though it would like to banish the 
serious thoughts which insist on entering. It is an effort to introduce the 
question to which the tristropha and figure over the second ejus, like 
the one over the first ejus, give a still more intense form: "What can be 
the name of this Child?" With a succession of large intervals, a major 
third, a fifth, and a fourth, we hear the joyful answer: "He is the Angel 
of great counsel, the One who comes to announce to us the great deci- 
sion of God, and also to make it effective, as far as in Him lies — our re~ 
demption and eternal salvation." 



52 Christmas Day — Third Mass 

Now the melody comes exultingly: Cantdte Domino cdnticum no- 
vum— ''^mg ye to the Lord a new canticle: for He hath done wonderful 
things." The wonder of wonders, the divine Child in the manger, prompts 
this rejoicing. Each year He returns to us with renewed love, spins a web 
of glad magic about our heart, and blesses us with new graces. 

Some have thought that the numerous tristrophas in this antiphon 
were intended to restrain the singer from a too violent show of joy. Be 
that as it may, these tristrophas should not sound heavy or unwieldy. 
The piece as a whole ought to be bright and lively. Not without reason 
are we using the seventh mode (cf. the Introit for the second Sunday of 
Advent and for the feast of the Ascension), which here never descends 
below the tonic, but ever strives upward, although the proper dominant 
of the seventh mode is prominent only in the first phrase. The accented 
syllables in most instances have a higher pitch than the syllable imme- 
diately following, frequently also higher than the preceding syllable. 

K.K., 23, 134 f!.; Choralhlatier, No. 2; N, Sch., 256; Revue, 8, 71 
ff.; Analyses, III, 14 fl.; Wagner, III, 511. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 97: 3, 2) 

1. Viderunt omnes fines terrae 1. All the ends of the earth have 

salutare Dei nostri: 2. jubilate Deo seen the salvation of our God: 2. sing 

omnis terra. ^ 1. Notum fecit Do- joyfully to God all the earth, jll 1. 

minus salutare suum: 2. ante con- The Lord hath made known his sal- 

spectum gentium revelavit justitiam vation: 2. he hath revealed his jus- 

suam. tice in the sight of the 



As in the Introit, so here again childlike naivete and lofty grandeur 
combine to form a liturgical Christmas song, except that here, in accord- 
ance with the style of a Gradual-responsory, the sublime predominates 
in the melodic line as well as in the richness of the melody. The grand 
beginning with Viderunt omnes already hints at this. Here the custom- 
ary limits assigned to Graduals of the fifth mode are broken. The Sa- 
viour of the world has appeared! Effaced are the national boundaries 
which separated Jew and Greek and Roman; there comes forth the Catho- 
lic Church, the earth-encircling Church, which mediates the salvation 
of God to all the world, and thus bestows a happiness upon the nations 
which makes them shout aloud for very joy. Originally this Mass was 
celebrated at the world-church, St. Peter's. Viderunt omnes has an echo 
in omnis at the end of the corpus of the Gradual. Extremely naive is the 
motive ch c a which runs through the corpus: (ter)-rae, (salutä)-re, (no)- 
stri. The form over terra again recalls the popular In dulci jubilo. The 
frequent occurrence of the tone-sequence f a c and its inversion insistent- 



Christmas Day — Third Mass 53 

ly calls to mind our modern F major. But when, as here, the note b fol- 
lows immediately upon c ,we are made to realize again that the Lydian 
fifth mode has a character all its own. 

The florid melisma at the beginning of the verse over Dominus is, as 
we know, a stylistic peculiarity of Graduals. At Christmastide it recalls 
the words of the Apostle: "But God (who is rich in mercy), for his ex- 
ceeding charity wherewith he loved us . . . hath quickened us together in 
Christ." Into this rich melisma we put our thanks for the profusion of 
love the Lord has shown us today, that He has revealed His justice to 
us, has given us the Just One whose coming we have so fervently im- 
plored from the clouds above in the Rordte caeli. Only the Lord (Do- 
minus) was able to work such a miracle. Three pauses divide this melisma 
into four parts. The first and second groups are the same, closing with 
c d a f, a. motive which in a gracefully shortened form is again heard at 
the close of (Dömi)-nus, (conspec)-tum, and (genti)-um. The third mem- 
ber ends with c a f. The beginning of the fourth member, a f a g f, im- 
mediately ascends to the higher reaches with a f g a c, and then the 
melody rises jubilantly, reminding us of Dei in the corpus, while the 
quieter and more devout salutdre which follows sounds much like terrae 
there. In an outburst of overflowing joy the melody at gentium again 
stresses the idea that the salvation of the entire world has appeared. 
With suam the first two notes are to be sung as a sort of preparation for 
the subsequent torculus; similarly g a after the pause should be weaker 
than the neum which follows; the same holds true oi f g a before the 
pressus, the summit toward which everything else must tend in an as- 
cending line: all in all a masterful development of incomparable melodic 
beauty. 

Revue, 8, 72; 12, 17; Greg. Rundschau, 1, 165 ff. 

ALLELUIA VERSE 

1. Dies sanctificatus illuxit nobis: 1. A sanctified day hath shone 

2. venite gentes et ador ate Dominum: upon us: 2. come ye Gentiles, and 

3. quia hodie descendit lux magna adore the Lord: 3. for this day a 
super terram. great light hath descended upon the 

earth. 

This verse continues the thoughts of the Epistle and acts as a tran- 
sition to the Gospel. The Epistle portrays the greatness and majesty of 
the Son of God. It exalts Him as the image of the Father, the Creator 
of the world, who through the power of His word sustains all things, 
whose throne stands forever, whom the angels adore at the Father's be- 



54 Christmas Day — Third Mass 

hest. Hence, this Alleluia- verse now cries: adordte — "adore ye the Lord," 
whereas the preceding Gradual had cried: juhildtel 

When we hear the mighty words in the Gospel: "And the Word was 
made Flesh," we bend our knees before the Babe of Bethlehem. The 
descent of the melody over venite to low a, the prolongation of the domi- 
nant / — within a passage of florid melismas, a recitation on a single note 
always produces a solemn effect^ — truly seem like an eloquent expression 
of our prayerful adoration. 

We have here a typical melody of the archaic form, a favorite for 
the Christmas season; thus it appears on the feasts of St. Stephen, of 
St. John, and on Epiphany; likewise on the feasts of St. John the Bap- 
tist and SS. Peter and Paul. 

Four phrases may be distinguished in the verse. The first and third 
have practically the same intonation: Dies = quia hodie; then follows a 
recitation on the tonic: sanctificdtus lUuxit = descendit lux; then the same 
florid cadence: nobis = magna. The second phrase begins with a sort of 
intonation contrasting with that of the others, then a recitation on the 
dominant /, and a sinple cadence. The fourth phrase is extremely short. 
It has no intonation of any kind, but a recitation on the dominant like 
the second phrase (this recitation is longer on the feast of St. John the 
Evangelist and on Epiphany), and finally a closing cadence. The psalmo- 
dic construction of the whole is quite evident. 

Both the text and melody probably come from old Byzantium. In 
some of the ancient manuscripts either a Latin or a Greek text accom- 
panies the melody; in one of the Vatican Library (No. 298, f. Ill), both 
a Latin and a Greek text accompany it. 

The great Light, the Light of Light, God of God, true Light of true 
Light, has come down to us. It transfigures the present day, makes it a 
holy day indeed. There is nothing blinding, nothing to repel the eye, in 
this fullness of light; enraptured we contemplate the divine Child, the 
while we adore Him as the sol invictus, the truly unconquerable Sun. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 88: 12, 15) 

1. Tui sunt caeli, et tua est terra: 1. Thine are the heavens, and. 

2. orhem terrarum, et plenitudinem thine is the earth: 2. the world and 

ejus tu fundasti: S. justitia et judi- the fullness thereof thou hast 

dum praeparatio sedis tuae. founded: 3. justice and ju 



are the preparation of thy throne. 

The divine dignity of the Babe of Bethlehem is the first thought, 
in fact one might say, the thought, occupying the mind of the Church 
today. In opposition to the Arians it was necessary to stress the fact that 



Christmas Day^ — Third Mass 55 

this Child is equal in essence to the Father, and against the tenets of 
the Mithraic cults, that on the present day, the day of increasing sun- 
light, it is not a question of mere symbolism, but of the birth of the 
divine Sun of Justice in the flesh. The Church, therefore, addresses these 
words to the newborn Babe: Thine are the heavens, and Thine is the 
earth. Thou art the Creator and Governor of the world; Thine it is with 
all its inhabitants. Prominently this tu dominates the melodic line, which 
otherwise never rises above a. Tuae of the third phrase corresponds to 
fundasti. Nor does the remaining part speak of the poor manger in which 
the Child is lying. It speaks of His throne, of the exercise of His judicial 
power, of His zeal for right and justice, of His eternal, immutable judge- 
ments. In the same strain run the verses which formely belonged to this 
Offertory: "Thou art a great God and terrible; Thou wilt slay the dra- 
gon of the sea. Mercy and truth shall go before Thy face. Thou strikest 
down the proud; with the strength of Thine arm Thou wilt cut down 
Thine enemies. For strong is Thy hand, O Lord, and mighty is Thine 
arm." 

Vigorous words, these. But the melody? Proske, in the preface of 
his Musica divina, makes too sweeping a statement when he says of the 
church music of the ancients that it avoided all specialized expression. 
To plain song, at least, a greater freedom of expression must be conceded. 
But he is right when he characterizes as lyric meditation, or contempla- 
tion, that ancient church music which of set purpose avoided any defin- 
ite emotion. Over this present Offertory, for instance, there hovers a 
delicate shimmer of light, dreamlike one might almost call it. At sunt 
caeli we find Palestrina (IX, 16, 1) using a sixth (d~h); plain chant, how- 
ever, is content with simple minor thirds and seconds within the tetra- 
chord d-g, and similarly over ejus later on; justitia likewise confines 
itself to a tetrachord, e-a. Low / is the dominant of the entire piece. The 
first and third phrases have a range of only a fifth; the second, excepting 
tu with its reach of a minor third above the note a, has the range of a 
sixth. All is in an unpretentious style: there seems to be deliberate self- 
restraint. Large intervals are rare; the few that do occur are quite inert, 
as in the ascending sequence over est, whose nucleus is f g a g, a.n inver- 
sion of which is found in ('pleni)-tü-(dinem): e g f g. At ejus the melody 
effects a retarding tension much like the related melody in the Introit. 
Tu can then sound with full effect. Justitia sets in energetically. We may 
regard the melody over judicium, and especially that over sedis tuae, as 
a free variation of est terra. 

To understand and appreciate this chant, one might imagine the 
Blessed Mother kneeling before the manger, contemplating her divine 
Child. Her meditation turns into song, and this tender melody reveals 



56 Christmas Day — Third Mass 

what thoughts are flooding her heart. A tremor of holy ecstasy seizes 
her: Thou, O Almighty One, art mine, my very own, my Child. And 
the divine Child (the twenty-seventh verse of the same psalm suggests 
this thought) addresses the most pure Virgin thus: And thou art my 
Mother !^ — Let us kneel at the side of the Mother of God, to pray and sing 
with her, and in union with her to offer up the gifts of our faith and love 
and adoration. 

(The "Stabat Mater'' in Liszt's Christus closely approaches the spirit 
of this Offertory.) 

COMMUNION (Ps. 97: 3) 

Viderunt omnes fines terrae salu- All the ends of the earth have 

tare Dei nostri. seen the salvation of our God. 

We hear this same melody, in a happy adaptation, on the feast of 
St. Philip Neri (May 26). The jubilant salutdre there occurs over the 
word exsultaverunt- — my heart and my flesh rejoice. Less happy is the 
adaptation for the feast of the Holy Family; its adaptation in the Mass 
of the holy Lance and Nails (on the Friday after the first Sunday of 
Lent) to the text: "They looked upon Him whom they have pierced, 
and the foundations of the earth were shaken," is strange, to say the 
least. No objection can be made to the treatment of the word-accents; 
but our jubilant salutdre is there sung to the very dissimilar mover entur. 
In all probability the opening word, Viderunt, led to the choice of the 
melody proper to the Communion Viderunt. These remarks, be it said, 
are not made merely to find fault. They should help us, rather, to a 
deeper understanding of the appropriateness and of the beauty of our 
present Communion song. If we then compare it with the same text 
used in the first part of today's Gradual, we get an illuminating insight 
into the stylistic differences of the two chants. 

Terrae and salutdre mark the high points of the melody. The con- 
nection is immediately evident: salvation has come to the world. The 
momentous promise so solemnly uttered on the vigil of Christmas that 
"all flesh shall see the salvation of our God," is now perfectly realized; 
and from overflowing hearts joyous thanks ascend to God. When we 
consider, moreover, how great is the number of those who have not yet 
heard the message of Christmas, who know nothing of the Babe of Beth- 
lehem who came to save them and who would fill the hearts of all with 
His grace and peace and love; when we consider that we are privileged 
to look upon Him, that we are even allowed in Holy Communion to 
taste and see "how sweet He is," then our salutdre will have a particu- 
larly radiant ring. The notes that come after the lengthened c should be 



St. Stephen, First Martyr 57 

sung as two groups of two; the measured rhythm will thus restrain the 
almost too animated exultation. Rhythmically, a g e f f corresponds to 
g f a g e over (ter)-rae and f d f e c over De-(i). 

God is generosity itself; His giving is always on a grand scale. He 
is the salvation of the entire world. Would that we equalled His mag- 
nanimity, and would give our hearts entirely to Him who has become 
our salvation, our joy, and our delight! 



ST. STEPHEN, THE FIRST MARTYR 

(December 26) 

INTROIT (Ps. 118: 23, 86, 23) 

1. Eienim sederunt principes, et 1. Princes sat and spoke against 

adversum me loquehantur: et iniqui me: and the wicked persecuted me: 

persecuti sunt me: 2. adjuva me, 2. help me, O Lord my God, for thy 

Domine Dens mens, quia servus servant is exercised in thy justifica- 

tuus exercehatur in tuis justifica- tions. Ps. Blessed are the undefiled 

tionibus. Ps. Beati immaculati in in the way: * that walk in the law 

via: * qui ambulant in lege Domini. of the Lord. 

When we come to Mass on this second Christmas feast we hear, 
immediately at the Introit, the saint of today describing that which 
passed in his soul when he stood before the high council. Dispensing with 
introductory phrases, he speaks to us directly, graphically, impressively. 
Around him he sees the high priests and scribes (principes); from their 
faces, from their words, he knows that they are his bitterest opponents. 
He must hear how truth is distorted by the testimony of false (iniqui) 
witnesses; and by this assembly he hears the sentence of death passed 
against him. 

That is the first phrase of this Introit. Its melody consists of three 
members. The first member, with its series of agitated porrectus, each of 
which sets in on a higher pitch, leads up to the dominant; the second 
leads back to the tonic: arsis and thesis. The second phrase repeats 
practically the same formula over et adver- and me loquebdn-. The sub- 
sequent double bistropha suggests a mysterious muffled whispering; 
similarly its recurrence in the Gradual. An agitated up-and-down move- 
ment runs through the third member, like the motions of some noble 
animal at bay: there is indignation at the injustice displayed. It is well 
to stress the torculus, and the syllable following it must also be given its 



58 St. Stephen, First Martyr 

full due. The first note of each neum over ( perse )-cüti can be sung almost 
martellato. 

If in the first phrase the saint looked about himself, he now in the 
second, looks upward to God. Deus mens does not occur in the original 
psalm-verse, but the composer so merged himself into the feelings of the 
saint that these words rose spontaneously. The melody becomes urgent- 
ly pleading. It marks the summit of the entire piece and has the only 
high pressus. Here again the first member lingers on the dominant. Most 
truthfully can the saint pray: Thou art my God — Deus mens. . .. Thee 
have I chosen, to Thee have I dedicated myself. In the second and third 
members the influence of the word-accents in the formation of the melody 
becomes apparent: servus tuus exercehdtur, tuis. Though practically the 
same formula recurs three or four times, this may remind us of the con- 
stancy with which the saint withstood all opposition and persevered in 
the service of his Lord; it may remind us of the fiery zeal with which 
he offered himself for the great cause. For no one could resist the wisdom 
and the spirit that spoke in him. With full determination he likewise 
advances to his death. We have already met the closing formula in the 
Introit Gaudete; we shall meet it again in the Introit for Epiphany. 

The psalm-verse now sings its Bedti quietly, almost genially. The 
purity of heart and fidelity to God here mentioned were the saint's 
great consolations. 

Revue, 4, 65 ff. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 118: 23, 86) 

1. Sederunt principes, et adver sum 1. Princes sat and spoke against 

me loquebantur: 2. et iniqui per- me: 2. and the wicked persecuted 

secuti sunt me. f. 1. Adjuva me me: i\ 1. Help me, Lord my God: 

Domine Deus meus: 2. salvum me 2. save me for thy mercy's sake, 
fac propter misericordiam tuam. 

The corpus oi the Gradual has the same text as the first phrase of 
the Introit, except that the word Etenim has been omitted. Similarly, 
the verse bears some resemblance to the second phrase of the Introit. 
In both pieces loquebantur carries a similar melody; iniqui is stressed 
still more; in both instances Domine Deus meus marks the principal as- 
cent. But there are also specific differences besides those of mode and 
range. In the Introit the accented syllables helped to form the melody; 
not a single closing syllable had more than two notes. In the Gradual, 
on the contrary, it is precisely the final syllables that receive special 
prominence. Here we also find an interplay of florid melismatic passages 
with some that are purely syllabic, whereas the entire Introit was de- 



St. Stephen, First Martyr 59 

veloped more regularly and simply: the accented syllable of persecuti 
alone was given three neums. The difference in spirit is even more marked, 
especially in the verse. At its very beginning the Introit was lively in 
movement; the solemn beginning of the Gradual, however, seems to 
lead us to a serious, dignified court-session. At adver sum me it gathers 
momentum, and iniqui is still more vigorous: here f f g a c becomes 
a c d e f. At persecuti sunt the notes, without being hammered out, must 
be accented well enough to show that the meaning of the word is fully 
grasped. Thus far the text had a setting almost entirely original; the no- 
tation over me, however, already acts as a transition to the verse, which 
employs typical forms only. 

The beginning of the verse still reminds us of et adversum me in the 
corpus. Snatches of the melody from the Gradual of the second Christ- 
mas Mass follow, and then comes a beautifully articulated melisma, one 
which on Epiphany we find again over illuminare (q.v.). Over Deus 
meus we hear a form which occurs several times, e.g. on the feast of the 
Assumption (inclina aurem tuam). After the florid melisma a special 
solemnity attaches to the simple recitation on the low / if it is rendered 
in a sustained (not heavy, or blunt!) manner and in a careful legato. Over 
tuam we find the passage fagf ga a of (miserij-cordiam a third higher. 
The closing melisma is quite common; tomorrow we meet it again. 

This chant does not in the least sound like the prayer of an outcast, 
of one who as a victim to fanatical hatred sees a horrible death staring 
him in the face. Instead, it sounds like the prayer of one whose confi- 
dence is boundless, of one who is sure of being heard: an echo, this, of 
heaven's own songs. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Acts 7: 55) 

1. Video caelos apertos, 2. et 1. 1 see the heavens opened, 2. and 

Jesum stantem 3. a dextris virtu- Jesus standing 3. at the right hand 
tis Dei. of the power of God. 

Here a word of the preceding Lesson finds a continuation. Sur- 
rounded by enemies raging and furious, Stephen, "full of the Holy 
Ghost," was privileged to look upon the glory of God. In this perspective 
he forgot all things of earth. He saw Jesus, to whose cause he had dedi- 
cated himself completely, and he saw Him standing, as if He had risen 
from His throne to help His loyal servant with all His divine power. 

We already know the melody from the third Mass of Christmas. 
Taking into account the divisions noted there it will suffice to add the 
following particulars: 



60 St. Stephen, First Martyr 

1. Video = 3. a dextris 

1. apertos = S. virtutis 

2. et Jesum stantem, (4) Dei. 

OFFERTORY (Acts 6: 5; 7: 59) 

1. Elegerunt Apostoli Stephanum 1. The Apostles chose Stephen, a 

levitam, 2. plenum fide et Spiritu levite, 2. a man full of faith and of 

Sancto: 3. quern lapidaverunt Ju- the Holy Ghost: 3. whom the Jews 

daei orantem, et dicentem: 4. Do- stoned, praying and saying: 4. 

mine Jesu, accipe spiritum meum. Lord Jesus, receive my spirit, 5. 

5. alleluia. alleluia. 

Two scenes comprise the Offertory: the first two phrases portray 
the election of St. Stephen as a deacon; the third and fourth phrases 
give his prayer while he was being stoned. A solemn quiet hovers about 
the opening melody. One must guard against singing it too fast, for it 
should tell in a broad festal manner of the act by which the honor and 
the order of the diaconate was bestowed upon the saint. He was truly 
worthy of being chosen,^ for he was "filled" with faith and with the Holy 
Ghost. The setting in with the fifth is more than mere chance; so too the 
further progress of the melody with the descending fourth and the 
pressus. And how austere is then the close over Spiritu Sanctol The 
spirit of the world would certainly be voiced differently. 

In the second part one might consider lapidaverunt, whose first three 
podatus in the annotated manuscripts are in the broad form, as tone- 
painting, as depicting the downward flight of the stones. But immedi- 
ately afterwards we meet the same tone-sequences as we had over 
plenum. To the descending fourth, and also later over (D6mi)-ne, a third 
is added, which makes the melody more virile. The frequent tritones, 
though most of them are not obvious, contribute to this same end. 
The second half of the phrase is a quiet preparation for what follows. 

What fervor and confidence breathe forth from this prayer! It 
should be sung with warmth, and above all not too rapidly. After Do- 
mine it will be necessary to make a brief pause for breathing. Ac-(cipe) 
and (al)-le-lüia remind us of (Spiri)-tu Sancto in the second phrase; spi- 
ritum, of lapidaverunt in the third phrase. All the notes after the last 
minor pause are to be sung ritardando. 

Dom Jeannin^ would assign the entire piece to an Ut-mode with a 
close on the fifth. However that may be, it is quite surprising to find* 
over levitam, a cadence to c. 



1 The word levitam is not found in the Acts, but is the free addition of the composer. 

2 Melodies liturgiques syriennes et chaldeennes, p. 133. 



St. Stephen, First Martyr 61 

About the same time that we hear the saint praying this dccipe 
spiritum meum, the priest at the altar is saying: Suscipe, sancte Pater, 
hanc immaculdtam hostiam — "Receive, O holy Father. . .this spotless 
victim," in preparation for the most holy Sacrifice. Today, on the feast 
of the first martyr, we must try to appreciate that which is stressed by 
the Secret on the Thursday after the third Sunday of Lent: "We offer 
Thee that Sacrifice from which all martyrdom has drawn its source." 

COMMUNION (Acts 5: 55, 58, 59) 

1. Video caelos apertos, et Je- 1. / see the heavens opened and 

sum stantem a dextris virtutis Dei: Jesus standing on the right hand of 

2. Domine Jesu, accipe spiritum the power of God; 2. Lord Jesus, re- 

meum, 3. et ne statuas Ulis hoc pec- ceive my spirit, 3. and lay not this 

catum, quia nesciunt quid faciunt. sin to their charge. 

The Communion in its first phrase has the same text as the Alleluia- 
verse; in the second, the same as the fourth phrase of the Offertory, 
There is a difference, however, in the melodic treatment, much like to 
that which exists between the Introit and the Gradual, though not in the 
same degree. The piece has wonderful dramatic power. Here one may 
nicely see the role played by intervals in plain song. Video sets out with 
quiet seconds; over apertos we have a major third. Now the saint's gaze 
penetrates further into heaven; he sees Jesus. A fourth stands over et — 
and then Jesum stantem dominates the entire melodic line. Thus far the 
arsis. Two energetic pressus feature the subsequent thesis. The ardent 
Domine uses a fifth and an ascent to high e. The second part of the 
phrase is again a thesis. An example of logical development. 

The third phrase never extends above a; its largest intervals are 
but minor thirds; toward the end only seconds occur. We are told in the 
Acts, it is true, that St. Stephen, kneeling, cried with a loud voice: 
**Lord, lay not this sin to their charge." But the plainsong melody has a 
different end in view. It seems as if the saint's strength were fast ebbing 
away; yet before his death he must pronounce this prayer. The melody 
seems to melt away also. In the Acts the last four words are not to be 
found. But they proceed from the heart of the saint; they unite his sac- 
rifice and his prayer with that of the Crucified. Christ was nailed to His 
cross outside the city gates. There also was Stephen stoned. In him the 
sacrificial power of the Cross achieves its first glorious victory. It is 
this same power of the Cross that inflamed countless thousands to follow 
the example of the first martyr. 



62 St. John, Apostle and Evangelist 

ST. JOHN, APOSTLE AND EVANGELIST 
(December 27) 

INTROIT (Ecclus. 15: 5) 

1. In medio Ecclesiae aperuit os 1. In the midst of the church the 

ejus: 2. et implevit eum Dominus Lord opened his mouth: 2. and filled 

spiritu sapientiae, et intellectus: 3. him with the spirit of wisdom and 

stolam gloriae induit eum. Ps. Bo- understanding: 3. he clothed him 

num est confiteri Domino: * et with a robe of glory. Ps, It is good 

psalter e nomini tuo, Altissime. to give praise to the Lord; * and to 

sing to thy name, O Most High. 

The text was taken from today's Lesson, and that in turn from the 
Book of Wisdom. The Lord has opened the mouth of St. John, has made 
him to be an Apostle, an Evangelist, a prophet, the writer of the Apo- 
calypse. The Saviour, Wisdom itself, proceeding from the mouth of the 
Most High, filled the saint with the spirit of wisdom and understanding. 
For years the saint was privileged to hear the words of life as a favored 
Apostle; at the Last Supper he drank in wisdom at its source, at the 
breast of the Saviour, out of His very heart. Standing at the foot of the 
cross, he received the last words of his Master. How deeply they must 
have embedded themselves in his heart! He was permitted to take under 
his care the Mother of Jesus, the Seat of Wisdom; thus he could learn to 
know even more intimately and thoroughly Him who is the fullness of 
grace and truth. No one was privileged to taste so deeply of the Lord's 
sweetness as he, and no one else has written so profoundly of His divinity. 
The Lord clothed him, moreover, with the robe of glory. How beautiful 
was this soul in its virginity! So beautiful that it excerised a sort of en- 
chantment over the Lord Himself, for St. John was loved more than any 
of the other Apostles. How the beauty of this soul grew day by day in 
the fervor and ardor of its love, and how splendid, in consequence, must 
its robe of glory have become! To thank God for all this is truly a duty 
of love. 

At the present time this melody is found in the Common of Doctors; 
it was, however, originally composed for today's feast. The same is true 
of the Offertory Justus ut palma. This Introit is an example of classic 
repose, and must be sung very sustainedly. The first phrase has two 
members, each of which begins with a neum resembling a podatus; in 
each instance this is followed by a tristropha and an accented g. Every- 
thing seems to undulate lightly about /, and yet an upward tendency 



St. John, Apostle and Evangelist 63 

runs through the entire phrase, a tendency which finds a brilliant ful- 
filment in the second phrase. The cdfg here becomes fgahb and ace with 

the pressus, the only one in the entire piece. After this culmination the 
melody again supports itself, as in the first and third phrases, on /. The 
synonyms sapientiae and intellectus have similar intonations. Low c over 
the latter word serves as an antithesis to high c over eum and at the 
same time as a transition to the third phrase. This phrase also descends 
to low c, but more gracefully and gently, since each of the last two 
neums sets in with the pitch of the preceding. The second half corre- 
sponds to ejus at the close of the first phrase. On account ot its range 
and the emphasis on the tonic /, this Introit may serve as a standard 
example of the (plagal) sixth mode. Of greater moment, however, is the 
nobility, the enshrined holiness, which breathes from it. 

Pal. mus., Vol. 10, and Mocquereau, Monographies greg., I: U In- 
troit "In medio" (Tournai, 1910) discuss the reading and rhythm of this 
piece. 

GRADUAL (John 21: 23, 19) 

1. Exiit sermo inter fratres, quod 1. A saying went abroad among 

discipulus ille non moritur. Et non the brethren, that that disciple should 
dixit Jesus: Non moritur Sf. 1. not die. And Jesus did not say: He 
Sed: Sic eum volo mauere, 2. donee should not die. jl. 1. But: So I will 
mniam: 3. tu me sequere. have him remain, 2. till I come: 5. 

follow thou me. 

The text of the Gradual anticipates today's Gospel. Peter had heard 
the Lord's summons: "Follow me!" But when he saw that John was fol- 
lowing the Lord, he said: "Lord, and what shall this man do?" Jesus 
answered: "So I will have him to remain till I come, what is it to thee? 
follow thou me." From these words the disciples gathered that John 
was not to die. But the Lord had only intended to convey the thought 
that Peter would find death after untold struggles and a bloody martyr- 
dom; John, however, was to remain in quiet labor for the extension of 
the Church, and, when the Lord would come to receive his soul, would 
have a serene death, not that of martyrdom. 

In the Gradual the words of the Gospel are shortened, and hence 
not readily understood. 

The melody is the same as that of Ecee sacerdos magnus and Christus 
factus est. It must be said, however, that the divisions in the corpus of 
this Gradual are better than in that of Maundy Thursday. In the verse 
one expects another ascent after donee, but it is omitted on account of 
the brevity of the text. 



64 St. John, Apostle and Evangelist 

Follow thou me! Filled with love like St. John, we shall interest 
ourselves in others and care for them; but when God calls, we shall go 
the way He points out to us, without having any regard for others. 

Motet over manere: Revue, 23, 99 ff. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (John 21 : 24) 

1. Hie est discipuhis ille, 2. qui 1. This is the disciple 2. who 

testimonium perhibet de his: 3. et giveth testimony of these things: 3. 

scimus quia verum est (4.) testi- and we know that true is (4.) his 

monium ejus. testimony. 

This verse forms the close of today's Gospel. It emphasizes the char- 
acteristic mark of an Apostle, expressed by St. Peter before the election 
of St. Matthias: the Apostles are witnesses of Christ — "Beginning from 
the baptism of John, until the day wherein He was taken up from us, 
one of these must be made a witness with us of His resurrection." This 
testimony all the Apostles confirmed with their life's blood. In a certain 
sense, St. John also was a martyr (cf. his feast on May 6). This is further 
justified by the unanimous acclaim of the whole Catholic world, which 
today shows its special joy in the testimony of St. John. His testimony 
proceeds from ardent love and depicts for us the most sublime portrait 
of the Saviour. 

This typical Christmas melody is here divided: 1. Hie est = d. et 
scimus] 1. discipulus ille = S. quia verum est; 2, qui testimonium perhibet 
de his, (4). testimonium ejus. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 91: 13) 

1. Justus ut palma florebit: 2. 1. The just shall flourish like the 

sicut cedrus, quae in Libano est, palm tree: 2. he shall grow up like 
multiplicabitur. the cedar which is in Libanus. 

This Offertory is now found in the Common of Doctors, just as the 
Introit is. St. John became the teacher of them all. As Evangelist, his 
symbol is the eagle. The figure of the palm tree signifies much the same 
thing here: his entire being was turned toward the Sun; his life was lived 
in heaven, into the deepest mysteries of which he was allowed to peer. 
In his virginal purity he was immune to all that is earth-bound or bur- 
dening. Everything was filled with light and most pure love. In his ar- 
dent nearness to God the sweet fruits of which his writings give evidence 
could attain to perfect maturity. The melody itself suggests the palm 
with its towering shaft. The second half of Justus is repeated over flore- 
bit and in part over (Liba)-no. 



St. John, Apostle and Evangelist 65 

In the second phrase, however, the cedar is made to reach higher 
than the palm. Sicut reminds us of ut pal-fma); ce-(drus) with its ahcdca 
is a development of the efgagf at the beginning of this Offertory; (Li)- 
bano harks back to (pal)-ma: two or three motives are thus manipulated 
here in a smooth and expert manner. Multiplicdbitur repeats the fourth 
which was heard three times at the beginning. The melisma following 
supports itself on the pressus dag, ggf, and ffe. It pictures the spreading 

branches of the cedar; the development of the melody here is lateral 
rather than perpendicular. 

COMMUNION (John 21: 23) 

1. Exiit sermo inter fratres, quod 1. A saying went abroad among 

discipulus ille non moritur: 2. et the brethren that that disciple should 

non dixit Jesus: Non moritur: 3. not die; 2. and Jesus did not say: 

sed: sic eum volo m,anere, donee He should not die: 3. but: So I will 

veniam. have him remain till I come. 

Here a simple antiphonal melody harks back to the Gospel and 
the Gradual. Each of the three phrases lifts the accented syllable to d e: 
ille, dixit, volo. Furthermore, the last syllable of Jesus, as in many other 
instances where Hebrew words occur, receives the emphasis. Non mori- 
tur as well as the four preceding notes are the same in both cases. The 
third phrase begins in the same manner as the second; manere is treated 
with special fondness. Donee, if set a fifth lower, would have to be writ- 
ten with 5b (dcd cbVd). No doubt the composer wished to avoid this; he 
therefore wrote the whole piece in a pitch which more closely approaches 
that in which it is actually to be sung; that is likely the reason for the 
transposition. 

Would that we were like St. John, and might always remain so! Vir- 
ginal purity adorned his soul. He was filled with a tender and true love 
of God and the Blessed Virgin. How touchingly he depicts the love of 
God in his Epistles, and above all in the farewell address at the Last 
Supper, which he alone records! With most tender solicitude he cared 
for the Mother of God, whom he was privileged to take under his pro- 
tection. With an affectionate gesture the Church indicates, that Mary 
today takes him to herself, for the station is at St. Mary Major. Would 
that we also might be and remain thus until the Lord comes! Donee 
veniam: that is the last word of today's proper chants. The Lord will 
come again in the next Holy Communion; likewise at the evening of our 
life. This word should, therefore, be to us, as it was to the early Chris- 



Q6 The Holy Innocents 

tians, a word of admonition, but at the same time a word of consolation 
and joyful expectation. 
Rass. gr., 7, 9, 417 ff. 



THE HOLY INNOCENTS 

(December 28) 

INTROIT (Ps. 8:3) 

1. Ex ore infantium, Deus, et 1. Out of the mouth of hahes and 

lactentium perfecisti laudem 2. of sucklings, O God, thou hast per- 

propter inimicos tuos. Ps. Domine fected praise 2. because of thine 

Dominus noster: * quam admira- enemies. Ps. Lord, our Lord: * 

Mle est nomen tuum in universa how admirable is thy name in the 

terral whole earth. 

A holy awe hovers over the melody. Hence the three descending and 
the three ascending fourths in these two short phrases. The first phrase 
with its preponderating g has a cadence much favored by the second 
mode; we heard it recently in the Introit of the Midnight Mass of 
Christmas. The second phrase, in which / predominates, bears some 
affinity to et lactentium of the first phrase. 

The Holy Innocents offered God perfect praise; as the Collect of 
the feast says, they glorified Him not by words, but by their death. It 
is impossible for a creature to show greater glory than this to the Crea- 
tor. Furthermore, their praise was absolutely pure. Of them today's 
Lesson from the Apocalypse speaks as follows: ''They are virgins... 
and in their mouth there was found no lie; for they are without spot be- 
fore the throne of God." 

Thus should the praise of God resound in the universal Church; it 
should be pure and perfect. It ought to be not only an avowal in words, 
but rather one which manifests itself in a holy life. 

GRADUAL— OFFERTORY (Ps. 123: 7, 8) 

Anima nostra, sicut passer, erep- Our soul hath been delivered as a 

ia est de laqueo venantium. 'Si. 1. sparrow out of the snare of the 

Laqueus contritus est, 2. et nos li- fowlers. ^. 1. The snare is broken, 

herati sumus: 3. adjutorium no- 2. and we are delivered: 3. our help 

strum in nomine Domini, qui fecit is in the name of the Lord, who 

caelum et terram. hath made heaven and earth. 



The Holy Innocents 67 

Gradual and Offertory have the same text. In the Gradual it is di- 
vided into corpus and verse; in the Offertory the first three phrases have 
been drawn into one whole, the last phrase of the Gradual being omitted. 
Both melodies pulse with rich and radiantly joyful life. The Gradual, it 
is true, is a composition of various typical melodies, but here they are 
joined. The melody for the Offertory, on the contrary, shows that it 
originated from this very text. In the Gradual we find melismatic punctu- 
ation on the final syllables of nostra, vendntium, contritus est, sumus, while 
the Offertory broadens only the last syllable of sumus. 

The Gradual begins solemnly and has a quiet cadence over nostra. 
In the Offertory an ebullient, almost rollicking joy characterizes the first 
neums. A lightly moving rendition is imperative. Like the lark this song 
swings aloft exultant and jubilant; we have escaped from the snare of 
the hunter. Erepta est is strongly emphasized in both chants. In the Offer- 
tory it is a continuation of the motive over Anima. Over nostra in the 
Offertory, first is sung a light bistropha after the clivis gf, followed by a 
climacus. With de Idqueo the Gradual acquires the typical form; the 
Offertory, however, continues in an exulting strain with the motive of 
est, and yet a third time mounts up to high &b. To a certain extent the 
last five notes over Idqueo, vendntium, nos, sumus form an antithesis to 
this overflowing joy, or rather, bring it to a quiet conclusion. 

On the third syllable of Idqueus the Gradual has a florid melisma, 
such as we find over et lahorem on the second Sunday of Lent, Audi filia 
on the feast of the Assumption (q.v.), and over visi sunt on January 19. 
According to this it seems always to occur over the third syllable of the 
first part of the phrase. A form occurs in the Offertory with which we 
are acquainted from Epiphany (Tharsis); it is repeated over Idqueus 
and liberdti. The reduplication of the virga between the two tristrophas 
is well substantiated by the manuscripts. Perhaps it wishes to visualize 
how cleverly the net had been spread, how well everything had been 
prepared.. Contritus est has a triumphant ring; it produces the effect of 
irony, when the same neums are repeated over (liherd)-ti. It seems as if 
the little birds in their sunny heights, in the ethereal blue, looked down 
with a smile upon that which human ingenuity had excogitated. The 
melody continues to exult in a spirit of thanksgiving: We are free! Free 
for all eternity. Here is inserted a melisma which is not found in the 
Gradual for the Assumption; it occurs, however, in the Gradual Ecce 
sacerdos magnus. Later we again meet with melodic turns from the 
Gradual for the Assumption. By a happy coincidence, the verse attains 
its summit at this spot, a brilliant enhancement compared with the pre- 
ceding contritus est. The final phrase of the Gradual runs along in a reci- 
tative manner, employing podatus to emphasize the word-accents. Do- 



68 The Holy Innocents 

mini is the only word over which we find a more florid melody; to some 
extent also the closing syllable of terram, which corresponds to the final 
syllable of the corpus. It is to the Creator of heaven and earth that the 
Holy Innocents are indebted for all their happiness. 

In the history of souls, the situation described by the verse is fre- 
quently repeated. There is more than one Herod. And there are many 
innocent children who have happily escaped all the snares of the fowlers 
and the deceptive devices of the world. And many, very many, have 
again been freed from them and can not sufficiently thank Christ for the 
liberty He has granted them. 

The feast has a TRACT with a plaintive text; it is composed in the 
eighth mode. But if it be a Sunday, instead of the Tract the following 
Alleluia-verse is sung. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 112: 1) 

1. Laudate pueri Dominum, 2. 1. Praise the Lord, ye children, 

laudate nomen Domini. 2. praise the name of the Lord. 

The jubilus has the form a a^. Text and melody have been borrowed 
from the second Alleluia-verse of the Saturday in Easter Week. We hear 
the melody over Alleluia also on the feast of St. Thomas the Apostle. 
Similarly, Laudate pueri recurs in the typical melody of the fourth mode, 
for example, in the Alleluia-verse of the third Sunday of Advent. 

With a voice clear as crystal the Holy Innocents fulfill this petition 
and behest. They cry to us: Ye servants of the Lord, praise the Lord! 

COMMUNION (Matt. 2: 18) 

1. Vox in Rama audita est, plo- 1. A voice in Rama was heard, 

ratus et ululatus: 2. Rachel plorans lamentation, and mourning: 2. 
filios suos, 3. noluit consolari, quia Rachel bewailing her children, 3. 
non sunt. and would not he comforted because 

they are not. 

Rachel, an ancestress of the Israelites, wanders about the heights 
above Bethlehem, bewailing her captured children as if they were dead. 
That occurred centuries before Herod's ruthless destruction of the in- 
nocents; it was a type and a foreboding of the sorrow the mothers of 
Bethlehem were to experience. But there is one mother's heart which 
now, even after many centuries, still feels their grief: the Church. Hence, 
in spite of the Christmas season and the feeling of the Sunday, she sings 
this pathetic song. The inception on the fifth of the mode, the emphasis 



Sunday within the Octave of Christmas 69 

on the dominant and the pressus over plordtus are expressions of gripping 
sorrow; they almost sound like a shrill outcry. 

In the following phrase the minor seconds and the minor thirds 
produce a gentler ring. The third phrase in its first half supports itself 
on c. The mother's heart is inconsolable, because her children are no 
more. However true and deep this sorrow may be, it never becomes 
unruly or distraught. With dbg the melody comes to a close; est ends on 
d, (ululä)-tus on 6, suos on g. Through this harmony the grief is temp- 
ered. 



SUNDAY WITHIN THE OCTAVE OF 
CHRISTMAS 
INTROIT (Wisd. 18: 14, 15) 

1. Dum medium silentium tene- 1. While all things were in quiet 
rent omnia, 2. et nox in suo cursu silence, 2. and the night was in 
medium iter hdberet, 3. omnipo- the midst of her course, 3. thy al- 
iens sermo tuus, Domine, 4. de mighty word, Lord, 4. came from 
caelis a regalihus sedihus venit. Ps. heaven, from thy royal throne. Ps. 
Dominus regnavit, decorum in- The Lord hath reigned, he is clothed 
dutus est: * indutus est Dominus with beauty: * the Lord is clothed 
fortitudinem, et praecinxit se. with strength, and hath girded him- 
self. 

The text speaks of the liberation of Isarel from Egyptian slavery 
and domination. In the middle of the night came God's almighty word 
and freed His people. The angel struck Egypt; to the people of God, 
however, he brought liberty. But today these words have an entirely 
different import. They tell us of that quiet night in which not only an 
angel, but in which the Angel of great counsel, the almighty Word of 
God Himself, deserted His royal throne and descended to us from 
heaven to be our Saviour. The former was a night of horrors for the 
Egyptians. This quiet night is a blessed night for us, in which the angels 
sing new songs, bringing the peace of God to men. 

The ascent from the depths fits well to the mysterious text. No 
little solemnity and majesty is conferred upon the song by means of 
numerous fourths. 

In the first phrase the first three groups show an ascent, but ever 
again bend downwards: cd dgf, gag, gb]?agf, fgac ba, until finally the tris- 



70 Sunday within the Octave of Christmas 

tropha on c appears as victor. The first and second phrases exhibit a 
textual parallelism, which is not observed by the melody. In its first 
half, the second phrase recites on c, the third phrase on a. At this junc- 
ture the recitation becomes still more sustained. With Domine the ca- 
dence does not close as silentium in the first phrase with a clivis, but 
changes to a podatus, exactly in the same manner and for the same rea- 
son as the word sitis in the Intv oit Gaudete (q.v.). The large pause after 
Domine may surprise some. But in this manner the powerful words can 
fully exert their effect upon us: The almighty Word came down from 
heaven. Similarly the low inception of de caelis seems to cry out to us: 
Consider well what this means! We find the same quiet closing cadence 
with other Introits of the same mode, for example, in the second Mass 
of Christmas. 

The Lord is King, even though He is lying in the manger. His robe 
of glory is goodness and benevolence, and His strength is love, love even 
unto death (Reck). 

Very strikingly the psalmodic closing cadence does not set in on 
the fifth last syllable, as is the rule, but on the sixth last. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 44; 3, 2) 

1. Speciosus forma prae filiis ho- 1. Thou art beautiful above the 

minum: 2. diffusa est gratia in la- sons of men: 2. Grace is poured 

biis tuis. ^. 1. Eructavit cor meum abroad in thy lips. ^. 1. My heart 

verbum bonum: 2. dico ego opera hath uttered a good word: 2. I 

mea Regi: 3. lingua mea calamus speak my works to the King: 3. 

scribae velociter scribentis. my tongue is the pen of a scrivener 

that writeth swiftly. 

Now has appeared the most beautiful of the sons of men. Whoever 
contemplates Him constantly discovers new attractions and has his 
heart captivated. But however swiftly his pen may set down the move- 
ments of his heart, still more beautiful and sublime things remain to be 
said. None of the soul's faculties can gain an adequate comprehension 
of Christ's life and still less how it conforms to His essence: Nee lauddre 
sufficisl One thing, however, remains constantly before the singer's mind: 
"I speak my works to the King." 

For the first time in the new liturgical year we meet the third mode 
in a Gradual-responsory. Of the various types employed, the one chosen 
here is found on the Tuesday after the fourth Sunday of Lent, on the 
feast of the most Precious Blood (July 1), and on the feast of the Crown 
of Thorns (celebrated in some places on the Friday after Ash Wednesday). 



Sunday within the Octave of Christmas 71 

The melody toward the end of the corpus and the verse is extra- 
ordinarily florid. Compare: 

(diffü)-sa est gratia in Idhiis tuis; 
(cä)-lamus scribae velociter scribentis. 

The clivis at the close is to be prolonged. A variety of neums are 
employed before the final word-accent; thus we have a tor cuius and a 
bistropha praepunctis over (läbi)-is, while over (vel6ci)-ter there is a tor- 
culus resupinus. Then the bistropha follows upon a syllable which is 
even separated from the preceding neum by a pause. As may be seen by 
comparing other Graduals of this type, the melisma beginning with 
a g ab\? g f over tuis and (scri)-bentis must coincide with the word-accent. 
As a result, we find the following grouping of endings for this Gradual 
(I) and for that of the feast of the Precious Blood (II) : 

I. (Idbiis) tu- is. 
velociter (scri)- ben tis. 

II. (et) sdn- gui- ne. 
(tres) u- num sunt. 

The dactyls are well fitted to the trochees. Corpus and verse have in 
common a sort oi flexa (1) and a sort of middle cadence (2): 

1. 2. 

I. (for)- ma I. (homi)- num 
(cor me)- urn (bo)- num 

(Re)- gi 

II. (ve)- nit II. (Chri)- stus 
(cae)- lo (San)- ctus 

(San)- guis 

In the corpus the first phrase rises to high e; c dominates the second, 
surpassed only once by d. Similarly we hear high e several times in the 
verse, while its third phrase has the same melody as the second of the 
corpus. The verse foregoes the development which enhances the artistic 
worth of Graduals of other modes, as well as that of the third. 

In more than one passage of the corpus, we receive the impression 
that the piece is composed in the second mode, especially with the words 
prae filiis hdmi-(num), Idbiis, gratia. We must assign the final cadence 
of the last word a place among the wandering melismas, which are 
found in the Graduals of various modes (of the first mode: in the verse 
of the first Sunday of Advent over mihi; of the second mode: in the verse 
for the Midnight Mass of Christmas over scabellum; of the fifth mode: 
in the verse for the first Sunday after Pentecost over (ma)-la; of the 



72 Sunday within the Octave of Christmas 

seventh mode: in the corpus of the third Sunday after Pentecost over 
te). Diffusa might well find place in a piece of the second mode; but with 
g e, following upon / g, we are again led from the second mode. 

The verse begins with an extremely pleasing motive. Over cor, the 
passage gahcbccb of (eru)-ctdvit becomes bcdedeed. The announce- 
ment of the sublime word with verbum bonum and the signification of 
this word at mea Regi bear the same melody. But that is only accidental. 
We are struck by the recitation on a over lingua mea cä-(lamus). 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 92: 1) 

1. Dominus regnavit, decor em in- 1. The Lord hath reigned, he is 

duit: 2. induit Dominus fortitudi- clothed with beauty: 2. The Lord is 
nem, et praecinxit se virtute. clothed with strength, and hath 

girded himself with power. 

That which was only recited in the psalm-verse of the Introit is de- 
veloped here in an energetic manner. We heard this melody for the first 
time in the second Mass for Christmas. Over (alle)-lüia the climacus 
and pes lead to the light pes subbipunctis, the apex of the piece; in the 
second member the climacus g f e with the preceding interval of a fifth 
corresponds to it. Both members have the same closing formula. The verse 
begins in a most festal manner. Over decorum the notes are to be divided 
into quiet two-note groups; induit closes like (ado)— rate Dominum in 
the Alleluia of the third Mass for Christmas, and in both cases the fol- 
lowing phrase has the same intonation. Through the ascent to g and its 
protraction, fortitudinem receives an admirable preparation. Now it can 
resound and echo. The close of virtute exhibits the archaic form. 

Repeatedly the Church sings of the beauty and the power of Him 
who has appeared. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 92: 1, 2) 

1. Deus enim firmavit orbem ter- 1. God hath established the world, 

rae, qui non commovebitur: 2. para- which shall not be moved: 2. thy 

ta sedes tua ex tunc, 3. a saeculo throne, O God, is prepared from of 

iu es. old, thou art from everlasting. 

The power inherent in this song shows itself in the very first inter- 
val, a major third. If we substitute a minor third, the significance of 
the major third at once becomes apparent. Expressive of power are the 
numerous fourths, and the five tritones, which, ascending or descend- 
ing run through the whole. It seems to be a song from another world, 
a hymn of eternity and of the throne of God. If God now stands before 



Sunday within the Octave of Christmas 73 

us as the Creator and Preserver of the universe, then His dignity and 
His dominion must be acknowledged by all. Today's Gospel, however, 
tells us that many will contradict and condemn it. On this Sunday — for 
it was already sung in the second Mass for Christmas — it registers a 
protest against this attitude of men; it is a solemn avowal of God's 
divine prerogatives. 

Qui non in the first phrase is influenced by the preceding orhem. The 
second phrase predominates over the first. In God's own good time heaven 
and earth will be destroyed, but His throne will stand unshakeable unto 
all eternity. Here the rendition must gain in inner warmth and convic- 
tion. Care must be had that Deus is not neglected. But above all, follow- 
ing the delicate direction of the annotated manuscripts, both torculus of 
tunc must be taken broadly. Special solemnity ought also to mark the 
ending with tu es. 

Today the altar is the throne of God. From it also proceeds the 
strength which makes our hearts to become worthy thrones of God. And 
we shall pledge unflinching fidelity to God's rights. 

COMMUNION (Matt. 2: 20) 

1. Tolle puerum et matrem ejus, 1. Take the child and his mother , 

et vade in terram Israel: 2. de- and go into the land of Israel: 2. 

fundi sunt enim, qui quaerebant for they are dead that sought the 

animam pueri. life of the child. 

We are struck at first sight by the passages with which both phrases 
close: a c d h a h g gag g and b a c h a b g gag g. The beginnings of the 
two phrases also show considerable similarity. Matrem has a tender and 
fervent ring. 

Here we perceive how the Child has become a sign which will be 
contradicted (cf. the Gospel). Already men have sought His life. But 
His persecutors have found their death; the Child with His Mother and 
St. Joseph, on the contrary, are allowed to return from exile to their 
native land. 

Since that time, many persecutors have risen against Him and His 
Church. But they have all met their doom. Church History might write 
a marvelous continuation of Lactantius' work, entitled De mortibus per- 
secutorum (Concerning the Deaths of the Persecutors), composed in the 
fourth century. Under the protection of our Lady and of St. Joseph, the 
Church's special patron, the Church serenely pursues her way to the 
Promised Land. 

* * * * 



74 The Circumcision of Our Lord 

THE CIRCUMCISION OF OUR LORD 
(January 1) 

INTROIT, GRADUAL, OFFERTORY, and COMMUNION as in 

the Third Mass for Christmas. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Hebr. 1: 1, 2) 

1. Multifarie olim Deus loquens 1. God who (at sundry times and) 

in prophetis, 2. novissime diehus in divers manners, spoke in times 
istis 3. locutus est nobis inFilio suo. past hy the prophets, 2. last of all 

in these days 3. hath spoken to us 

by his Son. 

Without a doubt the emphatic words in this passage are those of 
the second and third phrases. They contain the burden of the joy of 
Christmastide : in these days the Son of God has come to us and speaks 
to us; in this manner is fulfilled that for which the bygone centuries 
yearned and what the prophets foretold. This it is which causes the 
Apostle to exult and to celebrate the divine splendor of the newborn 
Babe in the Alleluia-verse. We heard his words previously in the Epistle 
of the third Mass of Christmas. 

The devout and florid melody over nobis tells us that we are the 
fortunate ones, since we are privileged to live in the fullness of time; to 
us the Son of God addresses His words. The melodic summit, however, 
is attained over prophetis. However great the claim these men may have 
upon our esteem, placing the emphasis on this word strikes us as some- 
what strange. 

In quite an unwonted manner a form of expression is here met with 
which does not confine itself to the individual words, but reproduces a 
single unified feeling — joy over the fullness of time. Of this joy the en- 
tire piece sings. 

Alleluia develops in an ascending line (arsis), the first phrase in a 
descending line (thesis), while the second and third phrases exhibit a 
combination of the two. The thesis has a short melody of seven, eight, 
and seven notes respectively. The ascending passage d f a c b a d over 
-lu- grows out of the preceding f a c g ä g, and continues its effect in df 
g f d f over prophetis, in g a f e d d, and in c d f e d f over istis. In the 
second member we note an instance of a major descending sixth. In the 
subsequent quiet seconds the tension relaxes. We are well acquainted 
with the close of the jubilus from the Alleluia for Holy Saturday and 
that for the first Sunday of Advent. 



Feast of the Holy Name of Jesus 75 

The first two words of the verse repeat the melody of the first mem- 
"bers of Alleluia and close on the tonic. All other pauses occur on the 
dominant, which is somewhat fatiguing. Over Deus two-note groups are 
to be sung; over nobis, between the clivis, lightly moving bistrophas. 
The whole is to be rendered with considerable warmth. In Filio suo re- 
peats the melody of Alleluia with its juhilus. 

We are struck by the large range of the piece, which is similar in 
this respect to the Gloria in the ninth Mass, which also belongs to the 
seventh mode. This melody can be traced to the eleventh century. 



FEAST OF THE HOLY NAME OF JESUS 

(On the Sunday between January 2 and 5, or, if no 
Sunday occurs between these two dates, on January 2.) 

INTROIT (Philipp 2: 10, 11) 

1 . In nomine Jesu omne genu 1 . In the name of Jesus let every 

flectatur, caelestium, terrestrium et knee how of those that are in heaven, 

infernorum: 2. et omnis lingua con- on earth, and under the earth: and 

fiteatur, quia Dominus Jesus Chri- let every tongue confess that the 

stus in gloria est Dei Patris. Ps. Lord Jesus Christ is in the glory of 

Domine Dominus noster:* quam God the Father. Ps. Lord, our 

admirdbile est nomen tuum in uni- Lord:* how wonderful is thy name 

versa terra. in the whole earth. 

Today's Introit again is a true overture to the liturgy of the Mass. 
The very first words provide the leitmotif: In nomine Jesu. Except that 
it substitutes the word Jesu for Domini, the first phrase, text and mel- 
ody, has been borrowed from the Introit of Wednesday in Holy Week. 
We find a similar melody in the middle and at the close of this phrase, 
which also brings the first member of the second phrase to a conclusion. 
In the former edition of these chants, the melody from caelestium to in- 
fernorum shows a descending line, evidently for the sake of tone-paint- 
ing. The notation of the ancient manuscripts, however, shows a reci- 
procal movement, and that for internal reasons. It cannot be but that 
the inhabitants of heaven bend their knee. And upon earth numerous 
souls will always be found who render this homage from a motive of ex- 
treme reverence. But the striking thing is, that those in the nether re- 
gions also must beiid the knee. Let it be the singer's care to emphasize 
this fact. 



76 Feast of the Holy Name of Jesus 

In the second phrase the melodic line is raised, bringing omnis 
lingua ("let every tongue confess") brilliantly to the fore. The original 
is still more effective, since it assigns the reason: "He [Christ] humbled 
Himself, becoming obedient unto death. . ." Here, however, the reason 
forms the second and lower part of the phrase and limps somewhat. 
The rendition will compensate for this defect. Beginning with Jesws 
Christus ( = the third and fourth syllables of terrestrium) , the two pieces 
again have the same text and melody. 

"The Lord Jesus Christ is in the glory of God the Father." Thus 
does the Introit wish to stress the sublimity of the name of Jesus. This 
name is wonderful also upon earth and to be held in honor by all; 
but many despise and dishonor it. We shall, therefore, repeat the In- 
troit with so much deeper reverence and in the spirit of reparation. What 
we today so ardently wish and pray for will one day be realized to its 
fullest extent — when the Lord will appear in the glory of the Father. 

Rieg, Predigten I, 95 ff. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 106:47) 

1. Salvos fac nos, Domine Deus 1. Save us, Lord our God, 2. 

noster, 2. et congrega nos de na- and gather us from among the na- 

tionihus: 3. ut confiteamur nomini tions: 3. that we may give thanks to 

sancto tuo, 4. et gloriemur in gloria thy holy name, 4. and may glory in 

tua. In. 1. Tu, Domine, pater noster, thy praise. ^. 1. Thou, Lord, art 

et redemptor noster: 2. a saeculo our father and redeemer: 2. thy 

nomen tuum. name is from eternity. 

The preceding Epistle closed with the words: "There is no other 
name under heaven given to men, whereby we must be saved." The 
Gradual draws out this thought and prays: "Save us, O Lord." The fur- 
ther petition (Isa. 63: 16) proceeds from the heart of the exile; it is ex- 
pressive of an immense yearning for the homeland and the services of 
the Temple. There the pious soul would like to praise the name of the 
Lord and to glory but in one thing, the honor of the Lord. 

There is close correspondence between the closing syllables of 
(Deus) noster and tuo; both are followed by the same ascent of a fourth. 
We find the same thing over Domine in the verse (cf. the Gradual for 
Quinquagesima Sunday). Tua and tuum, the closing words of the corpus 
and the verse respectively, have extraordinarily florid melodies. 

The verse begins and closes like the Gradual for the feast of St. 
Michael (September 29, q.v.). But from pater to nomen the melody is 
borrowed from the verse of Passion Sunday (q.v.). More than usual life 
and fluency must characterize the singing of this protracted piece. Pas- 



Feast of the Holy Name of Jesus 77 

sages like nomini tuo and the tender Tu, Domine allow of great warmth 
in their rendition. 

If the Introit praised the grandeur of the name of Jesus, the bur- 
den of this song is: O God, Thou art my Father and my Redeemer. How 
He is Redeemer and Saviour was demonstrated in the healing of the 
lame man by the invocation of the name of our Lord Jesus Christ of 
Nazareth. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 144: 21) 

1. Laudem Domini loquetur os 1. My mouth shall speak the 

meum, 2. et benedicat omnis caro praise of the Lord, 2. and let all 
nomen sanctum ejus. flesh bless his holy name. 

This melody comes from the Sunday within the octave of Corpus 
Christi (q.v.). Laudem Domini, which exerts an influence on the subse- 
quent (loque)-tur os meum, corresponds to omnis caro while et benedicat 
corresponds to nomen sanctum ejus. 

The Alleluia- verse wishes above all to glorify the holy name of Jesus. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 85: 12, 5) 

1. Confitebor tibi, Domine Dens 1. / will praise thee, O Lord my 

meus, in toto cor de meo, 2. et glo- God, with my whole heart, 2. and I 

rificabo nomen tuum in aeternum: will glorify thy name forever: 3. for 

3. quoniam tu Domine, suavis et thou, O Lord, art sweet and mild: 4. 

mitis es: 4. et multae misericordiae and plenteous in mercy to all that 

omnibus invocantibus te, 5. alleluia, call upon thee, 5. alleluia. 

The greater part of this melody has been borrowed from the sec- 
ond Sunday after Epiphany. An easy explanation offers itself for this: 
formerly the feast of the Holy Name was celebrated on that Sunday. 
The energetic melody fits very well to the text of the new feast. 

Analysis shows that the first phrase is formed out of the first and 
second phrases and the close of the third phrase of the original compo- 
sition. Inserted there we find the second jubilate with its incomparably 
beautiful climax, which, unfortunately, is omitted here. The second 
phrase of today's Offertory, marking its summit, corresponds to the 
fourth of the original: venite et audite. . .A song of glorification here be- 
comes a resounding festal hymn. (Ae)-ternum repeats the melody of 
corde in the first phrase. The third and fourth phrases exhibit peculiari- 
ties. Just like the Introit, Gradual, and Alleluia, so the Offertory stresses 
a special and new quality of the divine Being. While the former empha- 



78 Feast of the Holy Name of Jesus 

sized God's sublimity and holiness, the latter places His goodness and 
mildness and fullness of His mercy in the fore. In this resounding song^ 
of praise a tender note insinuates itself — rapture at the Lord's sweetness. 
Mitis in a way is a repetition of sudvis. Alleluia, here treated as an 
independent phrase, usually brings Offertories of the first mode to a. 
close during Eastertide; but the original, peculiarly, here has the shorter 
form, generally used at the end of Communions. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 85: 9, 10) 

1. Omnes gentes quascumque 1. All the nations thou hast 

fecisti, venient, et adordbunt coram te, made shall come and adore before 

Domine, 2. et glorificahunt nomen thee, O Lord, 2. and they shall glo- 

tuum: 3. quoniam magnus es tu, et rify thy name: 3. for thou art great 

faciens mirdbilia: 4. tu es Deus and dost wonderful things: 4. Thou 

solus, alleluia. art God alone, alleluia. 

The melody has been drawn from the sixteenth Sunday after Pente- 
cost. There is, however, a difference in the phrasing of several passages; 
the close over Deus solus is more fluent than in the original, while mag- 
nus es tu seems to have been composed specially for this text. 

All the nations, says the psalm, shall come and adore. How many 
of them have come today? We at least shall glorify His name after He 
has entered into us again in Holy Communion. Let us say to Him: 
Thou alone art God, art my God! 

In content and feeling the Communion is related to the Introit. 
We are to glorify God's name because He is great. Thus two virtues are 
exemplified in the Mass chants: reverence for the most holy name of 
Jesus (God Himself chose it), and love and confidence. With what ten- 
der love did not the Mother of God speak this name; and millions of 
men have experienced that Jesus is their Saviour and Redeemer. 



VIGIL OF EPIPHANY 

The chants are the same as those for the Sunday within the octave 
of Christmas. 



The Epiphany of Our Lord Jesus Christ 79 

THE EPIPHANY OF OUR LORD 

JESUS CHRIST 

(January 6) 

The entire liturgy of today's Mass treats of the royal dignity of 
Him who has appeared and revealed Himself. Indeed, the feast of Christ- 
mas already stresses this dignity. But occasionally it also permits us a 
glimpse of the divine Child in the manger (Puer natus est nobis), and 
the magic of His charm entrances us. Today everything has the im- 
print of Christ's kingship and summons the entire world to pay hom- 
age to Him. 

INTROIT (Mai. 3: 1) 

1. Ecce advenit dominator Domi- 1. Behold the Lord the Ruler is 

nus: 2. et regnum in manu ejus, 3. come: 2. and kingdom is in his 
et potestas, et imperium. Ps. Deus, hand, 3. and power and dominion, 
judicium tuum Regi da: *et justi- Ps. Give to the King thy judgment, 
tiam tuam Filio Regis. O God:* and to the King's Son thy 

justice. 

Over this melody must be inscribed the words: majestic, sublime! 
Like a king's mantle it spreads itself over the text. Beginning with the 
grand notes of the Per omnia saecula, the introduction to the Preface, 
it emphasizes the word advenit increasingly, over dominator leaps an 
interval of a fourth, which supports itself on the dominant /, lets this 
dominant resound- — it is really the dominant here— and over Dominus 
rises above it. One seems to see the ruler making his formal entrance, 
letting-his diamonds sparkle. The second phrase again shows an ascend- 
ing fourth and the clear dominant, which it accentuates still more by 
means of the pressus over manu and ejus. The repetition of the same 
motive over these words fits well to the majestic bearing of the whole, 
and toward the end brings a modulation of exquisite construction on the 
full tone below the tonic. The third phrase gives plastic form to the word 
potestas (the descending fourth is to be well brought out) ; several times 
it extends above the dominant and closes with a passage corresponding 
to Dominus in the first phrase. 

We may well adduce, as a parallel to the triple division of the In- 
troit, the Christmas hymn: "Lo, how a rose e'er blooming" — no doubt 
one of the most beautiful. Here also the first and third phrases have 



80 The Epiphany of Our Lord Jesus Christ 

corresponding passages, and the middle phrase modulates in the lower 
fourth. 

We ought not to be astonished at the occurrence of the pressus on 
the unaccented syllables in the corresponding passages over (D6)-mi- 
(nus) and (impe)-ri-(um). Thus the dactylic words are rendered with 
greater ease and majesty, without jerks or friction; nevertheless they 
give prominence to the preceding accented syllable by means of the pre- 
dominating pes suhhipunctis. 

Wagner (III, 286) calls attention to the fact that thi? entire melody 
is composed of undulations, each of which attains its melodic summit 
on the accented syllable of the principal word: Ecce advenit — domindtor 
Dominus — et regnum in manu ejus — et potestas — et imperium. 

How the centuries watched for the arrival of this King and how 
ardent were their longings! How often have not the prayers and chants 
of Advent cried: Veni Dominel What a height did not these yearnings 
attain in the great 0-antiphons immediately preceding the feast of 
Christmas! Even on the Saturday of Ember Week, in Advent this cry 
was wrung from the heart of the Church: "Come, Lord, and show 
Thy face to us. Thou that sittest upon the Cherubim: and we shall be 
saved"; this Veni acts as a prelude to out Ecce. Now the sighs have been 
heard and the longing has been stilled. Now we hear re-echo through- 
out the land: "Behold the Lord the Ruler is come." But He does not 
come empty-handed. He bears kingdoms in His hands: the kingdom of 
truth and of grace and the guarantee for the kingdom of glory. He gives 
us a share in His power (potestas). He gives us the power (potestdtem) to 
become children of God and therefore co-heirs of His kingdom. 

If today kings, princes in the realm of knowledge and research, find 
no rest until they come to Him, until they prostrate themselves before 
Him, humble their intelligence and will under His scepter, and with an 
earnest faith adore Him, the Child, then we see how this Babe reveals 
Himself as a royal Ruler, how He captures the hearts of men and fills 
them with happiness. 

The psalm-verse emphasizes the judicial power of this King in the 
form of a wish. Still more does Psalm 71^ — the royal psalm — show how 
Christ is the advocate of the poor, how He bestows peace and bread 
and rich blessings on them, how He reigns over all nations and all times, 
how all the peoples approach to pay Him homage. 

As early as the eleventh century the melody of this Introit has been 
adapted to the popular Introit Salve sancta Parens^ sung on the feasts 



1 Kirchenmusik, 11, 33 ff.; Revue, 17, 75, 35, 13 ff.; N. Sch., 2S1 ; Benediktinische Monat- 
schrift, 3, 20 ff. 



The Epiphany of Our Lord Jesus Christ 81 

of the Blessed Virgin. Thus we greet with the same song both the royal 
Child and the queen Mother. In this latter melody we possibly prefer 
to sing the melodic forms over the accented syllables Re-(gem) and 
(saecu)-ld-(rum), which occur in today's Introit, over the unaccented 
syllables (D6)-mi-(nus) and (impe)-ri-(um). Less happy was the placing 
of the pes with its fourth, which in today's Introit gives prominence to 
the word potestas and its word-accent, on the unaccented syllable of 
(sae)-cu-(la). 

During the entire octave the same chants are sung; in fact, the en- 
tire Proper is the same. But on the octave day itself we hear these words 
of St. John the Baptist in the Gospel: Ecce Agnus Dei — "Behold the 
Lamb of God, behold Him who taketh away the sins of the world." 
Then the Ecce of the present Introit is vested with a new harmony of 
marvelous tenderness. The Ruler comes, not to place burdens upon our 
shoulders, but to relieve us of them and to place them upon His own 
shoulders, as the Apostle says: "Who His own Self bore our sins in His 
body upon the tree." 

GRADUAL (Isa. 60:6, 1) 

1. Omnes de Saha venient, 2. au- 1. All they from Saba shall come, 

rum at thus deferentes, et laudem 2. bringing gold and frankincense 
Domino annuntiantes. jl. 1. Surge, and showing forth praise to the Lord, 
et illuminare Jerusalem: 2. quia '^. 1. Arise and be enlightened, O 
gloria Domini super te orta est. Jerusalem: 2. for the glory of the 

Lord is risen upon thee. 

Rarely is the connection between the Epistle and Gospel and the 
intervening chants so close as on the present feast. The Epistle closes 
with the words Omnes de Saba venient . . ., with which today's Gradual 
opens. The words which compose the Gradual- verse, Surge. . ., occurred 
at the beginning of the Lesson. Gifts and light, the two leading thoughts, 
are melodically spun out. For the Gradual has the same function as the 
chorus in the ancient tragedies. The thoughts ought not to be heedlessly 
spoken; they should linger in our minds, penetrate into the heart, rouse 
it, and incite it to imitation. 

Over (annuntiän)-tes we find repeated the initial motive of Omnes, 
which recurs in an extended form over Saba. The inception on the upper 
fourth over aurum emphasizes the costliness of the gift. Over thus de- 
ferentes we hear a resolved major chord, which occurs three times more 
in this corpus, and enhances the harmony of the song the more, in that 
it is regularly woven into the melodic woof with extreme dexterity. 



82 The Epiphany of Our Lord Jesus Christ 

The verse Surge immediately sets in on the upper fifth. It resounds 
the more energetically, since at that time Jerusalem did not compre- 
hend the call and did not heed the admonition. Its people stayed at home 
and let the Magi go to Bethlehem alone, where the latter discovered the 
Light of life, the source of their happiness. 

In the corpus we sang c a f; more forcibly in the verse d a f, which 
recurs again at the end of the florid melisma of Surge. Domini closes in 
a similar manner (f d c and d c a). Illuminare ("be enlightened") marks 
the summit of the entire song, not only for the eye, but much more so 
for the ear. The melody portrays a development and growth like the 
day, from the first gray streaks of dawn to its noonday splendor. And 
how regular is this gradation! In the upper third the quietly ascending 
motive a f g a eis repeated as c a c d /^. This high /^ marks the crowning 
point. To this large arsis Jerusalem comes as a lingering thesis; gloria 
Domini takes up the musical arsis again and thus points out why Jeru- 
salem can become all light, all bliss. The ascending fourth over orta est 
shines forth in glittering splendor. But with the final neums of est comes 
a pleasant sensation of warm and beneficent light, which streams into 
the soul and envelopes it. 

We hear this same melody on the feast of Christ the King. (Gre- 
goriusbote, 42, 148 ff.). 

"All they from Saba shall come." To these omnes we also, who 
with the Magi have been called to the true faith, belong. We were en- 
lightened in holy Baptism, have entirely become light; at that time the 
glory of the Lord appeared above us while countless others still groveled 
in the darkness of infidelity. Hence we also bring our gifts — a will of 
gold and the incense of adoration. Let us likewise offer to the Lord our 
songs of praise and fervent thanksgiving. 

Would that all might become light, that the glory of the Lord might 
shine over all, and that all might come to Him with gifts and songs! 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Matt. 2: 2) 

1. Vidimus stellam ejus 2. in 1. We have seen his star 2. in the 

Oriente, 3. et venimus cum muner- East, 3. and are come with gifts (4) 
bus (4) adorare Dominum. to adore the Lord. 

If the Gradual was a complement and continuation of the Epistle, 
then the Alleluia-verse acts as a prelude to the Gospel from which it is 
excerpted. Even though Herod, and all Jerusalem with him, was per- 
turbed at these words of the Magi, only the latter had the courage to 
speak them and determination enough to execute them, and to rest only 
when they had actually placed their gifts at the feet of the true King. 



The Epiphany of Our Lord Jesus Christ 83 

The melody was explained in the third Mass of Christmas. 
Following the division there given, it will suffice to add these few 
indications: 

1. Vidimus = S. et venimus 

1. stellam ejus = S. cum munerihus 

2. in Oriente (4.) adordre Dominum. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 71: 10, 11) 

1. Reges Thar sis et insulae mun- 1. The kings of Thar sis and the 

era afferent: 2. reges Arahum et isles shall offer gifts: 2. the kings of 
Saha dona adducent: 3. et adora- the Arabians and of Saba shall 
hunt eum omnes reges terrae, 4. bring presents: a. and all the kings 
omnes gentes servient ei. of the earth shall adore him, 4. all 

nations shall serve him. 

In our mind's eye we see an almost interminable procession of those 
bringing their presents. The Magi from the East have found and still 
find numerous emulators. These are souls who do not fall short of the 
"kings" in readiness and joy of sacrifice, in their royal disposition; souls 
who offer everything they have and are as a sacrifice to Christ, who are 
a living holocaust, who constitute a perpetual act of adoration. Their 
sacrifice unites itself with the Eucharistie Sacrifice like the drop of water 
which the priest mixes with the wine in the chalice at the Offertory. 
Then comes the Consecration. In Holy Communion Christ Himself be- 
comes their sacrificial food, their wedding banquet. For in these gifts, 
as the Secret prays, "are offered now no longer gold, frankincense, and 
myrrh, but He whom those mystic offerings signified is immolated and 
received; Jesus Christ. . ." 

This Offertory has two parts consisting of two phrases each, which 
represent a grammatical parallelism. The first part speaks of the sac- 
rificial.action which kings of particular countries perform, the second of 
that of all kings and of all nations. The first refers rather to the external 
act, while the second refers to its spirit, the act of adoration. 

In the first part both phrases have the same range (f-e) and a simi- 
lar ending. Offerent develops itself over adducent. In the second part, 
also, the two phrases have the same range (f-d) and a similar ending: 
the one time on g, preceded by h, the other time on /, preceded by &[? 
Munera Offerent shows a similar relationship. The tense c hb a b h a finds 

a pleasant resolution in the subsequent a gg f g g f. It must be said 

that this passage, setting in on the low fifth, with its ascending fourth 
and the delicate arrangement which follows, is one of the most beau- 
tiful of plain songs. It compels the attention of the hearer. The kings 



84 The Epiphany of Our Lord Jesus Christ 

come not to show their power, not to conquer countries and to subject 
peoples, but to submit to the yoke of Christ, to adore Him, and to serve 
Him. The piece opens with a fanfare; the two tristrophas connected by 
a virga were already met with (cf . the Offertory for the feast of the Holy 
Innocents); then astonishment seizes the singer. In the second phrase 
the swelling of the melody is to be noted: gab, gac, fgacd, acde, 
and then the expanding cadence with its solemn seconds. The second 
group over Saha is an extension of the first. 

The first part demands a lively tempo; the second will be consider- 
ably subdued. The singer is thoroughly imbued with the spirit of rever- 
ence and adoration. Into this spirit the three descending fourths (only 
occurring here) fit admirably. In the fourth phrase, over omnes and 
gentes respectively, a torculus and a light bistropha are to be sung, yet 
so that an onward urge runs through the piece to 6b, where a relaxation 
of the tension sets in. 

It is striking that this Offertory, as do most of those in the fifth 
mode, with the exception of that of the fifteenth Sunday after Pente- 
cost, does not extend to high /. 

The melody is very suitably employed in the votive Mass for the 
Propagation of the Faith. In the second part of this extended Offertory 
occur motives from the Offertory of the Sunday within the octave of 
Epiphany. 

COMMUNION (Matt. 2:2) 

1. Vidimus stellam ejus in Ori- 1. We have seen his star in the 

ente, 2. et venimus cum munerihus East, 2. and are come with gifts to 
adorare Dominum. adore the Lord. 

The first phrase moves joyously. The second breathes the spirit of 
adoration. Only with venimus do we perceive an echo of the joy of the 
first phrase. For the closing formula of the first phrase the cadence of 
the psalm tone of the fourth mode, h g e, served as a model. The tritone 
over Oriente-not so \'ery disturbing since a twofold h has preceded it- 
heightens the peculiar, one might almost say the Oriental, effect of this 
passage. In three words the unaccented "i" of the second last syllable 
regularly receives melodic prominence. The fact that the common people 
accented the Latin language differently from the learned class may be 
the cause of this; without a doubt plain song was influenced consider- 
ably by this so-called "vulgar" Latin.^ 



1 Caecilienvereinsorgan, 49, 124 ff.; N. Sch. 237. 



Feast of the Holy Family 85 

FEAST OF THE HOLY FAMILY 

(The Sunday within the Octave of Epiphany) 

INTROIT (Prov. 23: 24, 25) 

1. Exsultet gaudio pater justi, 1. Let the father of the Just One 

gaudeat pater tuus et mater tua, 2. exult with joy, let thy father and 

et exsultet quae genuit te. Ps. Quam thy mother rejoice, 2. and let her 

dilecta tdbernacula tua, Domine that bore thee he glad. Ps. How lovely 

virtuteml* concupiscit et deficit ani- are thy tabernacles, O Lord of 

ma mea in atria Domini. hostsl* my soul longeth and faint- 

eth for the courts of the Lord. 

Here we address the divine Child. We rejoice in the good fortune 
which St. Joseph and the Mother of God ha\e been chosen to share, 
namely, that they can call Him their own, their Child, for whose com- 
ing the centuries longed and prayed. It was a purely interior joy, yet so 
mighty that before it all the world paled into nothingness. Hence this 
jubilant melody. 

This piece is composed of various parts of other Introits. The mel- 
ody over the first two words we shall hear again in the second phrase 
of the Introit for the Wednesday in Easter Week over the words quod 
vobis pa-(rdtum), and at the beginning of the Introit on the Friday after 
Ash Wednesday. Gaudeat Pater tuus sounds like the passage over the 
words de Idqueo pedes on the third Sunday in Lent. Et mater tua, which 
limps somewhat, is the same as patris tui on the Wednesday in Easter 
Week. The entire second phrase resembles the third for the thirteenth 
Sunday after Pentecost. This text, so full of movement and energy, has 
received a fitting melody. 

The small house in Nazareth for many years sheltered (tdbernacula) 
the Lord of hosts; there the angels familiarly came and went. The taber- 
nacle, further, is the house of God, in which He dwells with all His 
strengthening graces. Toward it we ought to turn with yearning, that 
we may also be about His Father's business, as is related in today's 
Gospel. Every Christian family, every human heart ought likewise to 
be a tabernacle of God. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 26:4) 

1. JJnam petii a Domino, hanc 1. One thing have I asked of the 

requiram: 2. ut inhabitem in domo Lord, this will I seek after: 2. that 
Domini omnibus diebus vitae meae. I may dwell in the house of the Lord 



86 Feast of the Holy Family 

jH. 1. Beati qui habitant in domo all the days of my life. ^. 1. Blessed 
tua, Domine: 2. in saecula saecu- are they that dwell in thy house, O 
lorum laudahunt te. Lord: 2. they shall praise thee for 

ever and ever. 

This Gradual borrows its first phrase and half of the second, text 
and melody, from the Friday after Ash Wednesday. The last four words 
are not given there, but we do find the closing cadence of the corpus. 
The melody of the verse, beginning with the third last neum over vi- 
deam, is likewise taken from the same Friday. In both phrases, however, 
the original avoids the somewhat protracted recitation on c. The second 
last syllable extends to high d. But this seems to be the rule when a 
Gradual of the present type closes with a dactylic rhythm (cf. orta est 
in the Gradual for Epiphany). 

In truth, Nazareth was the home of the Lord. What was the Temple 
with all its splendor and glory, what its feasts, compared to the liturgy 
celebrated in the holy house and the divine praise which ascended thence 
to heaven? May the Holy Family obtain for us the privilege of living in 
the house of the Lord all the days of our life, that we may be allowed to 
join our voices in the unending praise of the Trinity. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Isa. 45, 15) 

1. Vere tu es Rex absconditus, 2. l.Verilythouarta Hidden King, 

Deus Israel Salvator. 2. the God of Israel, the Saviour. 

The following Gospel relates how the Saviour remained for three 
days in the Temple, conversing with the doctors and "asking them 
questions," pursuing His "Father's business." Then He went down to 
Nazareth, concealing His divine dignity and power, and was subject to 
Mary and Joseph. Thus was His life spent in secret, in absolute quiet. 
As long as He sojourned at Nazareth, the wide world knew nothing of 
Him, not even Palestine, not even Jerusalem. When later He chose His 
disciples, they knew nothing or very little of Him. And yet He was 
King, God, and Redeemer. Even in His quiet and secluded retreat He 
was at the work of redemption. 

This melody is a jewel of plain song. Alleluia supplies the melodic 
material for the first words of the verse. It unites rest and movement. 
The first member of the jubilus gains in strength from its energetic 
fourths; it has an echo in (ab)-sc6nditus. In its first half the second mem- 
ber of the jubilus supports itself on Alleluia, in its second half on the 
first member of the jubilus. 



Feast of the Holy Family 87 

OFFERTORY (Luke 2: 22) 

1. Tulerunt Jesum parentes ejus 1. The parents of Jesus carried 

in Jerusalem, 2. ut sister ent eum Him to Jerusalem, 2. to present 
Domino. him to the Lord. 

One feels almost sorry that the wonderfully profound Laetentur 
caeli of the Midnight Mass of Christmas had to sacrifice its music to 
this purely historical text. But let us inquire more deeply. There is more 
here than the narration of a simple historical event. The fact that this 
very melody has been chosen suggests another thought. What joy was 
felt in heaven over the sacrifice which the Holy Family offered in this 
presentation of Jesus! It is just this that transfigures the melody: that 
Jesus, Mary, and Joseph offered this sacrifice to the heavenly Father in 
complete and joyous resignation to His will. Their sacrificial spirit ought 
to show us the sentiments with which we should be animated when we 
attend the Eucharistie Sacrifice, 

As far as the word-accents are concerned, the adaptation of the 
melody is excellent. The perfection of the original with its development 
over ante faciem Domini is not attained, it must be freely admitted. 
Jerusalem predominates over the more significant sisterent. 

COMMUNION (Luke 2: 51) 

1. Descendit Jesus cum eis, et 1. Jesus went down with them, 

venit Nazareth, 2. et erat suhditus and came to Nazareth, 2. and was 
Ulis. subject to them. 

Some may wish to see a kind of tone-painting in the descending 
line over descendit, and perhaps find the low pitch of suhditus extremely 
suitable for this word. As a matter of fact, however, another of the 
Christmas melodies has been borrowed here. The brilliant Viderunt of 
the third Mass for Christmas served as a model. The adaptation is not 
so good. Because the text was too long in some respects and too short 
in others, some parts of the melody had to be stretched, others cur- 
tailed. Thus (Ndza)-reth is not an entirely happy copy of eis. Then, 
while in the original the melody over salutdre has an exultant ring, it 
here stands over the insignificant erat. Again, the melody fitted to the 
spondees of the original (terrae, Dei) is here distributed over the dactyls 
Nazareth and suhditus, with evident harm to its fluency. 

This text, so full of meaning, demands a fitting rendition. If we 
would desert our imagined greatness, if we would go to Nazareth and 
become truly spiritual, then obedience to God and to rightly constituted 
authority would not appear so difficult, then that peace which enveloped 



88 Second Sunday after Epiphany 

and filled the house of Nazareth would come also into our hearts, into 
our families, and would permeate whole nations. 



SECOND SUNDAY AFTER EPIPHANY 

INTROIT (Ps. 65:4) 

1. Omnes terra adoret te, Deus, et 1. Let all the earth adore thee, 

psallat tibi: 2. psalmum dicat no- and sing to thee: 2. let it sing a 
mini tuo, Altissime. Ps. Jubilate psalm to thy name, O Most High. 
Deo omnis terra, psalmum dicite Ps. Shout with joy to God, all the 
nomini ejus: date gloriam laudi earth, * sing ye a psalm to his 

name: give glory to Ms praise. 



Gone are the shepherds who knelt before the manger, departed the 
Magi who had there adored and offered their gifts. But the spirit of 
adoration which animated all of them has remained. It continues to 
thrive in the Church. This supplies the theme for the Introits of the 
first, second, and third Sundays after Epiphany. Our adoration must 
be like mighty granite blocks, over which immense vaults raise them- 
selves, resounding with the joyous songs of praise. We are not only to 
prostrate ourselves trembling before the divine majesty; each of these 
Introits incites us to sing and to rejoice, for we find these words promi- 
nent: adoret and psallat. 

Melodically, also, these thoughts are entwined into one. Each be- 
gins with a similar motive. Psalmum dicat nomini corresponds to omnis 
terra adoret, with its ascent to c and the descending fourth. The second 
phrase is more serene. Te Deus finds an echo in psallat tibi and even in 
tuo. The second last (unaccented) syllable of (Altis)-sime carries groups 
of neums, in order that a quieter descent may be possible. We find these 
groups always on the second last syllable. 

Every nation ought to adore God, to sing to His name, and all the 
earth should glorify Him. We know how little this admonition is heeded. 
This ought to awake in us the resolution to sing this song with so much 
more reverence and joy. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 106: 20, 21) 

1. Misit Dominus verbum suum, 1. The Lord sent his word, 2. and 

2. et sanavit eos: 3. et eripuit eos de healed them: 3. and delivered them 
interitu eorum. ^. 1. Confiteantur out of their distress. ^. 1. Let to the 



Second Sunday after Epiphany 89 

Domino 2. misericordiae ejus: 3. Lord give glory 2. his mercies: 3. 
et mirahilia ejus filiis hominum. and his wonderful works to the 

children of men. 

The corpus of the Gradual has the same melody in its first phrase 
as on the first Sunday after Epiphany; the same holds true for the be- 
ginning of the verse. In the second phrase we find the pleasant melisma 
known to us from the word illuminare of Epiphany. The melody of the 
third phrase repeats itself in the first half of the verse over mirahilia 
ejus. We are struck by the unusual ending of the corpus. 

It is difficult to explain the frequent repetition of the third-intervals 
at the beginning of the verse. We met with this construction for the first 
time on the second Sunday of Advent, but at that time it was enlivened 
by a variety of neums. The clivis alone produces a slight variation in 
the melody concealed in the third ca, the fourth eg, and the ascending 
fifth /c. Wagner (Stimmen der Zeit, 58, 136j thinks that it wishes to visu- 
alize the expansion of the singer's heart, since the liturgical chant recalls 
to him his own vocation (confiteri). For the early designation of the can- 
tor was confessor (cf. the Collects for Good Friday). An admirable effect 
is afterwards produced by the development over misericordiae. The 
pressus, it is true, constitute the supports of the melody; still one should 
give close attention also to the notes which precede in every instance. 
Over ejus occurs a partial motive of eos in the first part of the Gradual ; 
(mirahi)-lia resembles eripuit eos. The closing melisma is the same as 
that in the second Christmas Mass. 

Ecce advenit — "Behold, He is come," constitutes the answer to our 
Advent petition of Veni Domine — "Come, Lord." Similarly the present 
misit is a fulfillment of our cry: Mitte Domine, quem missurus es — "Send 
Him, Lord, whom Thou art about to send." The Lord has sent His 
Word, His eternal Word, and the Word was made flesh and dwelt among 
us; this Word is Jesus, the Saviour; He heals our wounds and saves us 
from destruction. 

How can we thank Him fittingly for this favor? Be comforted: He 
who has come to us as the mercy of God will Himself direct our song. 
In today's Sacrifice he again sings to the Father a perfect song of thanks- 
giving for all the wonderful things He has done to men; He hymns 
God's wisdom and goodness and power and fidelity, for all these combine 
in God's mercy. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 148: 2) 

1. Laudate Deum omnes Angeli 1. Praise ye the Lord, all his 

ejus: 2. laudate eum omnes vir- angels: 2. praise ye him, all his 
iutes ejus. hosts. 



90 Second Sunday after Epiphany 

The Introit had incited the entire world to adoration and to the 
praise of God; in the Gradual the eternal Word of God Himself fulfills 
this service of thanksgiving; in the Alleluia all the choirs of angels join 
this hymn. Here truly all sing along in the most profound adoration and 
blissful rapture, and the united hosts never weary of crying: Who is 
like God? Alleluia! 

This melody presents a typical form of the fourth mode; we heard 
it for the first time on the third Sunday of Advent (q.v.). It does not, 
however, like all other pieces of this type, ascend to 6b on the third 
syllable of the teat. Virtutes repeats the preceding formula of ejus. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 65: 1, 2, 16) 

1. Jubilate Deo universa terra: 1. Shout with joy to God, all the 

2. jubilate Deo universa terra: 3. earth: 2. shout with joy to God, all 

psalmum dicite nomini ejus; 4. the earth: 3. sing ye a psalm to his 

venite, et audite, et narrabo vobis, name: 4. come and hear, all ye that 

omnes qui timetis Deum, 5. quanta fear God, and I will tell you 5. what 

fecit Dominus animae meae, alle- great things he hath done for my 

luia. soul, alleluia. 

This song of thanksgiving is the most animated, if not of plain song 
as a whole, then surely of all the Offertories. The pleasant repetition of 
the text: Jubilate. . . is paralleled in very few Offertories. Such repeti- 
tions are practically unknown in plain song. The first two phrases pre- 
dominate not only by reason of their length, but above all through the 
joy that wells up from within: The entire earth is to shout with joy. An 
effect of tone-painting is produced by the great intervals over universa. 
But the singer is more concerned with jubilate. His heart is filled to the 
point of bursting; he wishes to have his jubilation resound throughout 
the entire world. He wishes to carry away all things with him and bring 
them to the throne of God on wings of song. Rapidly the melody falls 
into the depths; then expanding, ever expanding, it rushes upward. The 
pressus forms — given in the manuscript as trigons — not only divide the 
movement, but also supply it with new power and energy. However, 
they should not be emphasized too strongly, lest the delicate melodic 
line suffer from it. The melody shows a marvelous development and 
gradation till the outburst with f^, a twelfth above the lowest note of 
the piece. We are struck still more by the force of the passage if we 
compare it with a similar passage, for example that over corde in the 
Gradual Os justi from the Mass for a Doctor of the Church. A vigorous 
tone-sequence relaxes the tension. The only other extended figure we 



Second Sunday after Epiphany 91 

meet with is that over the second terra. In place of the &b in the first 
phrase, the second shows an energetic b. 

After this unusual development comes comparative rest and re- 
laxation in the third phrase. God's name is pronounced reverently. Its 
close with the impetuous pressus already prepares for the following 
phrase and has some relation to the third member in the second Ju- 
hildte-phrase. 

The fourth phrase is an impulsive exhortation to all who fear God. 
Its three short expressions: "come, hear, I will tell you," not only tend 
to awaken and attract the attention by the delicate interplay of motives, 
but they also serve to give us an inkling of powerful movements of the 
singer's heart. The motive over omnes has been borrowed from the 
third phrase and is introduced like it. Then it gradually dies away, ex- 
pressing the contents of the message to expectant hearts in its descent 
to d. 

In the fifth phrase the singer devoutly ponders all the marvels that 
God has wrought in him. This inner agitation is still felt toward the end 
over dnimae. The closing alleluia really is shorter than that generally 
found in Offertories, but even the oldest manuscripts have the present 
form. 

This Offertory is also sung on the fourth Sunday after Easter. In- 
deed, it may have been originally composed for that Sunday. It cer- 
tainly is striking that not a single Offertory from Advent to Easter, not 
even those of the great feasts of Christmas and Epiphany, closes with 
an alleluia except this Offertory Jubildte. What is more, the Sundays 
after Epiphany received their Mass formularies later than did those 
after Easter. 

Who sings this song? Holy Mother Church. Of her we sang on 
Epiphany: on that day the Church was wedded to her divine Spouse. 
This Sunday's Gospel also speaks of a marriage. In the Incarnation 
Christ assumed a human nature. This the Church knows full well. But 
she is also conscious of Christ's deed (quanta) and sufferings, by reason 
of which she stands before us pure and immaculate. She knows that in 
the Eucharist Christ has presented her with a gift than which no more 
sublime can be found in heaven or on earth, and that in this most ex- 
alted Mystery (tantis mysteriis), as the Postcommunion so frequently 
says, He forever remains the source of her life and strength. She sees 
all the saints with whom Christ has embellished her, all the graces ever 
bestowed upon man; she looks upon that marvelous bridal array with 
which He has adorned her. At this she cannot help singing and shout- 
ing for joy and happiness. 



92 Second Sunday after Epiphany 

(Joseph Haas has taken the melody of this Offertory as the theme 
for a violin sonata with organ accompaniment.) 

COMMUNION (John 2: 7, 11) 

1. Dicit Dominus: Implete hy- 1. The Lord saith: Fill the water- 

drias aqua et ferte architriclino. 2. pots with ivater, and carry to the 

Cum gustasset architriclinus aquam chief steward. 2. When the chief 

vinum factum, dicit sponso: 3. Ser- steward had tasted the water made 

vasti vinum bonum usque adhuc. 4. wine, he said to the bridegroom: 3. 

Hoc Signum fecit Jesus primum Thou hast kept the good wine until 

coram discipulis suis. now. 4. This beginning of miracles 

did Jesus before his disciples. 

With dramatic brevity the Communion summarizes the Gospel 
story. Its melody also is a model of realism. Consider first of all the con- 
trast between the first dicit, introducing the Saviour's words, and the 
second dicit, introducing those of the chief steward. Already from the 
intonation we can gather that we have here to do with something un- 
usual. In the tone of extreme astonishment, the singer cries out: "Who 
can do such a thing?" With the threefold repetition of the same high 
torculus one seems to see the man shaking his head as if unable to com- 
prehend. Naturally, this passage demands a lively rendition. Then 
there ought to be a considerable pause, after which the second phrase, 
relating in reverent astonishment the first miracle, is to follow in a 
solemn manner. It differs from the other phrases by reason of its almost 
syllabic character. The two parts that compose it are almost alike 
melodically. In the second part, however, the tritone, no doubt inten- 
tionally, comes into prominence, for here b is stressed, while in the first 
part it belongs rhythmically to the preceding accented c; besides, the 
effect of the tritone is almost cancelled by the twofold g. 

In the first phrase there is nothing striking about the textual treat- 
ment of Dominus. It seems that the principle of counting the syllables 
was applied here, just as it appears in simple psalmody and at the in- 
tonation before some cadences, as well as in the solemn Introit-psalmody 
before the closing cadence of most of the modes. But here we have to do 
with only three syllables. With this passage compare in the Introit for 
the Sunday within the octave of Christmas: silentium and Domine; in 
the Introit for the third Sunday of Advent: hominibus and solliciti sitis; 
furthermore, in the Introit for Epiphany, although the intervals here 
are different: Dominus and imperium. The low inception of implete 
necessitates the bending over of the last neum. Thus it becomes appar- 
ent that plain song can also create vivid contrasts. The expression be- 



Second Sunday after Epiphany 93 

ginning with implete recites on the tonic, but thrice reaches down ener- 
getically to the lower third; while that beginning with et ferte supports 
itself on the dominant a. Over the close of the second architriclinus we 
find the same figure repeated as occurs over the first. 

Thus in this first public miracle Christ revealed Himself as the Lord 
and King of creation. An act of the will, a word from His lips, and Na- 
ture obeys — the water changes into wine. Today we also have been wit- 
nesses of a miracle of change; but of one much more sublime then is here 
related. This was only a type of and preparation for the Eucharistie 
transubstantiation. With the former the Saviour began His public 
Messianic activity. The consecration at the Last Supper is the final 
stupendous miracle He wrought before His death, but it will continue 
to the end of days. We have now been privileged to partake of that most 
excellent wine, the very blood of Jesus Christ, and thus have received a 
share in the supreme Godhead, as the secret of the fourth Sunday after 
Easter beautifully puts it. Today He has prepared a marriage banquet 
for us. Until now, the last, the Messianic era, the Lord has reserved this 
good rich wine. But its inebriating powers only reveal themselves in us 
in the measure with which we correspond to our duties (implete hydrias) 
and give ourselves over wholly to Christ. This "good wine" is to prepare 
us for the change of the earthly man into the spiritual, for the eternal, 
blissful nuptials with the heavenly bridegroom, Christ. 
* * * * 

THIRD SUNDAY AFTER EPIPHANY 

INTROIT (Ps. 96: 7, 8) 

1. Adorate Deum omnes Angeli 1. Adore God, all ye his angels: 

ejus: 2. audivit, et laetata est Sion: 2. Sion heard, and was glad: 3. the 

3. et exsultaverunt filiae Judae. Ps. daughters of Juda rejoiced. Ps. The 

Dominus regnavit, exsultet terra: Lord hath reigned, let the earth re- 

Haetentur insulae multae. joice: *let many islands he glad. 

Generally the individual phrases of a plainsong chant either exhibit 
a regular gradation or they are so arranged that the central one marks 
the summit of the melody. In the present instance, however, the first 
phrase with its fourths and high pitch — perhaps induced by the thought 
of the angels in the celestial regions—predominates. In any case, the 
composer was concerned, above all, to call our attention to the adoring 
angels at the beginning of the holy Sacrifice. Here they are not so much 
a model for our own worship of God, as they are the source of our pur- 
est joy. For here the Father has adorers according to His own mind, 



94 Second Sunday after Epiphany 

who with their intelligence immerse themselves in God's splendor and 
tremble before His immensity; adorers, who, with their whole will 
acknowledge their utter dependence upon God. One of their number 
wished to contest this, to destroy the harmony. But he was cast into 
hell. Now there is perfect accord, and all the angels offer their homage 
to God. The Church fSion) hears it and shouts for joy. 

Here again we find expressed the two thoughts adordte and laetdta 
est Sion. Each of the following Sundays after Epiphany repeats the same 
chants, text and melody. 

Audivit shows some similarity to Judae: the former has its pressus 
on a, the latter on c. With laetdta est Sion two-note groups are to be sung. 
In the third phrase et is to be treated as an anacrusis, while the follow- 
ing syllable should receive a light secondary accent. After the solemn 
first phrase, an energetic rendition should mark the remaining two. The 
text must still be viewed in the light of Epiphany. Christ still stands be- 
fore us as the **Lord," as the "King." Angels surround and adore Him. 
In a verse which was formerly sung in connection with this Introit He is 
addressed thus: "Thou are the most high Lord over all the earth: Thou 
art exalted exceedingly above all gods." The Church rejoices at His 
revelation, at the love with which He calls also the heathens into His 
kingdom (today's Gospel), and at the gifts He dispenses. In the primi- 
tive Church the healing of the leper in this Sunday's Gospel signified a 
type of Baptism; the participation in the heavenly table refers to the 
Holy Eucharist ( K.L.). 

GRADUAL (Ps. 101: 16, 17) 

1. Timebunt gentes nomen tuum, 1. The gentiles shall fear thy 

Domine, 2. et omnes reges terra name, O Lord, 2. and all the kings 

gloriam tuam. ^.1. Quoniam aedi- of the earth, thy glory. ^. 1. For the 

ficavit Dominus Sion, 2. et videhi- Lord hath huilt up Sion, 2. and he 

tur in majestate sua. shall be seen in his majesty. 

In the Gospel which follows upon this chant, the pagan centurion 
of Capharnaum, filled with reverence at the appearance of the Messias, 
speaks these words: "Lord, I am not worthy that Thou shouldst enter 
under my roof." And Jesus marvels at the greatness of this man's faith, 
which makes the pagan appear like a king over against the Israelites, 
the "children of the kingdom," as the Gospel calls them. In the marvel- 
ous cure of his servant the centurion is privileged to see the glory of the 
Lord as a reward for his faith. 



Second Sunday after Epiphany 95 

The entire picture of the feast of Epiphany again rises before our 
eyes. We behold the heathen and even the kings of the earth streaming 
to Jerusalem to pay reverent homage to their divine King (K.L.). He 
builds Sion, His Church, within which all will find place, from the rising 
of the sun to its setting. And all will be allowed to see and partake of 
His glory and sit to table with Christ at the Eucharistie marriage ban- 
quet. The corpus of the Gradual, especially in its lower ranges, proceeds 
from the heart of the humble centurion. Its first phrase corresponds al- 
most exactly to that of Maundy Thursday. Over gentes the annotated 
manuscripts give almost all the notes a broad form. For the calling of 
the gentile world to the way of salvation is the greatest event since the 
Epiphany. Thus the neglect of the lower notes likewise is avoided. Sev- 
eral modes have in common the caesura over terrae. We find it again in 
the verse over (videbi)-tur, as well as in the first part of the Gradual 
over tu-(am). Gloriam, despite its low melodic line, is made effective in 
the midst of florid neums by its simplicity. Above tu-(am) it will most 
likely be necessary to breathe after the fourth eg. This also makes it 
easier to sing the following eight notes sustainedly. 

At the beginning and at the end the verse recites on /. Over Do- 
minus let the singer accentuate the pressus after the clivis and bistropha^ 
yet so that the following deeper notes a g f are well heard. Compare it 
with Domino in the verse for the second Sunday after Epiphany. Over 
Sion the brilliant ascent ought to gain still more in warmth in repetition. 
Dominus and Sion have a similar cadence structure. It has been found 
that the melisma over in mojestdte sua forms the close of thirty Gradu- 
als. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 96: 1) 

1. Dominus regnavit, exsultet 1. The Lord hath reigned, lei the 

terra: 2. Laetentur insulae multae. earth rejoice: 2. Let many islands 

he 



Already in the psalm- verse of the Introit we have heard these words. 
In this manner the kingdom of the Lord is repeatedly stressed. And 
King He is, according to St. Augustine (Tract. 51 in Joannem), not to 
impose burdens upon us, not to collect taxes, not to levy troops, fit 
them out and let them die in a battle, but to bring peace upon the earth 
and thus make all peoples happy. Even the most distant are to receive 
these blessings; rightly, therefore, may they be glad. Here also we hear 
another thought of Epiphany: the spread of Christianity. 

This melody was explained on the first Sunday of Advent. 



96 Second Sunday after Epiphany 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 117: 16, 17) 

For the text with its explanation, see Maundy Thursday. 

In the most ancient manuscript the melody is already set to the 
text In omnen terram for the feast of the Apostle Paul (June 30). In our 
Graduale this Offertory is given for the feast of the Apostle Thomas 
(December 21). It is difficult to discover which is the original composi- 
tion. 

A few minor melodic variants appear as a result of the different 
accentuation in the two pieces. Today's chant has more dactylic forms: 
Domini, exaltdvit me, opera. 

Both texts have great things to tell. In the one the Gospel is carried 
to the very ends of the earth. Drawn on grand lines, the Catholic Church, 
embracing all men, stands before us. Here the right hand of the Lord, 
mighty and wonderful, maintains government. The Lord, as the Gospel 
we have just heard relates, stretched His hand over the leper, touched 
him, and said: "I will; be thou made clean," and straightway he was 
cleansed of his disease. Innumerable times has the right hand of the 
Lord healed the leprosy of sin, and still He continues to heal it; He lifts 
us up into the kingdom of grace and of light, awakens us to life, to the 
true life, so that the soul is forced to shout with joy at the workings of 
God's right hand and to proclaim the works of the Lord. 

COMMUNION (Luke 4: 22) 

Mirabantur omnes de his quae They all wondered at these things, 

procedehant de ore Dei. which proceeded from the mouth of 

God. 

The real dominant of this piece is that of the eighth mode (c). Only 
with de does the melody gradually change over to the seventh mode. Our 
general astonishment finds expression in a broad, expansive line. Perhaps 
the tritone at the end may intimate what it means when God speaks. 
How marvellous has not His "I will; be thou made clean," shown itself 
again today! And it can hardly be wondered at that He, the King, de- 
clares Himself prepared to accompany the pagan centurion to his sick 
servant and to heal him . . . And in the same hour in which He had said: 
"Go, and as thou hast believed, so be it done to thee," was the servant 
cured. Besides, how sublime was His teaching! He spoke as one who had 
power. The common folk treasured His every word. How wonderful 
was the consolation He poured into their hearts — He who had been 
anointed to announce the Gospel to the poor and to heal wounded hearts. 

Manuscript 339 of St. Gall's and 121 of Einsiedeln give another 
melody, which belongs to the first mode. 



Septuagesima Sunday 97 

The fourth, fifth, and sixth Sundays after Epiphany have the same 
chants as the third. 



SEPTUAGESIMA SUNDAY 

INTROIT (Ps. 17: 5, 7) 

1. Circumdederunt me gemitus 1. The groans of death surrounded 

mortis, dolores inferni circumde- me, the sorrows of hell encompassed 

derunt me; 2. et in trihulatione mea me: 2. and in my affliction I called 

invocavi Dominum, 3. et exaudivit upon the Lord, 3. and he heard my 

de templo sancto suo vocem meam. voice from his holy temple. Ps. / 

Ps. Diligam te Domine, fortitudo will love thee, Lord, my strength: 

mea: *Dominus firmamentum me- *the Lord is my refuge, and my de- 

um, et refugium meum, et liberator liverer. 
meus. 

The first phrase describes spiritual distress; the second, a raising 
of mind and heart to God. The third phrase already speaks of a favor- 
able hearing, and leads directly to the fervent and thankful, "I love 
Thee." 

Who is speaking these words? The early Christians of Rome on 
this day marched in solemn procession to the church of St. Lawrence 
outside the Wails. That was the stational church; there the divine ser- 
vices were held. The opening words of this Mass are, therefore, the 
words of St. Lawrence, describing his martyrdom on the gridiron, when 
the flames encompassed him like the torments of hell. In this distress 
he called upon the Lord, and the Lord heard him, strengthened him, 
and filled his heart with festal joy (cf. his feast, August 10). Greater 
than the heat of the fire was the flame of divine love in his heart. St. 
Lawrence is, moreover, the patron of the catechumens. Those who 
formerly were accepted on this day, were instructed during Lent, and 
received Baptism on the Vigil of Easter. 

In the large cemetery near S. Lorenzo a sigh, as of death, seems 
to vibrate in the air. Just so do the first words of this Introit awaken 
in us that seriousness and penitential spirit which grows steadily from 
this Sunday till we come to those bitter days when the sighs and groan- 
ings of death, veritable sorrows of hell, are to come upon our Lord and 
Saviour on Calvary and on Golgotha. The Scripture lessons for the 
coming week deal with the creation of the world, the fall of our first 
parents, and the fratricide. True groans of death encompassed Adam 



98 Septuagesima Sunday 

and Eve when they had to view that first corpse, their own beloved 
child. 

Perhaps there still is in these Sundays (Septuagesima, Sexagesi- 
ma, and Quinquagesima) a reminder of the final period of the Migration 
of Nations (the end of the sixth century), when strange hordes brought 
ruin and tears upon Rome and the surrounding territory. It seems that 
it was precisely at this time that the pre-Lenten season was incorporated 
into the liturgical year at Rome (cf. Grisar, Missale, 56). 

The range of the three phrases is limited. The d reaching above the 
dominant is merely an embellishing note, and is not emphasized. The 
melody never descends below the tonic. Of the twice-sung circumde- 
derunt me, one is at the beginning of the first phrase, and the other at 
its end. The second one, with its wide sweep of notes, is not so much 
tone-painting of circum as an indication of the great torment which 
burdens the soul. The last three notes of this phrase are like the ending 
found in many Graduals. Here, however, they have not that charming 
effect so prominent in the Graduals, because they are introduced differ- 
ently. The second phrase begins almost exactly like the first one. In its 
second part it becomes quite restless: thrice it leaps up, and thrice it 
sinks back again, with intervals of a second, a fifth, and a fourth. But 
this ending does not satisfy; it urges onward. And the expected con- 
tinuity comes in such a manner that one is reminded of the Psalmist's 
words that before we call upon God He is already present to us. The 
third phrase swings up immediately to the dominant in a bright and 
cheerful manner. Exaudivit is admittedly much like dolores, and sancto 
suo resembles -dederunt of the first phrase. Nevertheless, the text demands 
a different rendition in each case. As in the first phrase, two drops of a 
fourth occur here also, and then the whole flows calmly on to the con- 
elusion. 

Revue, 8, 89 ff. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 9: 10, 11; 19, 20) 

1. Adjutor in opportunitatihus 1. The helper in due time, in tri- 

in trihulatione: 2. sperent in te, qui hulation: 2. let them trust in thee, 

noverunt te-, 3. quoniam non de- who know thee: 3. for thou dost not 

relinquis quaerentes te, Domine. ^. forsake them that seek thee, Lord. 

1. Quoniam non in finem ohlivio ^. 1. For the poor man shall not he 

erit pauperis: 2. patientia pau- forgotten to the end: 2. the patience 

perum non peribit in aeternum: 3. of the poor shall not perish for ever 

exsurge, Domine, non praevaleat 3. arise, Lord, let not man he 

homo. strengthened. 



Septuagesima Sunday 99 

In the vicinity of S. Lorenzo, Constantine the Great erected a hos- 
pital. Perhaps this Gradual was meant to console the inmates of that 
institution, to encourage them to trust in God, to beg grace for them to 
the end that man, the evil in man, the spirit of darkness, might not pre- 
vail. 

We, as God's own family, should also lovingly remember those who 
are being visited by physical or spiritual ills, by temptations or by 
trials. 

The verses are taken from Psalm 9, as on the third Sunday of Lent 
(whose Gradual begins with the last sentence of today's) and on the 
Saturday of the fourth week in Lent. With this latter our present Grad- 
ual has perfect similarity of word and music in (opportu)-nitätibus and 
in trihulatione. The first non of the verse is like (D6)-mme in the verse 
of the other Gradual. Though none of the Graduals in the third mode 
are easily understood, the one for today presents special difficulties. It 
lacks a calm and ordered development. The third word goes up to e^, 
which is never again reached in the corpus. Many fourths occur, but not 
a single fifth. 

Both halves of the first phrase close with the cadence which we meet 
again in the Introit of the first Sunday in Lent. Endings on d, as in the 
second phrase, are favored by the third mode. The former dominant h 
still occurs, and helps in the formation of the triton, as over Domine. 

The beginning of the verse resembles the beginning of the third 
phrase in the corpus. Of more than ordinary difficulty is the execution 
of the second half of the melisma over non. The rich melody at this 
point is in accord with the general rules for Gradual-verses. In the sec- 
ond phrase the motive is broadened out and repeated over aeternum. 
The last phrase, with its intense exsurge and its impelling fourths, is 
most forceful and expressive. The conclusion corresponds to that of the 
corpus, 

TRACT (Ps. 129: 1,4) 

1. De profundis clamavi ad te, 1. From the depths I have cried to 

Domine: Domine, exaudi vocem thee, Lord: Lord, hear my voice, 

meam. 2. Fiant aures tuae inten- 2. Let thine ears he attentive to the 

dentes in orationem servi tui. 3. Si prayer of thy servant. 3. // thou 

iniquitates ohservaveris, Domine: shalt observe iniquities, O Lord, 

Domine, quis sustinehitl 4. Quia Lord, who shall endure iti 4. For 

apud te propitiatio est, et propter with thee is propitiation, and by 

legem tuam sustinui te, Domine. reason of thy law I have waited for 

thee, Lord. 



100 Septuagesima Sunday 

The Tract leads us from the hospital to the churchyard of S. Loren- 
zo, and prays De profündis both for and with those who are resting there. 
It is a call coming from the depths of a soul which feels itself immeasur- 
ably separated from God; it is a cry to the Lord. For the soul of the de- 
parted can no longer help itself, and the help of others is also limited 
since they also must pray De profündis. This plea therefore voices our 
human impotence and our great need of help. The repetition of the 
"Lord, Lord" is stylistic peculiarity of all petitions, and indicates the 
deep-felt need of divine assistance. Do Thou not observe my iniquities, 
O Lord! Mark them not for the Day of Wrath; pronounce not a judge- 
ment, signed and sealed, upon my sins. Behold how sin is common to 
all mortal flesh, that no one is clean, and no one can redeem himself! 
Be Thou my Redeemer! For with Thee is propitiation, and the law which 
Thou hast made is the promise of a Redeemer: the sacrifices ordained 
by the Law foretell the Lamb that taketh away the sins of the world. 
And by Thy own word I know that Thou wiliest not the death of the 
sinner. In this way de we pray with the poor souls.^ 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 91:2) 

1. Bonum est confiteri Domino, 1. It is good to give praise to the 

2. et psallere nomini tuo, Altissime. Lord, 2. and to sing to thy name, O 

Most High. 

Mother Church is fond of calling the Mass a sacrifice of praise. If 
we sing this text today at the Offertory procession, our sacrifice should 
be made glorious through our joyous surrender of self. For this very 
reason did St. Lawrence rejoice, that he could be sacrificed for Christ. 
This joy in giving must never be wanting, not even now when the 
alleluia is silenced. 

The parallel between the two sentences is evident enough. Psallere 
corresponds to confiteri, and Altissime to Domino. But in the second 
phrase there is an obvious intensifying, for psallere means not only "to 
praise," but connotes also a playing upon the harp, and Altissime is an 
elucidation of the preceding Domino. More clearly than the words does 
the music tell us this. 

Bonum is a short but charming prelude to the whole selection. Con- 
fiteri succeeds not only in stressing the accent, but also in bringing the 
leading idea of the Offertory well to the fore — evidence again of the 
manner in which the musical structure of the chants is guided by the 
word-accent and the content of the text. A slight accent should be 
given the third c. The second phrase is considerably brighter. It no 



M. Faulhaber, Die Vesperpsalmen der Sonn-und Feiertage, p. 120 f , 



Sexagesima Sunday 101 

longer rests on the lower a and g, but on c. In fact, it thrice extends 
above this, with psdllere even to e^, for both the song and the harp should 
sing out loud and clear. The psdllere nomini tuo is taken as one single 
thought. The melody rises from g to c each time. In tuo, ch ah a of the 
preceding word seems to be re-echoed, unless one should wish to con- 
sider them an amplification of Domino and (confite)-ri. The first part of 
AUissime is bracketed between the ascending and the descending major 
chord / a c. To this the second part must be joined directly, with a slight 
pause after the first pressus and after a. The third part should be sung 
crescendo to the third pressus. A sense of abiding joy fills the first phrase, 
holy enthusiasm is the mark of the second, while the final strains try to 
bring out the full flavor of the word AUissime. 
Analyses, 7, 20 f. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 30: 17, 18) 

1. Illumnia faciem tuam super 1. Make thy face to shine upon 

servum, 2. et salvum me fac in tua thy servant, 2. and save me in thy 

misericordia: 3. Domine, non con- mercy: 3. let me not he confounded 

fundar, quo7iiam invocavi te. O Lord, for I have called upon thee. 

By Holy Communion the true Sun arose in our hearts, the Sun of 
grace, our Redeemer, to transfigure, vivify, and glorify us. 

The melody of the first phrase is, so to say, monopolized by the 
accented syllables, but in such a way that the logical emphasis is well 
brought out in faciem. In the second phrase the pleading changes to an 
expression of joyous confidence. God's mercy — how it differs from the 
pity shown us by men! "Your mercy," so runs the Lord's accusation 
(Osee 6:5), "is as a morning cloud, and as the dew that goeth away in 
the morning." But His own mercy is lasting, unstinted, inexhaustible. 
Our present melody praises this divine mercy in a manner which might 
almost be called exultant. The third phrase is no longer a plea; it is 
confiding faith become vocal, calling out, as did Job: "I know that my 
Redeemer liveth." I shall not be put to shame. Domine, non repeats the 
melody of misericordia. The second half makes use of the melodies of 
the first half. 



SEXAGESIMA SUNDAY 

INTROIT (Ps. 43:23, 26) 

1. Exsurge, quare ohdormis. Do- 1. Arise, why sleepest thou, O 

minel exsurge, et ne repellas in Lordl arise, and cast us not off to 



102 Sexagesima Sunday 

finem: 2. quare faciem tuam avertis, the end: 2. why turnest thou thy 

ohlivisceris trihulationem nostraml face away, and forgettest our 

Adhaesit in terra venter noster: 3. trouble"! Our belly hath cleaved to 

esxurge, Domine, adjuva nos, et the earth: 3. arise, Lord, help us 

libera nos. Ps. Deus, auribus nos- and deliver us. Ps. O God, we have 

tris audivimus: * patres nostri an- heard with our ears: * our fathers 

nuntiaverunt nobis. have declared to us. 

The Migration of Nations with its dismal consequences may have 
been the occasion for these laments. But they are also the prayer of un- 
redeemed mankind, of mankind degenerated, a prey to the lower appe- 
tites. These words may well have been the agonized cries of those who 
watched the waters of the Deluge rising ever higher, for the Breviary 
this week tells the story of that great flood. Thus may St. Paul have 
prayed, whose church is the station for today, when his disgust with 
life well-nigh vanquished him, or when the sting of the flesh caused him 
such great torture. These words are the cry of the Apostles, almost word 
for word, when their little boat was so wildly tossed by the waves one 
stormy night, and the Lord was asleep. So have we also, from sheer 
necessity perhaps, often prayed for relief from pain or from the shackles 
of evil desires which threatened to drag us downward. Our Introit is 
therefore a suppliant prayer from the valley ot this death, a plea for 
resurrection, a preparatory song for Easter, for the day of the Rising 
(exsurge) of the Lord. 

Choral music is often extolled for its calm unimpassioned spirit, for 
its sedate dignity, for the lucidity which seems to elevate it above all 
that is earthly and makes it a veritable echo of the songs of heaven. And 
rightly so. Our present melody is set within the compass of liturgical 
song, avoids dissonances and startling contrasts, and deprecates unre- 
strained subjectivism. And yet it shows how deeply and sincerely a 
chant melody can probe, how^ intimate the relation is between text and 
music, and how warm and true its expression. 

In the first phrase the first half is ascent (arsis), the second half 
descent (thesis). Beginning each half is an exsurge, the first one animated, 
the second impetuous, and both followed by a more quiet recitation on/. 
In the ascent the melody reaches the dominant, and in the descent it 
goes down to the tonic. The cadence occurring here is much favored by 
the first and second modes. We may recall having heard it in the Alleluia 
of the third Christmas Mass (adordte Dominum). The next phrase shows 
by its very first word (quare) that it will extend the range of the preced- 
ing. A number of fourths occur here, and also the climax of the piece: 
oUivisceris. Though the group of notes for this word is nothing more 



Sexagesima Sunday 103 

than a synopsis of the melody over the psalm-verse {Deus auribus), 
they are most effective here because of their position in the Introit. The 
composer had in his heart a feeling somewhat akin to that which forced 
from the Saviour's lips the terrible cry: "My God, why hast Thou for- 
saken Me?" The almost monotonous trihulationem nostram reminds us 
of our daily work, of that deadly sameness which may either numb the 
soul or be its constant torture. At adhaesit the melody tries four times 
to surge upward, and four times sinks back as if drawn down by a lead- 
en weight. The highest notes of the individual groups form a descending 
line from dominant to tonic: a g f e d. 

Now the singer summons all his strength, storming heaven with 
short yet powerful sentences. How telling is the simple syllabic chant 
in this instance! The third phrase is melodically like the first; its adjuva 
is a simpler form of the second exsurge. The second half cf the phrase 
then closes with the anticipated calmness inspired by the subsequent 
psalm-verse and psalm, which tells of the providence of God in the days 
of the Egyptian bondage, and of the liberation of Israel's children. 

K.K.,24:, 13 ff. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 82: 10, 14) 

1. Sciant gentes quoniam nomen 1. Let the gentiles know that God 

tibi Deus: 2. tu solus Altissimus is thy name: 2. thou alone art the 
super omnem terram. S/'. 1. Deus Most High over all the earth. ^. 1, 
meus, pone illos ut rotam, 2. et sicut O my God, make them like a wheel, 
stipulam 3. ante faciem venti. 2. and as stubble 3. before the face 

of the wind. 

Rumors of wars and threatened invasions of heathen enemies seem 
to be referred to in this Gradual. The verse with its request, which 
strikes us so oddly, begs God to put the enemy to flight with the same 
despatch that is shown by the autumn wind in heaping together the 
weeds of the fields and whisking them across the prairie. 

By God's grace our enemies are to be robbed of their strength, and 
we are to be made strong, that we may learn to overcome all things. 
That is St. Paul's instruction in today's Epistle. We are to preserve this 
strength throughout our life, and thus show the "gentiles" the enemies 
of Christ and those who deny Him — that He is truly God. This Easter 
Christ is to achieve victory in us. 

The corpus of the Gradual is well planned. There is a well-ordered 
widening of the range in the phrases c-a and d-b, as well as in the two 
following which range from c-c. The nomen tibi is echoed in Deus. Here 
we find also the words Deus and Altissimus given a treatment similar 



104 ^ Sexagesima Sunday 

to that found in the Offertory of last Sunday. The cadence in Altissimus 
is already hinted at in gentes. Both the beginning and the end of the first 
phrase of the verse are on the dominant, thereby keeping the melody 
unusually high in pitch. Closer scrutiny here reveals many similarities 
to the ascent to high /, so much preferred by Graduals of the fifth mode; 
for example, the Gradual for Epiphany (illumindre). Upon this upward 
surge follows the middle sentence which again relaxes the tension. The 
concluding melisma here employed is found also in many other Graduals 
of the first mode; e.g., on the tenth and seventeenth Sundays after Pen- 
tecost. 

TRACT (Ps. 59:4, 6) 

1. Commovisti, Domine, terram, 1. Thou hast moved the earth, O 

et conturhasti earn. 2. Sana contri- Lord, and hast troubled it. 2. Heal 
tiones ejus, quia mota est. 3. Ut thou the breaches thereof, for it 
fugiant a facie arcus, ut liber entur hath been moved. 3. That thy elect 
electi tui. may flee from before the bow: that 

they may be delivered. 

Among the foes of whom the Tract makes mention, one naturally 
thinks first of exterior enemies, and of the havoc they have caused. In 
as far as we have deserved this punishment, it must be acknowledged 
as coming from God, and therefore we say, "Thou, Lord, hast troubled 
the earth." 

But our souls also have been violently moved. How many in the 
course of the past year have begun to tread the downward path despite 
the high promise which a careful education and a living faith seemed 
to hold out! How often have the burning darts of the evil one wounded 
and poisoned the soul! Be Thou, therefore, our Saviour (sana), O Lord, 
during this pre-Lenten season and during the coming Lent. Let fly Thy 
arrows, Lord, for they will pierce the heart of the enemy. We are Thine 
elect, and we, therefore, confidently await Thy special protection and 
help. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 1(k 5, 6, 7) 

1. Perfice gressus meos in semitis 1. Perfect thou my goings in thy 

tuis, ut non moveantur vestigia mea: paths, that my footsteps be not 

2. inclina aurem tuam, et exaudi moved: 2. incline thine ear, and 

verba mea: 3. mirifica misericordias hear my words: 2. show forth thy 

tuas, qui salvos fads sperantes in wonderful mercies, thou who savest 

te, Domine. them that trust in thee, Lord. 

We do not know if it was after the sad experience of his downfall 
that David penned the psalm from which these words are taken. But we 



Sexagesima Sunday 105 

can readily believe that he composed it at that time, if we note the 
straightforward fervor of this plea. The chant melody likewise seems to 
have originated in a heart which made the repentant acknowledgement 
that "it is good for me that Thou hast humbled me, that I might learn 
Thy commands." Here is humility at prayer, and deep contrition of 
heart, and the fear that one might belong to those whose hearts are 
stony ground, who gladly admit the word of God for a time, but give 
it no firm rooting, with the result that, as today's Gospel says, "in time 
of temptation they fall away." 

Therein we see the earnestness of this melody. But it has a touch 
of mildness, of spiritual maturity, over it all. There is something appeal- 
ing in it, much like a song in the quiet of the evening, after a day of 
storm and stress. Now all is transfigured by the love and the pity of God. 

This chant is a song of offering; in the early Church it was likewise 
a processional song. While it was being sung the faithful advanced to the 
altar and presented their gifts. These gifts voiced their sacrificial spirit, 
the spirit without which we cannot follow along the path marked out 
for us by the Man of Sorrows. In today's Epistle St. Paul shows us clear- 
ly along what thorny roads the Lord oftentimes leads His faithful ones. 
But he also tells us how all-sufficient God's grace is, how it makes us 
strong in the performance of our daily duties. All these considerations 
combine to effect a thoughtful and reflective rendition of this chant. 

The divisions could hardly be more obvious. Each of the three im- 
peratives, perfice, inclina, mirifica, begins a new phrase. The lingering 
of the melody at gressus- — Codex 121 of Einsiedeln has an "x" { = ex- 
pedare, to wait) after each bistropha, and a "hold" over the clivis — and 
the bistropha and tristropha over moveantur all seem to breathe confi- 
dence. They speak of quiet perseverance in doing the will of God. Thank- 
ful joy is discernible in semitis, a joy which perhaps was found only after 
bitter experience. The formula over mea closes the third phrase. Inclina 
swings up with impressive fervor. Aurem tuam finds its fuller develop- 
ment in et exaüdi verba. Mirifica reminds one of the third phrase in the 
Introit for Easter Day. In both instances the melody effectively ends 
the foregoing phrase on /, the better to call attention to what follows. 
The progressive expansion of the melody in this phrase (f g a) should 
be brought out with a crescendo. In fact, the whole phrase must steadily 
grow in fervor until it reaches the confident upward look over in te and 
the tender Domine. 

In earlier times this Offertory had four verses. After each verse the 
words mirifica miser icordias were repeated, thus assuring the reception 
of this consoling truth in the trusting hearts of the faithful. 



106 Quinquagesima Sunday 

The Offertory for the feast of St. John Cantius (Oct. 20) has bor- 
rowed extensively from this composition. 
Revue, 17, 181 ff. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 42: 4) 

1. Introibo ad altare Dei: 2. ad 1. / will go in to the altar of God 

Deum qui laetificat juventutem 2. to God who giveth joy to my 
meam. youth. 

This is the prayer of the priest at the beginning of Mass, the first 
of those prayers which are said at the foot of the altar. In this song the 
faithful make use of the same words, for they also may now approach 
the altar, there to receive Him who brings joy to their hearts and youth- 
ful vigor and energy. Rein vigor ated, the soul may then say with the 
Apostle: "I can do all things in Him who strengtheneth me." Life may 
bring many trials, and hardships, and disappointments without number; 
the soul may have experiences much like those of St. Paul; but there 
ever remains the sweet consolation of saying, "I may go to the altar of 
God." The altar is the inexhaustible spring of joy and of strength for 
all. 

A festal glow seems to hover over this melody, a joyousness brought 
out by the rising fourths, the clarion call of the dominant, the graceful 
intervals ca cbg, cd da adc, the broad arcs held together by the word- 
accents as by a keystone: Introibo, ad altare, Dei; and all with a pleasing 
variety. The first and fourth divisions move within the tetrachord g-c, 
the second moves in the fifth g-d, and the third small division in the 
fifth f-c. 

This happy melody occurs again on the feast of St. Aloysius and in 
the votive Mass of the Apostles. 

Revue, 32, 18, f. 



QUINQUAGESIMA SUNDAY 

"Even more than on the preceding Sundays, there is noticeable 
throughout today's Mass a restrained joy of Easter, of victory. The 
light of the Easter sun is breaking through the clouds, revealing the 
future happenings in the work of our redemption clearly silhouetted 
against the sky. In the Gospel the Lord announces that He is going up 
to Jerusalem to suffer, to die, and to rise again. In like manner must we 
proceed to our own resurrection through suffering and death. Be the 
journey ever so difficult, we can make it with Christ, we can carry on 



Quinquagesima Sunday 107 

by virtue of His strength. When we enter the church today, He becomes 
our refuge and our strength, our Leader who will nourish us even now 
with the Easter Food, the Food of the strong, in order to bring us through 
the desert to the promised land of Eastertide." (W.K.). 

INTROIT Ps. 30:3,4) 

1. Esto mihi in Deum protedorem, 1. Be thou unto me a God, a pro- 

etj^in locum refugii, ut salvum me tector, and a place of refuge, to save 

facias: 2. quoniam firmamentum me: 2. for thou art my strength, and 

meum, et refugium meum es tu; 3. my refuge; 3. and for thy name's 

et proper nomen tuum dux mihi eris, sake thou wilt he my leader and wilt 

et enutries me. Ps. In te Domine nourish me. Ps. In thee, Lord, 

speravi, non confundar in aeter- have I hoped, let me never he con- 

num: * in justitia tua libera me. founded: * deliver me in thy justice. 

The melody of this Introit is divided according to content and text 
into three parts, thus affording another instance of the influence which 
the text has on the chants themselves. 

A happy confidence animates the first part of the song. It is not 
impetuous joy, not the exultant joy of a victory-crowned hero. It is 
deep-seated happiness, the kind which is born of utter confidence. The 
endings to the phrases are delicately done. In every case the final note 
is prepared for by the preceding note of the same pitch: fgf,f,fec, c, 
fdec c. A similar soft effect is produced in most of the accented syllables 
by the fact that the note preceding the syllable has the pitch of the 
accented one. To this there are but four exceptions — ut salvum, et prop- 
ter, tuum, and dux — no doubt because these words are to receive special 
prominence. Added to all this we have the warmth of the sixth mode 
pervading the whole. 

The first phrase is a childlike petition. Beginning with a minor third, 
it sinks to c and then rises a fourth. Not until this point is reached does 
the melody begin to pulse upward above the dominant. The second half 
resembles the first: in Deum is like refugii, and the second member like- 
wise rises to a. The endings, too, are very similar. 

In the second phrase the situation is reversed. The first half with its 
recitative on the dominant is firm and definite; the descent occurs only 
in the second half. A pleasant contrast is thus afforded to the first and 
last phrases. Like the first and second, the third phrase also has an 
ascending fourth, followed by a bistropha. Here, after an apparent calm 
on g, the melody rises to a bright c. "Thou wilt be my Leader," is the 
choir's exultant song. It is the breaking through of joy too long with- 
held. Even if I must walk the path of sorrow, I am not alone: Thou art 



108 Quinquagesima Sunday 

with me, Thou leadest me, and gladly will I follow. In graceful undula- 
tions the melody sinks to the tonic. Thou wilt be not only my Leader; 
nay, much more! The emphatic et is really arresting, and has the same 
effect here in chant as that which Beethoven achieved in the Credo of 
his Missa solemnis where, after an elaboration of et, which heralds great 
things to come, he inserts a pause, thereby adding much to the inten- 
sity of the passage. In like manner our melody says: Thou wilt even be 
my Sustainer. The idea is still more emphasized by the interval of a 
fourth, d-g, after the repeated c-f interval. Thou art indeed the Good 
Shepherd. I shall henceforth place my entire trust in Thee; never shall I 
then be led astray. 

Psalm 30, from which this Introit takes its text, was the prayer of 
David in his greatest need. Now David is the type of Christ. And when 
He was hanging on the cross, Christ prayed one of the verses of this 
psalm aloud: "Into Thy hands I commend My spirit." We shall, there- 
fore, also pray this Introit with great fervor, and thus come closer to 
the very heart of Christ. The melody colors the words even at this early 
date with the light of the Easter dawn. 

Analyses, VII, 8 fif. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 76: 15, 16) 

1. Tu es Deus, qui facis mirabilia 1. Thou art the God that alone 

sohis: 2. notam fecisti in gentihus dost wonders: 2. thou hast made thy 
virtutem tuam. ^. 1. Liherasti in power known among the nations. ^. 
hrachio tuo 2. populum tuum, 3. 1. With thy arm thou hast redeemed 
filios Israel et Joseph. 2. thy people, 3. the children of 

Israel and of Joseph. 

We heard many sublime things foretold about the Messias, es- 
pecially during the Christmas cycle. Now He Himself speaks of His 
suffering: He is to undergo deep disgrace — and death. But we do not 
wish to err like the disciples at Emmaus, who said: **We hoped that it 
was He that should have redeemed Israel." Hence the solemn profes- 
sion in the- Gradual: "Thou art God," and, "Thou alone dost wonders." 
How heathen Egypt (gentihus) and Pharaoh rued the day they had to 
acknowledge Thy power! How mighty the arm with which Thou didst 
redeem Thy people! But all that was mere prototype of the wonders 
which Thy redemptive work will effect, of the freedom which Thou wilt 
give us, and by means of which Thou wilt make us Thy chosen people. 
It is Thy love whieh will accomplish all. 

The Pasch of the Old Testament was but a shadowy likeness of the 
Christian Pasch with its Easter victory and its Easter joy. 



Quinquagesima Sunday 109 

If the Graduals were not admittedly made up of typical formulas, 
one might easily claim that in this Gradual the text is responsible for 
the melodic structure: Thou art (c-g) God (d-h), that dost (e-c) wonders 
(g-d) alone (d~c). A rising quint and numerous jpressus give the second 
phrase even more force. This melody is in all probability peculiar to the 
present text. Its final cadence resembles that over (so)-lus, and the 
phrases following begin in both instances with a fourth, in accordance 
with the rules for symmetry. The final cadence of the third phrase is 
quite common. We hear it again at the end of the corpus in the Gradual 
for the third Sunday in Lent. The first phrase of the verse concludes in 
the same manner as the body of the Gradual on Passion Sunday. The 
florid melisma at the end also occurs in the aforementioned Gradual, 
although there it is found in the first phrase. Wagner (III, 381) consid- 
ers it a variant of the melisma over non of the verse on Septuagesima 
Sunday. The very last tones of the verse agree with (p6pu)-luin of the 
preceding phrase. 

The rendition should be very animated. 

TRACT (Ps. 99: 1, 2) 

1. Jubilate Domino omnis terra: 1. Sing joyfully to God, all the 

servile Domino in laetitia. 2. In- earth: serve ye theLord with gladness, 

träte in conspectu ejus, in exsulta- 2. Come in before his presence with 

tione. 3. Scitote quod Dominus ipse exceeding great joy: 3. Know ye 

est Deus. 4. Ipse fecit nos, et non that the Lord he is God. 4. He made 

ipsi nos: nos autem populus ejus us, and not we ourselves: but we are 

et oves pascuae ejus. his people, and the sheep of his 

pasture. 

This song, in the middle of the pre-Lenten season, is like a breath 
of Easter morning; one might almost think it too jubilant. But Holy 
Mother Church knows why she asks us to sing in this strain today: 
even now we are to rejoice over the graces given us through the Re- 
demption; even now we are to thank the Good Shepherd that we are 
sheep of His pasture. Here again, as in the Gradual, we acknowledge 
that He is God. Only divine love could have prompted the forfeiting of 
life for the sake of the sheep; neither we nor any power on earth could 
have made us children of God: Ipse fecit nos. 



OFFERTORY (Ps. 118: 12, 13) 

es Domine, doce me 1. Blessed art tho 

as: 2. benedictus es me thy justification 

Domine, doce me justificationes tuas: thou, Lord, teach me thy justifica- 



1. Benedictus es Domine, doce me 1. Blessed art thou, O Lord, teach 

justificationes tuas: 2. benedictus es me thy justifications: 2. blessed art 



110 Quinquagesima Sunday 

3. in labiis meis pronuntiavi 4. lions: 3. with my lips I have pro- 
omnia judicia oris tui. nounced 4. all the judgments of thy 

mouth. 

The blind man healed by the Saviour followed Him and glorified 
God. "And all the people, when they saw it, gave praise to God." We 
now add our own song to the chorus of praise coming from the one 
healed and from the people; we sing a Benedictus to the Son of David, 
whose help the blind man so earnestly besought. To this song of praise 
we subjoin the plea, "Teach me!" Our understanding must increase, our 
heart must expand if our song is to ring out whole-heartedly. But we 
may also ask for the humility which justified the publican (descendit 
justificdtus). Teach me to have faith, O Lord, and confidence, the two 
virtues necessary for the granting of Thy great gifts: "As thou hast 
believed, so be it done to thee"; or, to use the words of today's Gospel, 
"Thy faith hath made thee whole." Teach me also that I must suffer 
as Thou didst suffer (opportebat pati Christum). Teach me to love, as 
Thou didst love. Out of love Thou goest to Thy death, to repay the debt 
of honor to the Father and to merit life for us. Teach me as Thou didst 
teach St. Peter, in whose church we are assembled today. At first he, too, 
failed to understand Thy prediction of suffering and death; but later, by 
his martyrdom, he gave proof of the great love he had for Thee. Teach 
me love, the love which will make me ascend Calvary and persevere 
under the cross. Teach me that love of my fellows which is forgetful of 
self and "endureth all things" (Epistle); for love, Thou didst tell us, is 
Thy chief commandment. 

As in the Offertory for the second Sunday after Epiphany, the 
chant here repeats the first sentence, using also the same melody. Not 
until the second tuas is there any further addition to it. Over this same 
tuas the climax of the whole piece is found. Such repetitions might be 
taken alternately by a soloist and the choir, or by a smaller and a larger 
group in the choir. 

The third phrase is markedly quieter, at first proceeding in seconds 
only. After the breathing mark there is first repeated the motive of 
phrases one and two over (justificati)-6nes, which is therefore sung three 
times, and then the motive which occurs over the second tuas. The 
fourth phrase stresses the words omnia and oris with fourths that only 
with difficulty they awaken in us any sympathetic response. The high- 
est notes of the successive groups over (o)~ris tui form the descending 
line c h\? a g f e. 

May our lips speak the same words which fell from the lips of the 
Lord? Is our heart unspotted? Formerly another verse, which was like- 
wise sung a second time with a more ornate melody, belonged to this 



Ash Wednesday 111 

Offertory: "Let no iniquity have dominion over me;" and in the secret 
for today we beg God to "cleanse us from our sins, and sanctify the 
bodies and minds of Thy servants for the celebration of this sacrifice." 
We choir members shall accordingly try to banish all that is inharmoni- 
ous from our souls, that our song may ring out clearly and joyfully, as 
did the blind man's in today's Gospel. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 77: 29, 30) 

1. Manducaverunt, et saturati 1. They did eat, and were filled 

sunt nimis, 2. et desiderium eorum exceedingly, 2. and the Lord gave 

attulit eis Dominus: 3. non sunt them their desire: 3. they were not 

fraudati a desiderio suo. defrauded of that which they craved. 

According to content, the first phrase is superior to the second; 
the melody, however, makes the second more prominent. Its final ca- 
dence very closely resembles the close of the first division in the respon- 
sories of Matins which are assigned to the second mode. Its first half 
has g as its recitative, its second half, /. The beginning of the third 
phrase makes emphatic use of the dominant, followed by the motive 
which closes the first phrase; the opening notes of the first are em- 
ployed in the second half. 

The same melody, but shortened somewhat to accommodate a 
shorter text, is found on the feast of St. John Capistran (March 28). 

Only that divine Food which was offered to us in this Holy Com- 
munion can adequately fill the yearning of our heart, in as far as that is 
possible here below. At this holy Banquet we acquire that feeling of full 
satisfaction, of perfect composure, which helps us turn a deaf ear to the 
deceitful promises of the world. The conviction becomes ever more 
clear: God alone suffices. May our longing increase with every recep- 
tion of Holy Communion, together with a corresponding deepening and 
intensifying of the joy in our hearts! With the strength afforded by this 
Food we shall then advance confidently into the promised land of Easter 
peace and Easter happiness. 

* * * * 

ASH WEDNESDAY 
A. BLESSING OF THE ASHES 
ANTIPHON Exaudi (Ps. 68: 17) 
1. Exaudi nos Domine, quoniam 1. Hear us, OLord, for thy mercy 



ma est misericordia tua: 2. se- is kind: 2. look upon us, O Lord, 
cundum multitudinem miserati- according to the multitude of thy 



112 Ash Wednesday 

onum tuarum respice nos, Domine. tender mercies. Ps. Save me, God, 

Ps. Salvum me fac Deus: quoniam for the waters have come in * even 

intraverunt aquae * usque ad ani- unto my soul, 
mam meam.. 

It is a serious time, this season upon which we are now entering. 
But in this very first antiphon the Church aims at giving us a consoHng 
thought, one which is to sink deeply into our consciousness. The high 
range of the notes and the resounding tristrophas give animated voice 
to the words expressing God's mildness and mercy. Be our guilt ever so 
great, depressing, or shameful, though the floodwaters of sin penetrate 
our very soul, the benignity of God and His mercy are greater still. The 
miserationum tu-(arum) occurs also on the second Sunday of Lent with 
the same notation. Nos Domine is an amplification of -arum. 

Of the chants which may be sung during the distribution of the 
ashes, we shall here discuss only the last two. 

ANTIPHON Juxta vestibulum 
(Joel 2: 17; Esther 13: 17) 

1. Juxta vestibulum et altare plo- 1. Between the porch and the altar 

rahunt sacerdotes et levitae min- the priests, the Lord's ministers, 

istri Domini, et dicent: 2. Parce, shall weep, and shall say: 2. Spare, 

Domine, parce populo tuo: 3. et ne Lord, spare thy people; 3. and 

dissipes ora clamantium ad te, shut not the mouths of them that 

Domine. sing to thee, Lord. 

Plordhunt — "They shall weep" — is the word which characterizes 
the spirit of this chant. The first half of the first phrase rests on /, and 
goes beyond it only to lay stress on the word-accent. The e-f preceding 
plordhunt, demanded by the rules, serves to combine these two parts of 
the melody. Special emphasis is then put on the dominant a in the fol- 
lowing group of notes, as well as in the second and third phrases, with 
the result that the melody is heavy, depressed. A leaden weight seems to 
burden the singer. Parce Domine is an urgent entreaty. We are still Thy 
people, despite the fact that we have sinned. Shut not the mouths that 
praise Thee, and close not Thy heart against our pleading. Have mercy, 
O Lord! 

RESPONSOR Y Emendemus (Esther 13; Joel 2) 

1. Emendemus in melius, quae 1. Let us amend and do better 

ignorantur peccavimus: 2. ne subito those things in which we have 
praeoccupati die mortis, quaera- sinned through ignorance: 2. lest 



Ash Wednesday 113 

mus spatium paenitentiae, et in- suddenly prevented by the day of 
venire non possimus. * 3. Attende death, we seek time for penance, 
Domine, et miserere: quia peccavi- and be not able to find it. * 3. At- 
mus tibi. Adjuva nos, Deus salu- tend, O Lord, and have mercy: for 
taris noster: 2. et propter honorem we have sinned against thee. t. 1. 
nominis tui, Domine, libera nos. Help us, O God, our Saviour: 2. 
* Attende Domine . . . Gloria Patri and for the honor of thy name, O 

Lord, deliver us. * Attend, O Lord 
. . . Glory be to the Father . . . 

Responsories occurring in the Divine Office and in blessings have 
the general arrangment ABA. But generally only a part of A is re- 
peated. There are even more typical melodies here than in the Gradual- 
responsories. The verse with its Gloria Patri is such a typical melody, 
and consequently no account is taken of the meaning of the text. The 
first half of the verse has the recitation on the dominant together with a 
five-syllable middle cadence. The second half recites on the tonic. With- 
out exception, the final cadence begins at the fifth last syllable: D6- 

S432I 54321 

mine libera nos and Spiritui sancto. 

The corpus of the Responsory has many typical turns : peccdvimus = 
non possimus and also the second -vimus tibi; and spatium paenitentiae = 
Attende Domine et misere-(re). The melody greatly resembles the Re- 
sponsory Obtulerunt of Feb. 2. But the second phrase of our present 
chant has a character peculiar to itself; with its heaped-up fourths it 
well represents the excited state of the singer's soul. He is moved by the 
words with which the priest placed the ashes on his sinful head: "Re- 
member, man, that thou art dust, and unto dust thou shalt return." 
Here, as well as on Palm Sunday and on the feast of the Purification, 
the Responsory rounds out the first ceremony of the day, and leads over 
to the Solemn Mass which follows it. 



THE MASS 

INTROIT (Wisd. 11: 24, 25, 27) 

1. Miser eris omnium, Domine, et 1. Thou hast mercy upon all, 

nihil odisti eorum quae fecisti, 2. Lord, and hatest none of the things 

dissimulans peccata hominum pro- which thou hast made, 2. and over- 

pter paenitentiam, 3. et parcens lookest the sins of men for the sake 

Ulis: 4. quia tu es Dominus Deus of repentance, 3. and sparing them: 

noster. Ps. Miserere mei Deus, 4. for thou art the Lord our God. Ps. 



114 Ash Wednesday 

miserere mei: * quoniam in te con- Have mercy on me, God, have 
fidit anima mea. mercy on me: * for my soul trusteth 

in thee. 

After the Church has earnestly prayed, both at the blessing of the 
ashes and in her chants during their distribution, that God show His 
mercy to her children, she here voices the conviction that her prayers 
have been heard: "Thou hast mercy upon all, O Lord." His divine heart 
is full of pity for the poor, even for the most forsaken. His love for His 
creature is lasting, even when this creature turns its back upon its 
Creator. Progressing in full-step intervals, the melody has the ring of 
conviction, of confident hope. The opening motive is heard again in 
omnium Domine and nihil. The note a predominates in the first half of 
the phrase, the note / in the second. 

In the second phrase, propter paenitentiam emerges rough and 
rugged, like a mountain ridge which must first be scaled and crossed 
before one can reach the beautiful valley of peace which lies beyond. 
God "overlooks" our sins that we may do penance, that we may have 
time for introspection, for sorrow and atonement. The Responsory 
Emendemus has already told us that God's patience in this matter is not 
a license to sin. But if we turn to Him with true contrition He will also 
turn to us, will become Deus noster, "our God." The more sincere our 
penance and our conversion, the closer will He be to us. The composer 
cleverly gives the words Deus noster, at the end of the Introit, the same 
melody that paenitentiam has, except that it is a fifth lower. The logical 
connection is, therefore, indicated by the melodic correspondence. In 
its deeper setting the melody has, moreover, none of that ruggedness or 
severity which we noted before. Our God is the God of peace. Contrari- 
wise, the effect of paenitentiam is all the more severe because of the 
appealing melody over hominum which precedes it. We have already met 
this formula in the Introit Gaudete and elsewhere. 

The third phrase, despite its brevity, is treated as an independent 
sentence. It follows the closing cadence over paenitentiam and precedes 
the new sentence opening over quia; the annotated manuscripts, there- 
fore, call for a broad rendition of the climacus over parcens. Consolation 
and repose pervade this short phrase, but the rising third at its end pre- 
pares us for more vigorous lines, and thus serves as a solemn introduc- 
tion to the fourth phrase. Here the melody becomes rich in neums; it 
breathes a prayer of thanks for the good fortune of those who have been 
raised from the slough of sin to the fatherly heart of God. The propor- 
tions are worthy of notiee. Tu is divided by the mora vocis, eight notes to 
the first part and eight to the second. Dominus and De-(us) likewise 



Ash Wednesday- 



US 



have eight, and -us and noster seven and eight notes respectively. The 
psalm- verse prays in this strain: Since Thou, Lord, hast pity on all, 
and lovest everything that Thou hast made, show mercy also to me. 
In Thy immeasurable mercy do I place all my hope. 
Musica s., 45, 25 ff. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 56:2,4) 



1. Miserere mei Deus, 2. mise- 
rere mei: 3. quoniam in te confidit 
anima mea. S^. 1. Misit de caelo, et 
liter mit me: 2. dedit in opprobrium 
conculcantes me. 



1. Have mercy on me, God, 2. 
have mercy on me: 3. for my soul 
trusteth in thee. ^.1. He hath sent 
from heaven, and delivered me; 2. 
he hath made them a reproach that 
trod upon me. 



Corpus and verse have perfect similarity of ending: (me)-a = me. In 
the corpus both the first and the second sentences descend to low c. The 
second miserere mei is more forceful than the first, but this is probably 
due not so much to the text itself as to the rules for melodic development. 
The third phrase and the greater part of the second phrase of the verse 
are sung in the same manner on the tenth Sunday after Pentecost. In 
the first phrase of the verse the prominence given to the high c is the 
outstanding feature. Its first half closes with the same formula as that 
over the word David in the Gradual Sacerdotes of the second Mass for 
a Confessor-Bishop. 

The words of the corpus are the same as those we heard in the In- 
troit. They would impress on us the fact that we can never have too 
much confidence in God's merciful love. The singer thankfully acknowl- 
edges the guidance of almighty God and his liberation from the enemy. 

TRACT (Ps. 102: 10) 



1. Domine, non secundum pec- 
cata nostra, f quaefecimus nos: ( — ) 
neque secundum iniquitates nostras 
(■ — ) retrihuas nobis. 2. (Ps. 78: 8, 
9). Domine, ne memineris iniqui- 
tatum nostrarum: f cito anticipent 
nos ( — ) misericordiae tuae, quia 
pauperes facti sumus nimis. 3 
(Hie geniflectitur.). Adjuva nos 
Deus salutaris noster: ( — ) et 



1. O Lord, repay us not according 
to the sins f we have committed, ( — ) 
nor acoording to our iniquities ( — ). 

2. (Ps. 78; 8, 9). Lord, remember 
not our former iniquities: f let thy 
mercies speedily prevent us ( — ), 
for we are become exceeding poor, 

3. (Here all kneel down.) Help us, 
God, our Saviour: ( — ) and for 
the glory of thy name, Lord, de- 



116 Ash Wednesday 

propter gloriam nominis tui, Do- liver us: f and forgive us our sins 
mine, libera nos: f et propitius esto for thy name's sake, 
peccatis nostris, propter nomen 
tuum. 

This tract is not found in the oldest manuscripts. It would seem that 
it received its present form no earlier than the twelfth century. The 
similar middle cadences are indicated above by the mark f, and the 
caesura ( — ). In the first verse the phrasing of the text and the melodic 
phrasing are not quite parallel. The second and third verses have much 
in common. In the third verse, the introductory notes and the prolonged 
clinging to a reveal the underlying emotion of the soul; it is a suppliant 
call, heartfelt and urgent. It presents one of the more dramatic moments 
of the liturgy, the kneeling of all the faithful to the accompaniment of 
this chant. We cry to the Lord: Thy Being and the glory of Thy Name 
demand that Thou enter the lists for us and grant us Thy lasting help. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 29: 2,3) 

1. Exaltaho te Domine, quoniam 1. I will extol thee, O Lord, for 

suscepisti me, 2. nee delectasti ini- thou hast upheld me: 2. and hast 
micos meos super me: 3. Domine not made mine enemies to rejoice 
clamavi ad te, et sanasti me. over me: 3. Lord, I have cried to 

thee, and thou hast healed me. 

How can this text belong here, at this solemn opening of Lent? On 
Easter Day we should readily understand it as the victorious song of the 
Risen One, as a second stanza to the Easter Introit with its tecum sum, 
as a song of victory, or as the glorified Saviour's song of exultation after 
all the wounds that had been inflicted upon Him. But today it seems out 
of place. We must not forget, however, that the Lenten season which 
we are now ushering in is but the great preparation for Easter. More- 
over, the melody itself does not course upward in extraordinarily bright 
and jubilant tones, but adapts itself, more than does the text itself, to 
the prevailing spirit of the day. 

This was the day on which public sinners were thrust out of the 
church to do public penance. Not till Maundy Thursday were they 
again permitted to participate in the divine service. This must have 
reminded the faithful in a most vivid manner of what they themselves 
owed to the grace of God, to that divine help which ever led them on, 
which protected them against the allurements of the enemy and the 
contagion of sin. The same grace makes them participants today in the 
blessings flowing from the Eucharistie Sacrifice. 



Ash Wednesday 117 

Perhaps this song can be taken as coming from the heart of St. 
Sabina, in whose church the station was held on this day. Then it would 
be the thanksgiving of the saint for God's help during her martyrdom, 
and therefore also an encouragement toward a renewal of the spirit of 
sacrifice in us. 

Our sincere thankfulness for the grace of regeneration should be 
reflected in suscepisti me. This passage, which sounds much like a re- 
solved major chord, must not be rendered hastily. Though we might feel 
that this chant is of the fifth mode, the whole piece nevertheless con- 
tains turns so characteristic of the second mode that to assign it to the 
fifth mode with an augmented third (a) over the tonic (f), is hardly de- 
fensible. There is, morevoer, a frequent recurrence of the chief repercus- 
sion of the second mode and the immediate following of the tonic by the 
dominant, which latter is usually broadened out or continued in the 
following note-group fhere a — ccc). A skillful rendition of this chant will 
obviate the monotony which would otherwise result in such passages. 
One should, therefore, avoid giving any prominence to the c in the con- 
clusion over sanasti; that note should be comparatively subdued. The 
second phrase widens the ascending range, and favors intervals of fourths. 
Rather unexpected is the array of neums over the unimportant word 
super, just as it was over the last syllable of quoniam. If the melody 
here reaches its climax, we must no doubt attribute it to tone-painting, 
for that seems to be the purpose of the groups over super ("above, 
higher"). Compare the Gradual for the third Advent Sunday, for in- 
stance. The close of this second phrase with a g has the effect of a modu- 
lation, the kind favored by the second mode. Domine in the third phrase 
should not be sung heavily; it should rather indicate a childlike confi- 
dence in God. Clamdvi ad te repeats the melody of inimicos meos. San- 
asti me calls for an impulsive crescendo. 

The transposition of this piece by a fifth is, no doubt, due to the 
fact that suscepisti me would, in its normal position, have been written 
bb d f d bb h\> c bb 5b, a notation which would appear strange so low on 
the staff. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 1: 2, 3) 

1. Qui meditahitur in lege Do- 1. He who shall meditate upon 

mini die ac nocte, 2. dahit fructum the law of the Lord day and night, 
suum in tempore suo. 2. shall bring forth his fruit in due 

season. 

The two phrases have similar endings. But the first speaks radiant- 
ly of God's law, and emphasizes the dominant, whereas the second rises 
but once to high c. The law of God, His holy word! How willingly we 



118 First Sunday in Lent 

should open our hearts to it and receive it as the precious seed it is! How 
carefully we should cultivate it in loving meditation, and with hearty 
good will make it our rule of life! From the quiet of our inmost soul — 
the calm, deep melody reminds us of this quiet — ^it will develop outward- 
ly in our practical life and bring forth fruits in due season, fruits which 
will endure forever, even when eternity begins and time is no more. 

But our song is also a song for Holy Communion. The new coven- 
ant is sealed by the institution of the Holy Eucharist, and the Saviour's 
first commandment is simply: "Do this for a commemoration of Me." 
Our meditation on the law of God must also include this command con- 
cerning the Blessed Eucharist and all that is bound up therewith. Day 
and night we must ponder this great truth and make it the treasure to 
which our heart will, according to today's Gospel, ever remain attached. 
Then will the life-giving sap and the life-giving strength of Christ, the 
true Vine, flow into us and bring forth rich fruit. 

The text is taken from Psalm 1. From now until the Friday preced- 
ing Palm Sunday the Communion text on week days is taken from the 
psalms, from Psalm 1 to 26. On five days, however, the texts are taken 
from the current Gospels, and the accompanying melodies are almost 
entirely syllabic. Thursdays are likewise exceptions, because originally 
the Thursdays in Lent had no Mass of their own. 



FIRST SUNDAY IN LENT 

In the temptation of Christ narrated in today's Gospel, the tempter 
quotes verses of Psalm 90. Now he must hear these verses, applied in 
their proper sense, of course, many a time during the Lenten season. A 
fine irony is revealed thereby. Today, in fact, the songs are taken ex- 
clusively from the ninetieth psalm. But there is another reason for the 
profuse employment of this pslam today: it is the song which best ex- 
presses confidence in God. Now that the great days of penance and mor- 
tification are at hand, and we give ourselves entirely to God, we are, ac- 
cording to the teaching of the current liturgy, justified in relying on the 
special protection of the Most High. He will guard His own against all 
the enemies of the soul, against sin and concupiscence and the evil spirit. 
(R. Tippmann, Die Messen der Fastenzeit, p. 27.) 

INTROIT (Ps. 90: 15, 16) 

1. Invocdbit me, et ego exaudiam 1. He shall call upon me, and I 

cum: 2. eripiam eum, et glorificaho will hear him: 2. / will deliver him, 
eumiS.longitudinedierumadimple- and glorify him: 3. / will fill him 



First Sunday in Lent 119 

bo eum. Ps. Qui habitat in adjuto- with length of days. Ps. He that 
rio Altissimi, * in protectione Dei dwelleth in the aid of the Most 
caeli commorabitur. High, * shall abide under the pro- 

tection of the God of heaven. 

We have now entered the serious season of Lent, the season of pen- 
ance. Much is expected of us during this time. But the prospect should 
not dismay us; sadness or weariness are entirely out of place. For we are 
not to carry on the fight alone. Now more than ever the Lord will be 
our help. We may call upon Him, and He promises to hear us (first 
phrase). He will remove all obstacles, all ground for complaint; He will 
"deliver us;" He will even — Oh, the wonder of it! — glorify us (second 
phrase). And that which He now promises us is, moreover, to be our 
lasting possession, is to fill the yearning of our hearts for all eternity 
(third phrase). 

The words of the Introit found their fulfillment in the Saviour Him- 
self. His long and fervent prayer was answered by reason of the piety 
with which He prayed. He was freed from all pain and from all His 
enemies; He was glorified, and both the fullness of days and the fullness 
of joy overflowed into His sacred humanity. That is the wonderful pan- 
orama which Mother Church unfolds for us on this very first Sunday in 
Lent. 

We must also pray this Introit as if it were coming from the hearts 
of the catechumens. The station today is at St. John Lateran, the mo- 
ther-church of all Christendom, dedicated to St. John the Baptist. 
There, on the night preceding Easter, the catechumens will find the 
dearest wish of their heart granted; there the Sacrament of Baptism will 
remove from them the power of their enemies and free them from the 
vicious world and from the darkness of sin. There they will be received 
into the Communion of Saints, obtaining thereby a claim to the glory 
of heaven. 

These thoughts are of themselves sufficient to prevent us from giv- 
ing a somber interpretation to the present Introit. The fact that it be- 
longs here, to the first Lenten Sunday, will not hinder us from singing 
it as a joyous, sunny song, transfigured by the goodness of God. 

The first phrase twice touches the note /, but only in passing; in the 
main it restricts itself to the tetrachord g-c. The word-accents are well 
defined and usually occur on the dominant c. The second phrase is built 
around the magnificent glorificabo, which truly sings of glory. Its closing 
word is like the first eum, but a bit more restricted. Gl6-(ria) is like 
e-(go) of the first phrase, and eripiam resembles invocdbit. The third phrase 
begins on the dominant, and assigns to dierum and eum the same nota- 
tion that eum of the second phrase has. Adimplebo is the counterpart 



120 First Sunday in Lent 

of glorificäbo: the former has e as its lowest note, the latter has e as its 
highest. All the depths of the soul, be they ever so profound, will find 
their perfect satisfaction in the glory of God. Although this phrase is 
much like the preceding one, the emphasis given to d in the first half 
and the descent to e in the second half succeed in individualizing it. 
Parallel sentence structure, clear delineation and presentation of what is 
important, pleasing contrasts and cadences: those are the features of 
this chant. 

The same melody is used on Trinity Sunday and on the feast of St. 
Joseph Cupertino. 

In the psalm-verse the final cadence, by way of exception, begms 
not on the fifth last, but on the sixth last syllable. 

Caecilia, 29, 18 L;Gregonushote, 25, 10 fif. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 90: 11, 12) 

1. Angelis suis 2. mandavit de te, 1. To his angels 2. hath he given 

3. ut custodiant te 4. in omnibus charge over thee, 3. to keep thee 4. 
viis tuis. ^. 1. In manibus porta- in all thy ways. S^. 1. In their hands 
hunt te, 2. ne unquam offendas 3. they shall bear thee up, 2. lest at 
ad lapidem 4. pedem tuum. any time thou dash 3-4. thy foot 

against a stone. 

According to the words of the Epistle, a servant of God must prove 
himself "in much patience, in tribulation, in necessities, in distresses, in 
stripes, in prisons, in labors, in watchings, in fastings." The Apostle is 
describing his own life. But in the introduction he notes this word of 
the Lord: "In an acceptable time have I heard thee, and in the day of 
salvation have I helped Thee." The verses of this Gradual point to a 
special kind of divine help and protection; they are the very verses 
quoted by the devil in today's Gospel. But in the Gradual the Church 
tells us this: he who does not willfully place himself in danger, who is 
not more wise than it behooveth to be wise, but humbly places his con- 
fidence in God, for such a one these words will ever remain true. They 
are our consolation in all the trials and temptations we may have to 
undergo. 

God Himself has put us in the care of the angels, of His own angels. 
In the prayers of the Breviary this verse resounds throughout the whole 
•of Lent. 

The melody is a typical one, and is employed for a great variety of 
texts. Here we shall discuss only those texts which occur on Sundays 
and feast days and in the Requiem Mass. In Paleographie musicale 
(Vol. II) are published two hundred and nineteen manuscripts, dating 
from the ninth to the seventeenth century, in all of which this melody 



First Sunday in Lent 



121 



is faithfully adhered to, with but negligible variations, for the text 
Justus ut palma. 

The structure of the melody is psalmodic in character. Both the 
corpus and the verse have four phrases, each of which has some sort of 
intonation (initium), then a recitation on the dominant either alone or 
elaborated, finally a prominent cadence with or without a jubilus. It 
must be admitted, however, that there is a lack of that pleasing alter- 
nation of simple psalmody with its ascending middle cadence and de- 
scending final cadence.^ The corpus has the dominant c, the verse in its 
first half the dominant d. This has given rise to the custom of assigning 
the melody to the seventh mode. Others again assign it to the fifth mode, 
with a close on the upper third (cf . the Gradual for the first Sunday after 
Pentecost, Musica s., 45, 105 f). 

In the following scheme the letter a) designates the Gradual from 
the Mass of a Confessor not a Bishop, b) that from the Mass of the Dead, 
c) that from the Mass of St. Matthias, d) that from the Mass of the 
first Sunday in Lent, e) that from the Mass of the twenty-first Sunday 
after Pentecost, f) that from the Mass of St. Joachim (q.v.), g) the cor- 
responding parts of the Gradual for Easter, h) the same from the Gradu- 
al for the Midnight Mass for Christmas. 

CORPUS 





Initium. 


Dominant, simple or 


Cadence, 


with or 








ornate 


• 


without jubilus. 








First Phrase 










1 




2 




3 


4 


5 


a) 


Ju- 




stus ut palma flo- 


re 




bit. 


V 


Re- 




quiem ae- 




ter- 




nam 


c) 


Ni- 




mis hono- 




rd- 


ti 


sunt 


d) 


An- 




gelis 




su- 




is 


e) 


D6- 




mine re- 




fü~ 


gi- 


um 


f) 


Dispersit 






de- 




dit 








Second Phrase 










1 


2 


3 4 


5 


6 


(7) 


8 


a) 


sicut 


ce- 


drus 


Li 


ba- 




ni 


h) 




do- 


na e- 


is 


D6- 


mi- 


ne 


c) 


a- 


mi- 


ci tu- 


i 


De- 




us 


d) 


man- 


dd- 


vit 


de 


ie 






e) 




fa- 


ctus es 




no- 




bis 


f) 


pau- 


pe- 


ribus 


ju- 


sti- 


ti- 


a. . 



1 Pal. Mus., Ill, 36 ff.; N. Sch., 203.; Wagner, III, 370 ff. 



122 



First Sunday in Lent 





1 


a) 


mut- 


h) 


et 


c) 


ni- 


d) 


ut 


e) 


a 


f) 




g) 


ex- 



h) ante 





1 


2 


a) 


in 


do- 


h) 




M- 


c) 


prin- 


ci- 


d) 


in 


6m- 


e) 




et 


f) 




sae- 


9) 






h) 


ge- 





Third Phrase 








2 






3 


(4) 


5 


tipli- 






cd- 


hi- 


tur 


lux per- 






pe- 


tu- 


a 


mis confor- 




td- 


tus 


est 


custodi- 






ant 




te 


generati- 






6- 




ne 


sul- 






te- 




mus 


lu- 






ci- 


fe- 


rum 


Fourth Phrase 








3 4 


5 


6 


7 


(8) 


9 






mo 


D6- 


mi- 


ni. 


ce- 




at 


e- 




is. 


pd- 


tus 


e- 


6- 




rum 


ni- bus 


VI- 


is 


tu- 




is. 






pro- 


ge- 


ni- 
cu- 


e. 
li. 






in 


e- 




a. 


nu- 




i 


te. 







VERSE 





Initium 




Dominant. 












First Phase 






1 


2 


3 


4.... 


5 


6 


a) 


Ad 


an- 


nun- 


tidn- 


dum 


ma- 


b) 


In 


me- 


mo- 


ria 


ae- 


~^ter- 


c) 
d) 
e) 


Di- 
In 

Prius- 


nu- 
md- 


me- 
ni- 


rd- 
hus 


ho^ 
por- 
quam 


e 
~^td- 
mon- 


f) 


Potens 








in 


ter- 


g) 


Confite 


'- 




mini 






h) 


Di- 


xit 


D6- 


minus 


Domi- no 


me- 



Cadence. 



(7) 



hunt 



ne 
na 

OS 

te 
tes 
ra 



First Sunday in Lent 



123 











Second Phrase 








1 




2 


3 




4 


5 


6 


a) 






mi- 


sericordi- 




am 


tu- 


am, 


h) 






e- 






rit 


_Jw- 


stus: 


c) 


et 




su- 


per 




a- 


~^re- 


nam 


d) 


ne 




un- 


quam 




of^ 


~Jen- 


das 


e) 






fie- 


rent, aut formare-tur 


"^ter- 


ra 


f) 






e- 


rit se- 


men 


e- 


jus: 














^ 


' 




9) 


















h) 


sede 




a 


dex- 




tris 


me- 


is 










Third Phrase 








1 






2 




3 


4 (5) 6 


a) 


et 






veritd- 




tern 


tu- 


am 


h) 


ah 






auditio- 




ne 


ma- 


la 


c) 






[Text too 


short] 










d) 






[Text too 


short] 










e) 


et 






orhis: 




a 


sae- cu 


lo 


f) 


ge- 






nerdtio 




re- 


cto- 


rum 


gh) 


























Fourth Phrase 








1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


a) 


per 












no- 


dem. 


h) 


non 










ti- 


me- 


hit. 


c) 


multi- 






pli- 


ca- 




bun- 


tur. 


d) 


ad 




Idpi- 


dem 


pe- 


dem 


tu- 


um. 


e) 


et 


in 


saecu- 


lum 


tu 


es 


De- 


us. 


f) 


he- 






ne- 


di- 




ce- 


tur. 


9) 




miseri- 


cordi- 




a 


e- 


jus. 


h) 




pe- 




dum 




tu- 


6- 


rum. 



The melody was transposed, since ordinarily the gamut d c e^ d c 
would have resulted over mandavit. The motive efdacag in the third 
phrase of the corpus is varied somewhat in the first phrase of the verse: 
e d ch c a g and efdhcag, and entirely at the end e d ch dh c (a). In 
the verse the principal accents receive a gentle preparation through a 
pes: por-tdhunt, of-fendas. . . Corresponding passages were indicated by 
slurs. 



124 



First Sunday in Lent 



TRACT (Ps. 90) 

The entire ninetieth psalm with the exception of verses eight to ten 
now follows. Each verse has an almost identical mediant f; if this sign 
appears twice in a verse, the mediant occurs twice also. Several verses 
have a caesura, indicated by ( — ). 



1. Qui habitat in adjutorio Al- 
tissimi, t ^^ protectione Dei caeli 
commorabitur. 2. Dicet Domino: 
Susceptor mens es, t €t refugium 
meum, Deus mens ( — ): speraho in 
eum. 3. Quoniam ipse liheravit me 
de laqueo venantium, ■\ et a verho 
aspero. 4. Scapulis suis obumhra- 
bit tibi, t et sub pennis ejus spera- 
bis. 5. Scuto circumdabit te Veritas 
ejus: t non timebis (— ) a timore 
nocturno. 6. A sagitta volante per 
diem, f « negotio perambulante in 
tenebris, f « ruina et daemonio 
meridiano. 7. Cadent a latere tuo 
mille, t et decem millia a dextris 
tuis: t tibi autem (— ) non appro- 
pinquabit. 8. Quoniam Angelis suis 
mandavit de te, f ut custodiant te 
( — ) in omnibus viis tuis. 9. In 
manibus portabunt te, ne unquam 
offendas f ad lapidem pedem tuum. 
10. Super aspidem et basiliscum 
ambulabis, f et conculcabis ( — ) 
leonem et draconem. 11. Quoniam 
in me speravit liberabo eum: t P^o- 
iegam eum, ( — ) qoniam cognovit 
nomen meum. 12. Invocabit me, et 
ego exaudiam eum: f cum ipso ( — ) 
sum in tribulatione. 13. Eripiam 
eum, et glorificabo eum: f longi- 
tudine dierum adimplebo eum, t 
et ostendam Uli salutare meum. 



1. He that dwelleth in the aid of 
the Most High, f shall abide in the 
protection of the God of heaven. 2. 
He shall say to the Lord: Thou art 
my protector, f and my refuge, my 
God ( — ): in him will I trust. 3. He 
hath delivered me from the snare of 
the hunters, f (I'^d from the sharp 
word. 4. He will overshadow thee 
with his shoulders, f (I'^d under 
his wings thou shall trust. 5. His 
truth shall compass thee with a 
shield: f thou shall not be afraid 
(■ — ) of the terror of the night. 6. Of 
the arrow that flieth in the day, f of 
the business that walketh in the dark 
t of ruin, or of the noonday devil. 7. 
A thousand shall fall at thy side, t . 
and ten thousand at thy right hand: 
t but to thee ( — ) it shall not ap- 
proach. 8. For he hath given his 
angels charge over thee, f to keep 
thee (■ — ) in all thy ways. 9. In 
their hands they shall bear thee up, 
lest thou dash f thy foot against a 
stone. [The phrasing here is not 
happy.] 10. Thou shall walk upon 
the asp and the basilisk, f o.nd 
thou shalt trample under foot ( — ) 
the lion and the dragon. [This verse 
has a proper middle and closing 
cadence.] 11. Because he hath hoped 
in me, I will deliver him: f / will 
protect him, ( — ) because he hath 
known my name. 12. He shall call 
upon me, and I will hear him: f 



First Sunday in Lent 125 

with him ( — ) am I in tribulation. 
13. / will deliver him, and I will 
glorify him: f / will fill him with 
length of days, f and I will show 
him my salvation. 

OFFERTORY— COMMUNION (Ps. 90: 4, 5) 

1. Scapulis suis ohumhrahit tibi 1. The Lord will overshadow thee 

Dominus, 2. et sub pennis ejus with his shoulders, 2. and under 
sperabis: 3. scuto circumdabit te his wings thou shall trust: 3. Ms 
Veritas ejus. truth shall compass thee with a 

shield. 

With the exception of the word Dominus, which is wanting in the 
Communion, the two pieces have the same text. Both also exhibit three 
well-marked phrases. This is best shown in the Communion, which 
closes each phrase with the same cadence, has an ascending line in the 
first half of each phrase and a descending line in the second half. Three 
parts are also distinguished in the Offertory. The first and third phrases 
correspond; by way of contrast the second moves upwards. Here the 
motive over obumbrabit returns at the beginning of the second phrase. 
We find it also at the beginning of the Communion. The powerful mo- 
tive over tibi appears in a varied form with Veritas ejus and (circum) 
-dabit. 

In the Communion (obum)-brdbit finds an echo in ( circum )-dabit 
and Veritas. The responsories in the fourth mode at Matins generally 
close the third phrase with the melody sperabis. 

The Offertory has a vigorous, rousing ring. In the Communion 
there is an admixture of tenderness, of tranquility. But it also manifests 
clear joy with the jubilant et sub pennis, just as the Offertory attains a 
degree of gentleness through this, that every second neum over cir- 
cumdabit sets in on the same pitch with which the preceding one closed. 

Scapulis and sub pennis are generally regarded as meaning the same 
thing and translated as such. In the clear triple division of the pieces, 
in the difference of the first phrase from the third, one may perhaps 
leave Scapulis its usual meaning of "shoulders," and refer the phrase to 
the strength of divine protection. If, in accordance with the words of 
Holy Scripture, the Lord supports the entire universe upon His three 
fingers, what confidence ought it not to inspire when He reaches us His 
hand, when He protects us with His shoulders and fights for us! The 
second phrase makes us feel how securely we are lodged under His wings. 
In. the Communion especially the soul exults that it is privileged to rest 



126 Second Sunday in Lent 

on the bosom of God. In the third phrase we are told: You are protected 
on all sides (circum). If God's truth, and His entire truth, encompasses 
you, then there is no vulnerable spot left in you; you need fear nothing, 
for God's protection will remain true to you. 



SECOND SUNDAY IN LENT 

In olden times the divine services of the night of Saturday in Ember 
Week were prolonged until Sunday morning. For this reason there was 
no solemn Mass on the present day. Its formulary was composed only 
later (fifth century). With the exception of the Tract, all the chants 
have been borrowed from the preceding Wednesday. 

INTROIT (Ps. 24:6, 3, 22) 

1. Reminiscere miser ationum 1. Remember, Lord, thy bowels 

tuarum, Domine, 2. et misericordiae of compassion, 2. and thy mercies 

tuae, quae a saeculo sunt: 3. ne that are from the beginning of the 

unquam dominentur nobis inimici world; 3. lest at any time our ene- 

nostri: 4. libera nos Deus Israel ex mies rule over us: 4. deliver us, O 

omnibus angustiis nostris. Ps. Ad God of Israel, from all our tribula- 

te, Domine, levavi animam meam: lions. Ps. To thee, Lord, have I 

* Deus meus in te confido, non lifted up my soul: * in thee, O my 

erubescam. God, I put my trust, let me not be 

ashamed. 

This song is an expression of deep humility. What would happen to 
us if God were not merciful, if His mercy were not eternal! How entirely 
dependent upon it we are! Hence we dare to remind Him of His mercies. 
He never forgets them; for they are a part of His essence. For this reason 
also, the Introit speaks of Thy commiseration, of Thy mercy. 

The parallelism between the first two phrases of the text is repro- 
duced in the melody. Both phrases vigorously accent the note /; both 
have the same range (d-a) and similar endings; finally, misericordiae is 
only a repetition of miserationum. In both instances the torculus enlivens 
the serene melodic line. 

Now begins a new part. The melody also throws ofif some of its re- 
serve. In its range of a sixth, the intervals grow larger. The first part 
confined itself to thirds only; here we meet with five intervals of a fourth. 
Next to /, g is the dominating note. A certain restlessness makes itself 
felt. The pious soul looks about herself; she sees herself surrounded by 
enemies, wily and formidable, numerous and inexorable. Whoever does 



Second Sunday in Lent 127 

not acknowledge the Lord (Domine, in the first partj becomes their 
slave, is dominated by the world, evil passions, and the devil. We pray: 
Do not allow our enemies to rule over us. But we must also add: Let 
them never again gain power over us. The more painfully we have been 
made to feel the heaviness of their yoke, the more fervent and heartfelt 
will be this prayer and this song. We divine what the composer wished 
to say with the gamut dg gf over inimici and gfäg g over nostri. Here a 
crescendo comes spontaneously. 

Then a third time we pray with the ascending fourth: libera nos: 
Thou art the God of Israel; Thou hast selected this nation as Thine own 
people. Thou art our God also, and hast elected, bought, and redeemed 
also us. Deliver us, then, from all our distresses. Be Thou at our side 
especially then, O Lord, when that greatest of all trials will come, when 
we are about to enter through the narrow (angustiis) portals of death^. 

The feeling proclaimed in the very first notes is effectively retained 
throughout, but in the second part it becomes more lively. 

The psalm-melody recites on a, which up till now had only been 
touched transiently, and then rises above it, full of confidence in God. 

Caecilia, 29, 19 f. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 24: 17, 18) 

1. Trihulationes cordis mei di- 1. The troubles of my heart are 

latatae sunt: 2. de necessitatibus multiplied: 2. deliver me from my 

meis eripe me, Domine. ji/'. 1. Vide necessities, O Lord. i\ 1. See my 

humilitatem meam, 2. et labor em abjection, 2. and my labor: 3. and 

meum: 3. et dimitte omnia peccata forgive all my sins. 
mea. 

The text expresses entirely the spirit of the Introit. Indeed, it has 
become still more earnest with the reading of the Lesson. There the 
Apostle had cried: "This is the will of God, your sanctification." We are 
all aware how difficult is this life's task, how the heart, desirous of love, 
has to struggle, how arduous the conflicts of life really are. And we fre- 
quently feel exhausted and miserable, because we have often added our 
personal failings to the burden of life. At the sight of all these miseries, 
we address to the Lord this threefold petition: Deliver us, see our ab- 
jection, forgive us our sins. 

And the melody? It sounds entirely different. It throws a festal 
garment over the agitated text. Certain of the fulfillment of its prayer, 
it sends rays of beneficent light over a sorrowful countenance and into 
a wounded heart- — as a reflection of eternal light. 



1 In Khe votive Mass for the grace ef a happy death, this melody forms the second phrase. 



128 Second Sunday in Lent 

The friendly F-major chord— at least so it strikes us — is often heard, 
both in an ascending and in a descending line. Several times occurs the 
descending fourth c-g. The close of the corpus corresponds with meis. 
The verse repeats its first motive and prolongs it. The melodic develop- 
ment of its second and third phrases will be explained on the feast of 
the Assumption. Meis in the corpus and meum in the verse tend to pro- 
duce the same effect as a modern modulation to A minor. Similarly, we 
should like to speak of omnia as a modulation to C major. 

TRACT (Ps. 105: 1, 4) 

The closing cadences of all the verses, with the exception of the 
last, are alike. From verse to verse the range of the melody is extended. 

1. Confitemini Domino, quoniam 1. Give glory to the Lord, for he is 

bonus: f quoniam in saeculum good: f and forever ( — ) endureth 

( — ) misericordia ejus. 2. Quis lo- his mercy. 2. Who shall declare the 

quetur potentias Domini: f auditas powers of the Lord: f who shall set 

faciei ( — ) omnes laudes ejusi 3. forth ( — ) all his praises'! 3. Blessed 

Beati qui custodiunt judicium, f et are they that keep judgement, f and 

faciant justitiam ( — ) in omni do justice ( — ) at all times, 4. Re- 

tempore. 4. Memento nostri, Do- member us, O Lord, in the favor of 

mine, in beneplacito populi tui: f Ihy people: f 'oisit us with thy sal- 

visita nos in salutari tuo. vation. 

The Gospel, which contains the episode of the Transfiguration, 
comes as an answer to the final petition of the Tract. And at the conse- 
cration and in Communion the salvation of God descends upon us. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 118: 47, 48) 

1. Meditabor in mandatis tuis, 1. / will meditate on thy com- 

quae dilexi valde: 2. et levabo manus mandments, which I have loved 
meas ad mandata tua, quae dilexi. exceedingly: 2. and I will lift up 

my hands to thy commandments, 
which I have loved. 

Dilexi with its lightly moving torculus dominates the melodic line 
and colors the entire piece. Now we hear a song of love, which by love 
alone can be fully grasped. For he only can love commandments to 
whom the command is an expression of the will of the beloved, who 
makes it his care to fulfill all the desires of the beloved, for whom — as 
it was with the Saviour — it is a joy to do at all times that which is most 
pleasing to the Father. Such is the conviction here expressed. Another 



Second Sunday in Lent 129 

thought may be added: the commandments lead us higher, away from 
the mean things of this earth, up to the Tabor of union with God. Thus 
the commandments establish the peace of the heart — indeed, even the 
temporal welfare of nations. We shall, then, meditate on Thy com- 
mandments and stretch forth our hands to fulfill them with all fidelity. 

The piece begins like the pealing of bells. In some places the church 
bells have the tones of these first four or six notes. The motive over in 
manddtis runs through the whole. It occurs over et leväbo, manus meaSj 
and ad manddta. The three-note groups in the second half of the first 
phrase tend to enhance the elevated feeling of the piece. 

The second phrase is divided in the same manner as the first. Here 
also the second half sets in on the dominant. Before it, however, the 
melody makes a pronounced modulation to the second under the tonic, 
a figure appearing quite frequently in the second mode. The second 
dilexi has no addition in the text, like the first. But it seems that the 
extended melody says more here than the simple valde. It sings of the 
rest and the happiness of the soul which willingly bears the sweet yoke 
of the Lord. The second group repeats the motive over (me)-as. Now 
follow two groups corresponding to one another. Everything must be 
light and tender and fragrant. 

The Gospel closed with the words: "This is my beloved Son. . .hear 
ye Him." The Offertory is the song of those fortunates who hear the word 
of God and do it. Still closer is the connection between the Gospel and 
the Offertory of the preceding Wednesday. There the Gospel reads thus: 
"Whosoever shall do the will of My Father that is in heaven, he is My 
brother, and sister, and mother." 

COMMUNION (Ps. 5: 2, 4) 

1. Intellige clamorem meum: in- 1. Understand my cry: hearken 

tende voci orationis meae, Rex mens to the voice of my prayer, O my 

et Deus mens: 2. quoniam ad te King and my God: 2. for to thee 

oraho, Domine. will I pray, Lord. 

After the Mass I must again descend from the Tabor of union with 
God to the affairs of workaday life, from the brilliant heights, where it 
was so good to be, to the darkness of this world with its dangers, its 
scandals, its temptations, and its sufferings. Stay Thou with me, O 
Lord, for the night cometh. With its broad podatus, its lingering on the 
dominant, and the stressing of h, this song prays almost with violent 
outbursts. How different is this beginning, compared to the simple 
Reminiscere of today's Introit! Intende, parallel to Intellige, is simpler; 
for this reason voci orationis receives so much more prominence. 



130 Third Sunday in Lent 

We pray to the King. On Tabor He manifested His royal dignity. 
His countenance shone like the sun, His garments became white as snow, 
and the Covenant of the Old Law paid homage to Him. But this trans- 
figured King is now my King, my God in Holy Communion. From Deus 
mens on, the melody with its two- and three-note groups becomes more 
serene. 

In the second phrase composure gives place to confidence. Ordho is 
an evident lifting of the soul to God. With tender sequences and a rhythm 
corresponding to that of the first phrase the whole comes to a close. 



THIRD SUNDAY OF LENT 
INTROIT (Ps. 24: 15, 16) 

1. Oculi met semper ad Domi- 1. My eyes are towards the Lord, 

num, quia ipse evellet de laqueo for He shall pluck my feet out of 

pedes meos: 2. respice in me, et the snare: 2. look thou upon me, 

miserere mei, 3. quia unions et and have mercy on me, S. for I am 

pauper sum ego. Ps. Ad te Domine alone and poor. Ps. To thee, O Lord, 

levavi animam meam: * Deus meus have I lifted up my soul: * in thee, 

in te confido, non eruhescam. O my God, I put my trust, let me 

not he ashamed. 

In the Rome of the early Christian centuries the solemn services 
on the third Sunday of Lent were held in the Church of St. Lawrence. 
There the Christians gathered and, especially on Sundays, thanked God 
for the grace of Baptism and the sonship of God, which they attained 
through it. Thither also came the catechumens, those who sought 
Baptism. At the church of the deacon St. Lawrence, their patron, they 
were examined today, and on seven other days of Lent, about the doc- 
trine they had studied, and inquiry was made into their manner of life. 
For this reason, also, the present Sunday was called the Sunday of 
scrutinies, of examinations. Prayers were said over the catechumens and 
the first exorcism performed in order to destroy the power of the devil 
in their souls. 

Hence the composer of this Introit was concerned in a special man- 
ner to give prominent expression to one word, the word which predo- 
minates over the rest of the antiphon: evellet — He liberates me, plucks 
my foot from the snare, frees me. Whatever of consolation and joy (a 
joy like that of Easter) this word contained, was to penetrate into the 
heart of the catechumens; at the same time it was to arouse a vehement 



Third Sunday in Lent 131 

longing for happiness, for the freedom of the children of God. Evellet 
takes the part of a leitmotif, receiving a wonderful development es- 
pecially in today's Gospel. However great Satan's power may be, a 
superior power will take the field against him. Christ will conquer him, 
will cast him out from the souls of men and despoil him of the weapons 
in which he had placed his trust. Thus prays the Introit: Oculi mei — 
my eyes are ever fixed upon the Lord. Text and melody exhibit a pleas- 
ing, symmetric construction. 

In the first part we look up to God; in the second we beg Him gra- 
ciously to look down upon us. Each part, in its second phrase, adduces 
a reason. "My eyes are towards the Lord," quia. . . "for He shall pluck 
my feet out of the snare;" in the second part: "look Thou upon me," 
quoniam. . . "for I am alone and poor." In the first phrase, the melody, 
corresponding to its text, tends upward: Oculi mei. . .and especially 
evellet. In the second phrase we must regard it as more than mere co- 
incidence that there are four descending fourths over the petition: 
Look Thou upon me. 

Oculi, setting in with an interval of a fifth, reminds us of the first 
word of the Introit for the third Mass of Christmas, Puer. The melody 
over me is also known to us from the same Introit. There it occurs over 
the word nobis. Similarly the close: sum ego, sounds like that of the 
Christmas Introit over Angelus. Then, like imperium in the Christmas 
melody, evellet ascends to high /. In the present Introit, however, the 
development is more ornate, it is drawn on a grander scale, and the 
accents with the frequent pressus forms are more energetic. 

With unflinching eye the singer gazes upward to God. This is shown 
not only by the protraction of the dominant, but especially by the an- 
notated manuscript reaching back as far as the tenth century. Over 
semper they demand a broad rendition of all the notes^ — a valuable 
psychological indication. We meet the cadence of Dominum again at the 
end of the second part over unicus, and in a somewhat extended form 
over (miserere) mei. The unsatisfactory cadence at the close of the first 
part would lead us to expect a continuation. 

The second part, respice — "look upon me" — is melodically more 
tender, more fervent, more suppliant, but its range is less extended. 
Respice still has a range of a sixth (g-e) ; the subsequent members of the 
phrase, however, confine themselves to a fifth (f-c). The harsh tritone 
over pauper agrees well with the subdued feeling. 

In the psalm-verse a light secondary accent on the third syllable 
further increases the rest and the rhythmic clearness. Thus, after the 
introductory formula over Ad, quiet two-note groups follow. In the 
second half of the verse the significant little word te "(in Thee . . .1 put 



132 Third Sunday in Lent 

my trust") must not be neglected; still the flow of the whole must not 
be interrupted by it. 

If, in the first place, the Church prayed in the stead of those who 
are preparing for Baptism, she has to pray for many today who after 
Baptism have again become the prey of the devil, who have again strayed 
into his snares, from which they cannot or will not liberate themselves. 
From our own experience we know that he does not very readily resign 
his domination over a man; that, like a spider, he spins his webs, employ- 
ing our evil propensities and the seductions of the world to ensnare us. 
We are well aware of the diflSculty of the struggle and the extent of our 
weakness. This calls for much and fervent prayer; we must fix our eyes 
on the Lord (Oculi met semper ad Dominum), we must implore Him to 
look down upon us in his mercy. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 9:20, 4 

1. Exsurge Domine, non prae- 1. Arise, O Lord, let not man pre- 

valeat homo: 2. judicentur gentes in vail: 2. let the gentiles he judged in 
conspectu tuo. ^. 1. /w convertendo thy sight. 111. 1. When mine enemies 
inimicum meum retrorsum, 2. in- shall he turned hack, 2. they shall 
jirmahuntur, et perihunt a facie tua. he weakened and perish before thy 

face. 

In every instance, the final syllable of each part has a very florid 
melody, two of which are the same: tuo and tua. Extended rhythms, 
therefore, bring both these parts to a close. Perhaps the similarity of 
the thought expressed by the text must be assigned for the correspond- 
ence: in conspectu tuo and a facie tua='m Thy sight. Smaller rhythms 
close the first half of each phrase in the first part. Domine and gentes 
correspond. After this descent, the second part opens each phrase a 
fourth higher. (Cf. the rule for the adaptation of phrases.) 

The prayer for divine assistance in the fight becomes still more 
urgent here than in the Introit. Man, the evil in man, and the evil one, 
must not carry away the victory. We sang the first five words at the close 
of the Gradual for Septuagesima Sunday, but with another melody. 
Homo alone in both cases preserves some similarity. In plain song it 
makes a world of difference in the melodic development whether there 
is question of the beginning of a piece or of a phrase working toward a 
close. In the first instance the passage shows great agitation, while we 
begin the^econd quietly. This song is the continuation of the verses 
from Psalm 9, which itself finds a continuation on the Saturday after 
the fourth Sunday in Lent. In mode, style, and text, these three pieces 
form one whole, pointing perhaps still to that time when, according to 



Third Sunday in Lent 133 

the testimony of St. Augustine (fifth century), an entire psalm was sung 
after the Lesson. In any case, this practice did not extend much beyond 
the eighth century, for some of the manuscripts of the period, as those 
of Rheinau and Monza, already show the Gradual as consisting only of 
the corpus and the verse. 

After beginning with the typical forms, the melody develops itself 
in an independent manner. For howo the annotated manuscript of the 
tenth and eleventh centuries demand a broad rendition of all the notes, 
save the first c. This gives the melody a serious, almost violent, ring. In 
the Epistle St. Paul had said: "You were heretofore darkness, but now 
light in the Lord." This melody impresses the sentiment strongly upon 
us: Do not again become darkness; do not again subject yourself to the 
yoke of the prince of darkness! Non praevaleat homol Between the pas- 
sages judicentur and in conspectu, melodically alike, a rhythm to Domine 
interposes itself over gentes. 

The verse is a song of thanksgiving for divine help already granted, 
and thus anticipates the fulfillment of the preceding petition. 

As compared with the corpus, the melody of the verse shows an 
amplification. Several times it extends to high e. Over retrorsum the florid 
melisma has a victorious ring. A second and third time the motive over 
facie is repeated. Before the third repetition, however, we find ascending 
groups in pleasing contrast. Whenever plain song repeats a motive, it 
generally introduces it differently with the third repetition, or gives it 
a different ending. 

In the Gospel of this Sunday Christ shows Himself as the valiant 
Conqueror, who defends His house, His property, the human soul, 
against the attacks of the enemy. 

TRACT (Ps. 121: 1, 3) 

1. Ad te levavi oculos meos, qui 1. To thee have I lifted up mine 

habitas in caelis. 2. Ecce sicut oculi eyes who dwellest in heaven. 2. Be- 

servorum in manihus dominorum hold, as the eyes of servants are on 

suorum: 3. et sicut oculi ancillae in the hands of their masters: 3. and 

manihus dominae suae: 4. ita oculi as the eyes of the handmaid are on 

nostri ad Dominum Deum nostrum, the hands of her mistress: 4. so are 

* donee misereatur nostri. 5. Mi- our eyes unto the Lord our God, * 

serere nobis, Domine, miserere no- until He has mercy on us. 5. Have 

his. mercy on us, Lord, have mercy on 

us. 

From the Introit to the Tract our sentiments of prayer become more 
and more fervent. Oculi mei — "My eyes are ever on the Lord:" thus 



134 Third Sunday in Lent 

begins the Introit. The Tract continues to pray earnestly. In the two- 
fold miserere at the end, its sighs attain their summit. The Gospel as- 
sures us that this prayer was not in vain. In the healing of the possessed 
dumb man God's affection and power manifest themselves to us in a 
marvelous manner. 

One might be tempted to regard the ascending line over ad te le- 
vdvi as word-painting, referring it to the raising of the eyes to God. 
Since, however, the Tract Qui seminant of the Mass Intret for several 
martyrs employs the same tone-sequence with another text, it will be 
well to be careful and conservative with one's explanations. In general 
Tracts seldom touch the domain of expressive music. 

The second and third verses have the same melody, though a some- 
what simpler form. It never extends beyond c. These two verses may be 
sung somewhat more softly, to be followed by the fourth and fifth verse 
in a more lively style. This Tract reveals no regular construction. Only 
the fourth verse has the middle cadence, generally employed in each verse, 
with its interval of a fourth, its pressus, and close on /; hence a full tone 
below the finale of the mode. Oculos and oculi in the first and fourth ver- 
ses, on the contrary, speaking of the eyes of the servants and of the 
handmaid, have a descending line. In the second verse, and in the third, 
which sounds almost like it, the second last member closes on /, the last 
on g. Both notes exert an influence on the preceding neums; / demands 
bb, while g calls for h. The typical Alleluia-melody of the eighth mode, 
that, for example, of the first Sunday of Advent, exhibits a similar struc- 
ture at the end. The last verse harks back to the second and third verses, 
makes its petition tender and suppliant by stressing its h]?, and then 
renders it impressive by means of the threefold clivis and the accentua- 
tion of the fourth, the whole resembling a hurling motion. Codex 339 of 
St. Gall's gives these three clives in juxtaposition, while otherwise it 
carefully separates the individual neums which do not belong so closely 
together. Codex 121 of Einsiedeln places the letter "c" (celeriter, rapidlyj 
over the first two clives. Every musician will know how to appreciate 
these indications. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 18: 9, 12) 

1. Justitiae Domini rectae, lae- 1. The justices of the Lord are 

tificantes cor da, 2. et dulciora super right, rejoicing hearts, 2. and sweeter 

met et favum: 3. nam et servus tuus than honey and the honeycomb: 3. 

custodiet ea. for thy servant will keep them. 

Even on the second Sunday of Lent the Church had lovingly sung 
of the Lord's commandments. But the sound of the Offertory of the third 
Sunday of Lent is still more sweet in the hearts of the faithful and in 



Third Sunday in Lent 135 

our hearts. It sings along serenely, not taking any audience into con- 
sideration; it rejoices in the revealed truth and is an expression of the 
soul's good fortune in being able to walk with simplicity and love in the 
ways of God. It is the song of a soul firmly grounded, of a soul that has 
tasted the sweetness of the Lord. It is like the morning prayer of a child, 
fresh as the dew, whose eyes reflect its innocence, and who has as yet 
no inkling of the world's wickedness and does not realize how bitter 
commerce with it may become. 

The motive over Domine runs through the entire piece. We hear it 
over rectae, and even before, over justitiae, then in corda, and beautifully 
expanded over dulciora. The second phrase modulates to c, which is a 
fourth lower than the tonic. While the first and second phrases con- 
tented themselves with seconds and thirds, the third phrase also has 
fourths. Everything up to the last notes very evidently belongs to the 
sixth mode. Suddenly we meet with a surprising melodic turn. Now the 
passage agfg gf becomes agf gfe e. Occasionally the masters of poly- 
phony also close with an unexpected key, as is shown by some of Schu- 
bert's songs. In itself there is nothing peculiar about the ending on e. 
In this, or in a somewhat expanded form, it frequently occurs in pieces 
of the fourth mode, for example, in the Gloria of the fourth Mass. In 
that selection, however, sixteen preceding phrases end on e. But here 
final e for the first time comes at the very end. That is the striking fea- 
ture. After the bright, open melody of the sixth mode it comes as a ques- 
tion, a slight doubt. Is what you say true? Will you remain faithful? Will 
you be of the number of those whom the Lord in today's Gospel calls 
blessed because they hear the word of God and keep it? In the Gospel 
of the present Sunday the Blessed Virgin is set before you as a model. 
She deserves the encomium, for she was privileged to bear in her womb 
the Saviour, the Word of God, but still more because no one else heard 
and observed God's word as she did. Will you keep your promise? In 
today's Mass formulary the Missal has a decided and clear custodit: Thy 
servant keepeth Thy commandments. In the earlier editions of the Liher 
Gradualis (1883 and 1895), published under the supervision of Dom 
Pothier, the Offertory patently closed with the sixth mode: agf agf f, as 
did also the Medicean edition. The older reading, however, demands 
custodiet: He will keep them, is determined to keep them. And the old 
melody, closing on the half tone, is far removed from victorious cer- 
tainty. It sounds like a fervent petition: Lord, give me the strength for 
it through Thy holy Sacrifice. 

In the psalm and in the text of the Missal before the words et judicia 
tua we find the strange neuter form dulciora: Thy judgements are sweeter 
than honey. 



136 Third Sunday in Lent 

COMMUNION (Ps. 83: 4, 5) 

1. Passer invenit sihi domum, et 1. The sparrow hath found her- 

turtur nidum, uhi reponat pullos self a house, and the turtle a nest, 

suos: 2. altaria tua Domine vir- where she may lay her young ones: 

tutum, Rex meus, et Deus meus: 3. 2. thine altars, Lord of hosts, my 

beati qui habitant in domo tua, in King, and my God: 3. blessed are 

saeculum saeculi laudabant te. they that dwell in thy house, they 

shall praise thee for ever and ever. 

The Communion offers modal peculiarities. First it closes on a, 
showing that it is transposed. But now the question might arise whether 
it is a transposition of a fifth or a fourth — actually it is a transposition 
of a fifth. Over the closing note is a full step and a minor third. A fourth 
lower, this would result in e f^ g e e, impossible to plainsong notation. 
A fifth lower, however, it becomes d e f d d — the closing formula of the 
first mode. The reason for the transposition lies with pullos. A fifth 
lower it would demand an e\?: f e\? g f f g d d. The ancient plainsong no- 
tation however, found it impossible to write eb, but could quite easily 
transpose a fifth higher to &[?. 

Futhermore, the third and first modes are fused here. The intona- 
tion of passer and the melody over virtutum point to the third mode. 
The closing cadence of the third mode, ccc a c b a, corresponds to c b a 
over (vir)-tütum. From Deus meus on the piece moves in the first mode. 
Rex meus contracts its interval over (De)-us meus. Here follows a modu- 
lation to the full tone below the tonic, much affected by the first mode. 

The antiphonal chants for the third Sunday of Lent exhibit various 
forms of modulation. The Introit in the seventh mode modulated to the 
full tone below the finale after the / over miserere mei; we find the same 
in the Tract of the eighth mode after the / over nostrum. The Commun- 
ion of the first mode also modulates to the full tone below the finale over 
Deus meus, and the Offertory, really in the sixth mode, modulates to 
the fourth below the finale over favum. Each time the modulation agrees 
with a break in the text, therefore in the thought. 

In the three phrases of this piece there is mention of a threefold 
kingdom. The first speaks of the realm of Nature, of the birds and the 
nests in which they harbor their young. We are struck by the numerous 
podatus forms, which may, in the composer's mind, indicate the flutter- 
ing of birds. That which is expressed pictorially in the first phrase, in 
the second becomes a reality, even though mysteriously, in the realm of 
mystery, in the kingdom of grace. From the altar and its Mystery flow 
the strength by which the Lord of hosts — the melody stresses this word 
— becomes our King, our God. There the soul has found her earthly 



Fourth Sunday in Lent 137 

home; there she is harbored safely and securely; thence she draws a 
marvelous fecundity. Such was the yearning of the catechumens: to be 
privileged to draw nigh to the altar. And the penitents, who had to re- 
main outside the church during Lent, how will they envy the good for- 
tune of those who come out with the Saviour in their heart! The third 
phrase refers to the kingdom of glory, to the house of God, where we 
shall sing praises for a blessed eternity. How luminous the melody here 
is! There we shall sing Alleluia in unending Paschal joy. There we shall 
forever sing our joyous thanksgiving for the boon God has bestowed 
upon us; for now evellet of the Introit has become full reality. There we 
shall sing an everlasting Redemisti nos — Thou hast redeemed us with 
Thy blood; our soul has escaped like a bird from the snares of the fowler: 
the snare is torn and we are freed. For this happiness the Mysteries of 
the altar are to prepare us. Holy Communion gives us the strength 
requisite to attain eternal glory. Our praying and singing in the house 
of God is a preparation for that more sublime song of eternity. May 
God's merciful love one day bring us all together in that celestial choir! 

* * * * 

FOURTH SUNDAY OF LENT 

Even more than on the second Sunday of Advent (q.v.), the station 
"at the church of the Holy Cross in Jerusalem," in which the solemn 
services were conducted at Rome, has determined the selection of the 
liturgical texts of today's Mass. All the chants contain allusions to Sion 
or Jerusalem. Only the Offertory in its present form is an exception. 

INTROIT (Is. 66: 10, 11) 

1. Laetare Jerusalem: et conven- 1. Rejoice, O Jerusalem, and 

turn facile omnes qui diligitis eam: come together all you that love her: 

2. gaudete cum laetitia, qui in tris- 2. rejoice with joy, you that have 

titia fuistis: 3. ut exsultetis, et sa- been in sorrow: S. that you may exult, 

tiemini ab uberibus consolationis and be filled from the breasts of your 

vestrae. Ps. Laetatus sum in his consolation. Ps. / rejoiced at the 

quae dicta sunt mihi: * in domum things that were said to me: * We 

Domini ibimus. shall go into the house of the Lord. 

The liturgy of this Sunday's Mass is the spring of the Easter liturgy, 
the anticipation of Easter joy. The same melodies which close the ar- 
dently longed-for Alleluia on Holy Saturday (g c a b a a g), today, like 

true overtures, begin the Mass (f bl? g a g f). The joy of motherhood, 
which the Church will e^^perience at the baptism of so many new child- 



138 Fourth Sunday in Lent 

ren, gives this song its bright and festal character. She anticipates their 
happiness in the possession of true freedom, and in the fulfillment of 
their desires through Christ. It is as if the Lenten season and penitential 
sorrow had already disappeared; as if the unrest brought about by 
doubts concerning the faith, and disquietude (tristitia), as also the sor- 
rows occasioned by the necessities of this present life, had long been 
overcome; it appears as if that blessed time in which God will dry away 
all tears had already dawned — when we shall be permitted to enter the 
Father's house and drink of the cup of solace. 

The joys here portrayed are of various intensities. At gaudete this 
joy is rather subdued, at laetdre it tends toward fuller expression, and at 
exsultetis it attains a glorious climax. But even here the melody observes 
a restraint peculiar to liturgical hymns. It contends itself with the range 
of a seventh. 

Laetdre has h\? for its highest note; this will dominate the third 
member of the first sentence. Jerusalem has as its highest note c, upon 
which the second member of the sentence supports itself. The clivis on 
the last syllable of Laetdre is to be extended somewhat. The conventum 
fdcite is almost like the ringing of bells. It may also be interpreted as 
the far-reaching sound of the herald's proclamation. We meet it again 
on the first Sunday after Pentecost in et pauper sum ego. The first sen- 
tence closes with quiet sequences. 

The second sentence introduces a new summons to joy. The final 
cadence of the solemn tone of the lesson, c g a f, is beautifully continued 
over cum laetitia. Between the similar forms over (tristi)-tia and (fu)- 
istis, which are characterized by the melancholic effect of the repeated 
6b, there is placed on the first syllable of this word an energetic h. 

The third sentence returns to the solemn tone of the first sentence 
and even amplifies it. The vivid exsultetis closes with the dominant, 
while a tristropha prepares for the brilliantly executed satiemini: "you 
shall be filled," you shall drink to satiety from the streams of eternal 
bliss. The word closes with a kind of modulation in A minor (a h a), 
which renders the second part of the sentence with its recurring bi? all 
the more effective. The broad intervals, fourths and fifths, also indicate 
the fullness of consolation; but this is achieved most effectively by the 
rich final cadence which rhymes with the first sentence. This, as well as 
the melody over conventum fdcite, might readily be written to five-eighths 
time. The final syllable of uheribus is rendered softly. The execution 
should bring out the sweetness of divine consolation. 

Where so much joy and happiness await us we cannot but join with 
all our heart in the sentiment of the verse of the psalm : Laetdtus sum. 
That is the answer to the Laetdre of the antiphon. 



Fourth Sunday in Lent 139 

A^ Sch„ 77; K.K., 24, 29 ff.; Analyses, I, 12 ff.; Rass. gr., 9, 5 fif.; 
Caecilia, 29, 20 f. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 121: 1, 7) 

1. Laetatus sum in his quae dicta 1. / rejoiced at the things that 

sunt mihi. 2. In domum Domini were said to me: 2. We shall go into 

ihimus. S'. 1. Fiat pax in vir- the house of the Lord. jj\ 1. Let peace 

tute tua: 2. Et ahundantia in turri- he in thy strength: 2. And abund- 

hus tuts. ance in thy towers. 

The corpus has the same text as the psalm-verse of the Introit. The 
melodic style, however, is very different. The psalm-verse of the Introit 
carries only one note over each syllable of the text, and accordingly re- 
mains purely syllabic. The Gradual, however, practically throughout 
carries groups of notes over each syllable of the text. The Introit verse 
is composed according to a fixed formula, which remains the same in all 
Introit psalm-verses of the fifth mode, regardless of the content and sen- 
timent of the text. Graduals as a rule, make use of a variety of formulas 
and are, therefore, essentially embellishing music. Today, however, the 
number of typical formulas is almost negligible, and consequently we 
may consider it an original composition. 

But also here psalmodic construction is evident: 

Intonation Middle Cadence Final Cadence 

(dominant) (tonic) 

Laetatus mihi ihimus, 

Fiat pax tua: 

ahundantia tuis. 

The first sentence of the corpus is an arsis conceived on a grand 
scale. The middle cadence contains a pleasant undulation. The second 
sentence is a thesis and a return to the tonic. This made possible a bright 
development of the verse. Actually, it contains a petition: Fiat- — "may 
it come to pass." What we hear, however, is not a petition and suppli- 
cation, but a portrayal of interior and exterior joy, and a cheerful thanks- 
giving for these gifts. As to melody, two sentences are to be distinguished: 
Fiat pax brings the same rich middle cadence as sunt mihi above, with 
the exception that the word pax, so full of meaning, is brought into 
prominence more plastically and brilliantly. At tua the melody returns 
again to the fundamental of the mode. The second sentence is built up 
in a similar way. The middle cadence, however, contains a significant 
extension here. The larger intervals and the tarrying on the high seventh 
above the fundamental seem to try to give expression to the abundant 
fullness of blessing. 



140 Fourth Sunday in Lent 

The desire of the singer is the attainment of peace and prosperity; 
for peace without prosperity is quiet misery, and prosperity without 
peace is unenjoyable happiness, as St. Chrysostom says. In the mouth 
of the Israelites, returning from exile, this psalm was a jubilant greeting 
to Sion. Peace has again entered the hearts of many during these holy 
weeks before Easter. They have gone into the house of the Lord, and 
God with His grace has again entered into their hearts. They have been 
filled with divine consolation in the reception of Holy Communion. 

The Gradual is a preparation for the Gospel of this Sunday, which 
recounts the miraculous multiplication of the loaves, is a preparation 
for the institution of the Holy Eucharist and its never-failing peace. 
We hear it again in the votive Mass for peace. 

TRACT (Ps. 124: 1, 2) 

1. Qui confidunt in Domino sicut 1. They that trust in the Lord shall 

mons Sion: f non commovehitur in be as Mount Sion: f he shall not he 

aeternum, f Qui habitat in Jerusa- moved for ever f that dwelleth in 

lern. 2. Montes in circuitu ejus: f Jerusalem. 2. Mountains are round 

et Dominus in circuitu populi sui, about it: f so the Lord is round about 

t ex hoc nunc et usque in saecu- His people, f from henceforth now 

lum. and forever. 

The intervals of fourths over montes endeavor to picture for us the 
jagged mountains. Over sui we meet an easily recognizable form of what 
Ernst Kurth, in his Grundlagen des linearen Kontrapunktes (pp. 26 fif.), 
calls "Schleuderbewegung." We receive the impression that there is a 
gathering and concentration of forces in preparation for the leap of the 
interval. Codex 339 of St. Gall's here uses only light neums to be sung 
straight on, evidently requiring a fluent and impelling rendition, remi- 
niscent of the preparatory twirls of a sling. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 134: 3, 6) 

1. Laudate Dominum quia be- 1. Praise ye the Lord, for he is 

nignus est: 2. psallite nomini ejus good: 2. sing ye to his Name, for 

quoniam suavis est: 3. omnia quae- he is sweet: 3. whatsoever he pleased, 

cumque voluit, fecit in caelo et in he hath done in heaven and on 

terra, earth. 

The introductory word Laudate is significant from a twofold con- 
sideration: on account of its rich melody and its extended range. Both 
these elements, however, are lacking as the melody progresses. It never 
passes beyond the range of a fifth. It would seem that it was not so much 



Fourth Sunday in Lent 141 

the thought of singing and playing for God that occupied the mind of 
the author, but rather this thought: "God is good." In a similar manner 
does he emphasize, with almost the same melodic turn, the thought: 
"sweet is His name" after the motive over psdllite in the Introit of the 
first Christmas Mass. It is this thought that gives the chant its sweet 
and restful character. It governs also the third sentence, which treats 
of the omnipotence of God. A modulation to the full step below the tonic 
closes the second sentence. Then omnia rises up solemply, and we ex- 
pect a development, but the repetitions over voluit, fecit, and over caelo 
et in terra, which are enlivened only by fourths, preserve the quiet char- 
acter. No boisterous song which might arouse the listeners should be 
allowed here. It is a quiet song, a joyful prayer of thanksgiving for the 
goodness of God manifested in the miracle of the multiplication of the 
loaves (Gospel) and in the miracle of the Eucharist which is continually 
being performed. 

The Offertory is the only chant of today's Mass that does not con- 
tain an allusion to Jerusalem. Formerly, however, it contained more 
verses, the last of which runs thus: "Ye that fear the Lord, praise the 
Lord. Praised be the Lord of Sion, who dwelleth in Jerusalem." It was 
this concluding word that carried an unusually rich melody. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 21: 3, 4) 

1. Jerusalerriy quae aedificatur ut 1. Jerusalem which is built as a 

civitas, cujus participatio ejus in city, which is compact together: 2. 

idipsum: 2. illuc enim ascenderunt for thither did the tribes go up, the 

tribus, tribus Domini, ad confi- tribes of the Lord, to praise thy 

tendum nomini tuo, Domine. name, Lord. 

The word Jerusalem is treated with evident affection. Hence, when- 
ever any certain tone is prolonged and the melody lingers about it, it 
conveys the picture of a well-grounded city, or at least suggests such an 
image. The brilliantly aspiring melody which follows, however, stresses 
the point that more important than these external advantages are the 
spiritual benefits which this city of peace imparts to its inhabitants. The 
climax of the entire piece comes at the words illic enim ascenderunt 
tribus with a melody full of sweet harmony, and an excellent expansion 
of the motives of ejus in idipsum. In the Rome of the Middle Ages, as 
Grisar (Das Missale, p. 46 j says, "even the ascent to today's station 
church 'in Jerusalem' was a reality, since it went from the Lateran down 
into a valley, then higher up again. Even today, despite the filling in 
of the lower parts of this valley, this is still discernible from the course 
of the old city walls which are found at that place." The purpose of the 



142 Passion Sunday 

rising melody, however, is not only to portray. It rings out like the echo 
of the joyful songs that the Israelites, dressed for the solemn occasion, 
sang on their pilgrimage to Jerusalem; or like an anticipation of the songs 
that came from the hearts of the catechumens, when, on the night before 
Easter, vested in their white robes^ — the symbol of purity of heart- — 
they were permitted to go up to the altar from the baptistry in order 
to take part in the sacrificial banquet (participdtio). 

In the Epistle of this Sunday St. Paul speaks about the heavenly 
Jerusalem. Thither, to our true home, we all direct our pilgrimage. 
There we shall find brothers and sisters who know themselves intimately 
united with us. And all of us have communion with them (that is how 
we may translate the words: cujus participätio). The bread of life is our 
viaticum. Therefore bravely on toward the eternal Easter, to never- 
ending joy, to the never-ceasing praise of God. When next the solemn 
services shall be held at the "Holy Cross in Jerusalem," Good Friday, 
with its deeply impressive honoring of the holy cross and its lovable 
dwelling on the wounds and the love of Christ, will have come. At that 
time, too, the Church will emphasize the fact that through the cross 
alone has joy come over the whole world. The joys that run through the 
present Sunday also flow from the cross of Christ, as does all peace and 
happiness. 



PASSION SUNDAY 

INTROIT (Ps. 42: 1, 2) 

1. Judica me, Deus, et discerne 1. Judge me, O God, and dis- 

causam meam de gente non sancta: tinguish my cause from the nation 

2. ah homine iniquo et doloso eripe that is not holy: 2. from the unjust 

me: quia tu es Deus meus, et for- and deceitful man deliver me: for 

titudo mea. Ps. Emitte lucem tua et thou art my God and my strength, 

veritatem tuam: * ipsa me deduxer- Ps. Send forth thy light and thy 

unt, et adduxerunt in montem truth: * they have conducted me, and 

sanctum tuum, et in tahernacula brought me unto thy holy hill, and 

tua. unto thy tabernacles. 

The forty-second psalm, from which these words are taken, forms a 
part of the preliminary prayers of the Mass, on account of its verse: "I 
will go unto the altar of God, to, God who giveth joy to my youth." But 
even before it was used for this purpose it was sung on the present Sun- 
day. We are reminded of this old custom when today, and on the fol- 



Passion Sunday 143 

lowing days until Holy Saturday exclusive, this psalm is not said at the 
foot of the altar lest it be said twice — by the priest and choir. 

If we permit the melody to work on us, or even if we merely glance 
at the notation, one phrase immediately draws our attention. It is eripe 
me — "deliver me!" It is the cry of a heavily oppressed heart. How effec- 
tive must it have been formerly, when after each verse of the psalm, 
the antiphon and with it this cry of affliction was heard. Along with it, 
the second thought of this Introit was stressed, the thought of trust: 
"For Thou art my God and my strength." But the entire melodic de- 
velopment works up to a climax with eripe me. 

Who is it that prays thus? Since today is Passion Sunday, our first 
thought is that it is Christ Himself. Today's Epistle tells of Him that 
He offered Himself as a spotless victim to the Father by the Holy Ghost. 
No doubt, the words or thoughts of this Introit belonged to that Introit, 
that introductory prayer, with which our dear Lord and Saviour began 
His Passion on Mount Olivet. He sees Himself betrayed by Judas, "the 
unjust and deceitful man;" he sees Himself before a tribunal, verily 
before a "nation that is not holy." How must His inner Self have cried 
to the Father: Judica me — "Judge me, God, and distinguish my cause:" 
eripe me — "deliver me!" Apparently this appeal is not heard, nor the 
prayer: emitte lucem tuam — "Send forth Thy light," for darkness cov- 
ered the face of the earth when the Jews crucified the Lord. He prays: 
"Send forth . . .Thy truth;" but will have to cry: "My God, My God, 
why hast Thou forsaken Me?" And yet God was His God and His 
strength. The Easter sun will come to dispel the darkness of Calvary. 
And Golgotha, in spite of its tragedy, was a holy mount and the ante- 
room to the sublime tabernacle of glory. And the first song of the risen 
Christ is a song of praise to the Father for His fidelity: "I arose, and 
am still with Thee." 

As Christ prays so the Church prays, for she is one with Him. Thus 
also does the individual Christian soul pray. Only too frequently we 
perceive ourselves to be an unholy nation, an unjust and deceitful man 
that would delude us, deceive us, and turn us away from truth and 
fidelity. The more we enter into ourselves by a searching self-examina- 
tion, the more fervently shall we cry to our God and our strength: eripe 
me- — "deliver me!" 

But we also know that in the mystery of the holy Mass God's light 
shines before our eyes and His fidelity reveals itself. Here we are upon 
His holy mountain, in His tabernacle; we approach closely to Him. He 
enters into our soul with His light and His truth. 

The first and third phrases have the same ending, while the second 
has a similar close a fifth higher over (eri)-pe me. Thus the whole is varied 



144 Passion Sunday 

and rounded out. There is some resemblance between the first half of 
the first two phrases and the second half of the third phrase. The sec- 
onds and the minor third in the first phrase begin apathetically. But al- 
ready causam meam betrays inner agitation. The sorrow, thus far con- 
cealed with difficulty, comes to the surface in the second phrase with 
gathering force. "From the unjust and deceitful man deliver me!" With 
a, h\?, h, c, the melody works up to d. This results quite naturally in a 
forceful crescendo. In the annotated manuscript of the tenth and eleventh 
centuries the third phrase is introduced with great delicacy of feeling 
with broad notes, over which is placed "t" (teuere, to hold J. Thus im- 
pressiveness is added to the subsequent assertion: "for Thou art my God 
and my strength." Similarly, on the final syllable of fortitudo, "Thou 
art my strength," the same manuscripts have almost all the neums 
marked broadly. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 142: 9, 10) 

1. Eripe me, Domine, de inimicis 1. Deliver me from mine enemies, 

m^is: 2. doce me facere voluntatem O Lord: 2. teach me to do thy will, 

tuam. 'f. 1. Liberator mens, Do- '^. 1. Thou art my deliverer, O Lord, 

mine, de gentihus iracundis: 2. ab from the angry nations: 2. thou wilt 

insurgentibus in me exaltabis me: lift me up above them that rise up 

3. a viro iniquo eripies me. against me: 3. from the unjust man 

thou wilt deliver me. 

The Gradual continues the principal petitions of the Introit. Both 
cry out: eripe me; both speak of the unjust man (homine iniquo, viro 
iniquo). Whereas the Introit had prayed: ""Send forth Thy light," the 
Gradual implores the Lord thus: "Teach me to do Thy will." Both are 
filled with an unshakable confidence. Deus meus, et fortitudo mea of the 
Introit corresponds to liberator meus in the Gradual. In the corpus we 
find more supplication: eripe me, while the verse is more expressive of 
confidence: "Thou wilt lift up; Thou wilt deliver me." Melodically, 
also, the verse represents an increase, as is the case in most Graduals. 

The melody belongs to the third mode, which is employed in nine 
different Graduals in the period from Septuagesima Sunday to the 
Tuesday in Holy Week, while during the entire remaining part of the 
liturgical year it occurs only nine times in all. It is composed of varying 
formulas, which are adapted in various groupings over different texts. 
We have, therefore, to do here with a typical melody, and hence are not 
so much concerned with interpretation of the text as with its embellish- 
ment. Upon closer inspection, however, several peculiarities may be 
noted, among them the plaintive closing motive b a g a f f e, which oc- 



Passion Sunday 145 

curs over fäcere, iracündis, in me, iniquo, and (eripies) me. Above all, 
however, the passage over a viro iniquo produces a striking effect. The 
beginning bears some resemblance to that of the third Sunday of Lent. 
Meis and tuam with their florid cadences divide the corpus into two dis- 
tinct phrases. The latter gave a corresponding ending to the corpus and 
verse on the third Sunday of Lent. The verse has three phrases. In many 
passages the old dominant of the third mode (h) is still plainly discern- 
ible. At the beginning of the verse, cb c da must be regarded as an arsis; 
that which follows as thesis. The third member begins here with a con- 
traction of the second member and then repeats the thesis like motive 
of the first member. 

(Cf. the Gradual for Quinquagesima Sunday.) 
TRACT (Ps. 128: 1, 4) 

1. Saepe expugnaverunt me a ju- 1. Often have they fought against 

ventute mea. 2. Dicat nunc Israel: f me from my youth. 2. Let Israel now 

saepe expugnaverunt me ( — ) a ju- say: f Often have they fought 

ventute mea. 3. Etenim non potuer- against me ( — ) from my youth. 3. 

unt mihi: f supra dorsum meum But they could not prevail over me: 

( — ) fabricaverunt peccatores. 4. f upon my hack ( — ) the wicked 

Prolongaverunt iniquitatem sihi: f have wrought. 4. They have length- 

Dominus Justus concidet ( — ) cer- ened their iniquities : f the Lord, who 

vices peccatorum. is just, will cut ( — ) the necks of 

the sinners. 

In every instance the beginning of the verses is different. Special 
attention should be paid to that of the first and second verses. To look 
upon the florid melody over saepe as mere word-painting, representing 
frequency, would indeed betray a too superficial understanding: for if 
one remarks how the annotated manuscript, for example Codex 121 of 
Einsiedeln, give a broad form to almost every note, how each of the 
descending thirds is marked with an episeme and besides this also with 
"t" (tenere, to holdj, the thought suggests itself that the singer was 
casting a glance backward over all the struggles that had broken in upon 
him and was reliving all the hard and bitter things they had brought 
to him, and in this mood had sung this heavy melody. Similarly, the 
second verse with its threefold "x" (exspectare, to waitj after three groups 
of notes, with a broad construction over the last four notes, which more- 
over are marked with "t", seems to reveal a similar feeling. After these 
serious beginnings we soon meet frequent joyous passages, proper to 
Tract-melodies of the eighth mode. The fundamental thought of the 



146 Passion Sunday 

entire piece is: non potuerunt mihi, which we should like to see given 
melodic prominence rather than the second mea. The second last member 
closes on /, the last on g. Both notes influence the preceding neums: / 
demands 6b, while g calls for h: cc ag a h\? g f, a ca hg g aa g. The typical 

Alleluia-melody of the eighth mode, sung, for example, on the first 
Sunday of Advent, has a similar closing formula. Toward the end, the 
first and third verses have an identical melody; the closing neums of the 
second verse also are alike. By the middle cadence with its modulation 
to /, the second verse is divided at Israel, the third at mihi, the fourth 
at sihi. With dorsum meum the word-accent is prepared by two neums, 
exactly as with concidet, and before the expugnaverunt me. Then the sylla- 
ble after the accent dies away quietly. In the last verse we find a florid 
melisma over the accented syllable of Prolongaverunt, which also occurs 
over the second syllable of etenim at the beginning of the third verse. 
As happens frequently, plain song resolves the word etenim into its two 
constituent parts, et\enim. 

The song marks the opening of the mighty struggle upon which 
Christ is now entering. From His youth, from His very childhood, He 
was harassed, so that He had to be saved by flight from His country. 
In the Gospel of Passion Sunday we hear again how His enemies in- 
tended to stone Him; indeed, they already had the stones in their hands. 
What means did they not employ to render Him and His work odious? 
How have not the wicked wrought upon His back at the scourging? How 
did they not lengthen their iniquities in that long night and on that 
terrible Good Friday? But they did not conquer Him. In spite of their 
machinations, Easter Day dawned. As He had been, so has His Church 
been worried from her youth, from the days of the first Pentecost, when 
the Apostles were scourged, to our own time. The Christians have been 
persecuted and slaughtered, churches and cloisters have fallen a prey to 
vandalism. The researches of so-called scholars and the intrigues of 
diplomats and statesmen have exerted all their powers against her. But 
non potuerunt, they were not able to overcome her. Christ has given 
His promise and will fulfill it to the end of days: and all the fury of hell 
shall not avail against her. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 118: 17, 107) 

1. Confitehor tibi, Dowiine, in toto 1. / will confess to thee, O Lord 

cor de meo: 2. retrihue servo tuo: with my whole heart: 2. render to 

vivam, et custodiam sermones tuos: thy servant: I shall live and keep 

3. vivifica me secundum verhum thy words: 3. enliven me according 

tuum, Domine. to thy word, Lord. 



Passion Sunday 147 

This bright, joyous text of the antiphon — and verse which was 
attached to it in the most ancient manuscript — may surprise us on Pas- 
sion Sunday. It does, indeed present petitions: "enliven me; incline my 
heart in Thy testimonies;" but the other thoughts predominate: "Thy 
judgements are delightful" (jucunda), and, with a florid melody, "I have 
loved Thy law." Thus this Offertory continues the thoughts of the sec- 
ond and third Sundays of Lent. We may point out that, from Passion 
Sunday on, the Missal does not stress the sufferings of Christ so much 
as does the Breviary in its hymns and antiphons. We never find somber 
tones exclusively in the Church's mourning. When she thinks of her be- 
loved dead, she does not act like those who have no hope; she sees eternal 
light rising before them, and asks that this eternal light be theirs. And 
the most heartfelt sympathy with the sufferings of the Crucified One 
does not hinder her from singing of Christ's resurrection on Good Fri- 
day, and from singing of His cross: "For by the wood the whole world 
is filled with joy." 

The Offertory bears some relation to the Gospel of the Sunday. 
Christ is accused by the Jews of having a demon; His enemies condemn 
Him as a blasphemer and therefore wish to stone Him. We, on the con- 
trary, sing: "I will confess to Thee . . . with my whole heart." In the 
Gospel Christ speaks: "Abraham your father rejoiced that he might see 
My day: he saw it [in spirit], and was glad." Abraham's longing and joy 
has been realized. The day of Christ has come. We see Him and experi- 
ence His presence at every holy Mass. Hence the grateful words: "I 
will confess to Thee, O Lord, with my whole heart" (first phrase). The 
Saviour continues: "Amen, amen I say to you, if any man keep My 
word, he shall not see death for ever." This gives us an understanding 
of the solemn protestation of the Offertory: "I shall live and keep Thy 
words" (second phrase). But humbly and confidently we add: "Enliven 
me according to Thy word, O Lord" (third phrase). 

The melody has a bright and joyous ring. It is characterized by 
symmetry and harmony. The first and third phrases have the same 
longer closing formula over meo and Domine, while the second has it a 
minor third higher over tuos. These corresponding cadences give to the 
whole the qualities of song construction. In each case they already set 
in a fourth before the finale: over (cor)-de and (tu)-um with g ff e (d), 
over (serm6)-nes with h\? a g (f). A trained ear will recognize a resolved 
F-major chord over in to-(to), -o vi-(vam), et custö-(diam), vivifica, ver- 
hum. In other instances too this piece shows a predilection for small 
formulas: tibi and toto with a descending fourth, as also Domine, vivam, 
cust6-(diam). The formula g a /d/ over (to)-to likewise deserves mention; 



148 Passion Sunday 

it is repeated over (retribu)-e and in a shortened form over verbum as 

fgfdf. 

If we compare the three phrases of the piece, it can scarcely be as- 
serted that any single one of them is more significant than the others 
or reveals a greater tension of soul. In this fact, from a purely artistic 
point of view, lies the defect of our present Offertory. The fact that th-e 
second and third phrases in each case set in with the closing note of the 
preceding phrase causes some monotony. The initial motive of the 
piece is found frequently; for example, in the Introits Rordte and Gau- 
deamus, and in the Offertory Jubilate. In the second phrase the question 
arises whether or not a larger pause ought to be made after servo tuo. 
Generally we translate: "Render to Thy servant that I may live." This 
interpretation is corroborated by the manuscript of St. Gall's (339) 
and of Einsiedeln (121), which do not place an episeme over the last 
two notes of tuo, as is almost always done in similar passages. They 
intend, therefore, that vivam be added immediately. The melody as 
such, however, seems to demand a pause. Melodically, vivam et custo- 
diam surely belong together. The passage over sermones tuos frequently 
recurs in pieces of the fifth and sixth modes (cf. the Introit Requiem). 
In the third phrase the cadence secundum is somewhat disturbing, be- 
cause it separates the preposition too much from its substantive, unless 
the rendition be a fluent one. So much the more pleasant is vivifica 
("enliven me") and verbum. The latter is a happy continuation of toto, 
while (retribu)-e may be looked upon as a contraction of that word. 
Compare also the melodic movement over (in) me in the verse of today's 
Gradul with verbum. 

N. Sch., 232, 239 f. 

COMMUNION (I Cor. 11: 24, 25) 

1. Hoc corpus, quod pro vobis 1. This is my body which shall 

tradetur: hie calix novi testamenti be delivered for you: this is the 
est in meo sanguine, dicit Dominus: chalice of the new testament in my 
2. hoc facite, quotiescumque sumi- blood, saith the Lord: 2. this do as 
tis, in meam commemorationem. often as you receive it, in commemo- 

ration of me. 

Christ is Highpriest. He offered Himself to the Father as a spotless 
victim as He does today in the Mystery of holy Mass, and sings to Him 
a perfect song. With His own blood He accomplished the salvation of 
mankind on the wood of the cross, so that whence death came, thence 
also life might rise again (Preface of the Cross). He has won eternal 
redemption and eternal life, which He bestows upon all those who 
group themselves around Him in faith, who hear His word and keep it. 



Passion Sunday 149 

Some of the melody's peculiarities, no doubt, arise from its affinity 
to the Ambrosian Liturgy of Milan, where it is still sung today (Rubs. 
gr., 7, 506 fif.)- But it has become much more effective in its Gregorian 
dress. 

This song takes us into the midst of the scene of the Last Supper, 
at its most solemn moment. The words we hear are the most powerful 
heard since the creation of the world; words embodying in themselves 
wonder upon wonder, effecting the profoundest Mystery of the Holy 
Eucharist. Hence we may well expect that the plainsong melody has 
great things to tell. But it has still another characteristic. The frequent 
succession of three full tones, f g a h (tritone), ascending over voMs 
tradetur and over calix novi, and descending over meo sanguine and meam 
commemorationem, imparts to the song harsh, painful features. They 
seem to remind us of the Saviour's words on the eve of His passion, to 
re-create, as it were, the feelings which at that time filled His heart. Not 
only did He have a premonition of them, but He foresaw them most 
clearly, and felt beforehand all the tortures with which His body would 
be afflicted and with which His blood, establishing the New Covenant, 
would be shed. This pain is present throughout the piece. With great dif- 
ficulty vohis tradetur seems to ascend, as if it had to pause for rest and recu- 
perate strength after each full tone. The annotated manuscript here have 
three neums with broad markings. By reason of the similar closing for- 
mulas over tradetur, Dominus, and commemorationem, one might dis- 
tinguish three phrases. The first phrase supports itself on g and only 
once extends to h. By its emphasis on b, the second phrase wishes to state 
the fact that a new covenant has been called into being. In this phrase 
we hear a single c. A new division begins with hoc facite. Emphatically 
the melody ascends to c and lets it resound. Manuscript 121 of Ein- 
siedeln has here not only an episeme for the first neum, but also "V 
(teuere, prolong, draw out this notej. Here the melody appropriately 
grows in warmth and solemnity, especially over quotiescumque with its 
protracted high e. Over meam the same form returns a fourth lower. 
The Lord has given the command which called our liturgy into being, 
the command which incites to participation in the sacrificial Banquet, 
which builds our altars, and the churches and cathedrals that house them. 
It seems as if the light of transfiguration were sweeping over the coun- 
tenance of the Saviour, joyful at the immeasurable blessing that the Holy 
Eucharist will produce, blissfully contemplating all the love it will wake 
in grateful hearts. The harsh ending tells us that Communion is the 
fruit of Christ's sacrificial death. 

Musica s., 52, 3 ff. 

* * * * 



150 Palm Sunday 

PALM SUNDAY 

A. THE BLESSING OF THE PALMS AND THE 
PROCESSION 

The chants and prayers are arranged as at holy Mass. In place of 
the Introit we have the following antiphon 

ANTIPHON (Matt. 21:9) 

1. Hosanna filio David: bene- 1. Hosanna to the Son of David: 

dictus qui venit in nomine Domini. blessed is he that cometh in the name 
2. Rex Israel: Hosanna in excelsis. of the Lord. 2. O King of Israel: 

Hosanna in the highest. 

Here the very first word again supplies the leading thought of the 
celebration, the fundamental idea. The blessing of the palms and the 
procession anticipate the resurrection. The large interval of a fifth at 
the beginning and toward the close of the antiphon tend to rouse and 
enhance the festal joy. Philologically the word Hosanna means "save 
now, save," and implores a blessing upon the Son of David entering 
Jerusalem. But perhaps at that time already, as at present, it was an 
expression of jubilation. Therefore, Hosanna in excelsis does not mean 
that God is to send down His help from on high. Rather it is an exhor- 
tation to the inhabitants of the celestial regions to join in the rejoicing 
of the exultant multitude on earth. In the Son of David all of God's 
prophecies have been fulfilled. In Him we meet the divine, we meet God 
Himself. 

This cry has been perpetuated throughout the centuries, and no 
Mass is now celebrated in which the King of glory is not greeted in this 
manner. With what affection did our most famous composers treat the 
Benedictus with its Hosanna. 

This melody bears some resemblance to an archaic Greek composi- 
tion dating from the second century before Christ. 

Moehler, Geschichte der alten und mittelalterlischen Musik, I, 18 
(Sammlung Goeschen) and Musica s. 44, 193 ff. 

THE RESPONSORIES 

Between the Lesson, describing the oasis with its seventy palms, 
and the Gospel, which narrates the triumphal entry of Jesus, two re- 



Palm Sunday 151 

sponsories are inserted, either of which may be sung. In the present 
instance both of them strike us as strange. One of them leads us to the 
meeting of the Sanhedrin, which determined up®n the death of Jesus. 
Its melody reveals a powerful, even passionate dramatic force. The ren- 
dition is not easy. 

THE SECOND RESPONSORY (Matt. 26: 39, 41) 

A, 1. In monte Oliveti oravit ad A. l.On Mount Olivet he prayed 

Patrem: 2. Pater, si fieri potest to his Father: 2. Father, if it be po~ 

transeat a me calix iste. 3. * Spi- sihle, let this chalice pass from me 

ritus quidem promptus est, caro 3. * The spirit indeed is willing, 

autem infirma: 4. fiat voluntas tua. hut the flesh is weak: 4. thy will he 

B. t- I. Vigilate et orate, II. ut done. B. ^. /. Watch and pray, II. 

non intretis in tentationem. A. 3. that ye enter not into temptation. 

* Spiritus. ... A. 3. * The spirit. . . . 

The procession began from Mount Olivet. This responsory speeds 
ahead of the incidents in the order of their occurrence and transports us 
to the scene of Christ's agony on the same Mount of Olives, thus setting 
up a rather somber background to this joyful celebration. 

The melody has the form ABA, like the responsory Emendemus 
on Ash Wednesday. In A the first half of the first phrase ascends to the 
dominant; in the form of a sequence the second half comes to the tonic. 
The second and third phrases begin on the dominant. The third closes 
with a modulation to the full tone below the tonic. Iste sets the formula 
over (Oli)-veti a full tone lower. 

B, the verse, has an entirely typical melody. Both of its two phrases 
have an introductory formula; then in I the wonted recitation on c 
follows which is very brief here on account of the brevity of the text, 
together with a frequent five-syllable middle adence; in II recitation 

S 4 32 1 

on g, and always a five-syllable closing cadence, here from tentationem 
on. 

Wagner, III, 197 and 343; Johner, Der greg. Choral, 96 and 102. 

At the distribution of the blessed palms the antiphons Pueri Hehrae- 
orum are sung. 

Pueri Hehraeorum, portantes ra- The Hehrew children carrying 

mos olivarum, ohviaverunt Domino, olive branches, met our Lord, crying 

clamantes, et dicentes: Hosanna in out, and saying: Hosanna in the 

excelsis. highest. 



152 Palm Sunday 

Pueri Hehraeorum vestimenta The Hebrew children spread their 

prosternehant in via, et clamahant garments in the way, and cried out 

dicentes: Hosanna filio David: saying: Hosanna to the Son of 

henedictus qui venit in nomine David: blessed is he that cometh in 

Domini. the name of the Lord. 

These energetic songs well deserved to become the common pro- 
perty of the faithful. They are similar in construction, yet present a 

ag f ga a 
pleasing variety. The first antiphon sings o-li-va-rum, while the second 

a g f f g g 
in the corresponding place sings -nebant in vi-a. Especially in the sec- 
ond antiphon does the influence of the word-accents on the melody make 
itself felt. These songs were very popular formerly. 

THE PROCESSION OF THE PALMS 

Through their blessing the palm boughs were elevated to the dignity 
of sacramentals, capable of mediating grace for us. The blessing, however, 
has still another purpose; it is the psychological preparation for the ele- 
vated feeling manifested in the palm procession. It explains to us the 
symbolism of this procession and asks for the graces which are to pre- 
pare us for this solemn act. Then only can real joy and true enthusiasm 
quicken us. The palms anticipate triumphs over the prince of this world: 
thus the Church, in poetic strain. They announce beforehand that our 
Saviour will fight with the prince of death for the life of the world and 
that by His death He will conquer. And the olive branches tell us that 
in the Son of God the fullness of mercy has been manifested to the world. 

Of the charming antiphons which the Church offers us we shall 
adduce the following only: 

1. Ante sex dies solemnis Paschae, 1. Six days before the solemnity 

quando venit Dominus in civitatem of the Passover, when our Lord was 
Jerusalem, occurrerunt ei pueri: 2. coming into the city of Jerusalem, the 
et in manibus portabant ramos pal- children met him [solemn inception, 
marum, et clamabant voce magna emphasis on seconds, but then a 
dicentes: 3. Hosanna in excelsis: great development, a clear major 
4. benedictus qui venisti in multi- chord over quando ve-(nit), Jeru- 
tudine misericordiae: 5. Hosanna salem, occurrerunt]. 2. and carried 
in excelsis. palm branches in their hands, and 

cried with a loud voice, saying [deep 
middle phrase, forming a kind of 



Palm Sunday 



153 



1. Occurrunt turhae cum florihus 
et palmis Redemptori ohviam: 2. et 
victori triumphanti digna dant oh- 
sequia: 3. Filium Dei ore gentes 
praedicant: et in laudem Christi 
voces tonant per nubila: Hosannal 



contrast and making the subse- 
quent Hosanna so much the more 
effective]. 3. Hosanna in the high- 
est [magnificent swellings, both in 
the first and in the second group 
of Hosanna]. 4. blessed art thou who 
hast come in the multitude of thy 
mercy [harking back to the melody 
of the second phrase and telling 
emphasis on multitudine]. 5. Ho- 
sanna in the highest [jubilant and 
spirited repetition of the melody.] 

1. The multitude go out to meet 
the Redeemer with flowers and 
palms: 2. and to a triumphant con- 
querer [how effective is the in- 
terval of a fourth and the recita- 
tion on the dominant!] they pay 
homage: 3. nations proclaim the 
Son of God: and their voices rend the 
skies in the praise of Christ: Ho- 
sannal 



Cum Angelis et pueris fideles in- 
veniamur, triumphatori mortis cla- 
mantes: Hosanna in excelsis. 



Let us join with the angels and 
children singing to the conqueror of 
death: Hosanna in the highest. 



What a mighty impression these melodies must have produced 
when sung by an immense concourse, rejoicing in their faith! And in 
the early centuries Palm Sunday was a solemn popular feast. Thus 
attests the pilgrim Etheria (c. 385), and so it was throughout the entire 
Middle Ages. Its procession enjoyed the same favor and popularity as 
was attained in later centuries by the Corpus Christi procession. 

RETURN OF THE PROCESSION 

When the procession returns into the church, it finds the doors 
locked. Suddenly from the interior of the church a joyous song to the 
victorious King Christ resounds, the renowned Gloria laus^, composed 
by Bishop Theodulf of Orleans (4-821). 



1 C.-O., 46, 45 ff.; Revue, 3, 115 ff.; Civilta catt., 57, II. 3 flf. and 159 ff. 



154 



Palm Sunday 



A. Gloria, laus, et honor, tibi sit A. All glory, praise, and honor he, 



Rex Christe Redemptor: B. Cui 
puerile decus prompsit Hosanna 
pium. 



Christ, Redeemer King, to 
thee, 
B. Whom children hailed with joy- 
ous song, 
Hosanna in sweet melody. 



The first halves of the two verses have some resemblance. 

The singers outside the church repeat this distich. Then the singers 



inside intone: 

1. Israel es tu Rex, Davidis et in- 
dyta proles: Nomine qui in Do- 
mini, Rex henedicte, venis. 



1. Thou David's Son of royal fame, 
Who in the God of Israel's name 
Art come our praise and love 
to claim. 



Here the verses have the same spirited melody. 
After each of the following verses the singers outside the church 
add the Gloria laus. Thus there results an energetic alternate song. 



2. Coetus in excelsis te laudat 
caelicus omnis. Et mortalis homo, et 
cuncta creata simul. 

3. Plebs Hebraea tibi cum palmis 
obvia venit: Cum prece, voto, hym- 
nis, adsumus ecce tibi. 



4. Hi tibi passuro solvebant 
munia laudis: Nos tibi regnanti 
pangimus ecce melos. 



5. Hi placuere tibi, placeat de- 
votio nostra : Rex bone, Rex clemens, 
cui bona cuncta placent. 



2. The angels host laud thee on high. 
All creatures too in earth and sky 
And mortal man takes up the 

cry. 

3. The Hebrews came with 

branches fair, 

And we with hymns and sup- 
pliant prayer 

Would in thy gracious triumph 
share. 

4. Thee on thy way to death they 

praise. 
To thee exsuUant psalms we 

raise, 
Who reignest unto endless days. 

5. To thee this day, gracious 

King, 
Whom their devotion pleased, we 

sing, 
Do thou accept the praise we 

bring. 



As the procession re-enters the church, the following is sung: 



Palm Sunday 



155 



RESPONSORY Ingrediente Domino 



A. 1. Ingrediente Domino in 
sanctam civitatem, 2. Hebraeorum 
pueri, resurr ectionem vitae pro- 
nuntiantes, 3. * Cum ramis palma- 
rum Hosanna clamabant in excel- 
sis. B. ^. I. Cumque audisset po- 
pulus, quod Jesus veniret Jerosoly- 
mam, II. exierunt obviam ei. A. 3. 
* Cum ramis . . . 



A. 1. As our Lord entered the 
city, 2. the Hebrew children de- 
claring the resurrection of life, 3. * 
With palm branches, cried out: 
Hosanna in the highest. B. jl. I. 
When the people heard that Jeuss 
was to come to Jerusalem, II. they 
went out to meet him. A. 3. * With 
palm branches . . . 



The construction here is the same as in the responsory Emendemus 
on Ash Wednesday. The third phrase corresponds to the first: civitatem 
= clamdbant in excelsis, with a slight simplification in the middle. In the 
second and third phrases the joy of the multitude waving palms strives 
to go beyond the limits of the typical form. Here again the third phrase 
modulates to the full tone below the tonic; the closing cadence also has 



five syllables: obviam ei. 



B. THE MASS 



INTROIT (Ps. 21 : 20, 22) 



1. Domine, ne longe facias auxi- 
lium tuum a me, 2. ad defensionem 
meam aspice: 3. libera me de ore 
leonis, et a cornibus unicornuorum 
humilitatem meam. Ps. Deus, Deus 
meus, respice in me, * quare me 
dereliquistil longe a salute mea 
verba delictorum meorum. 



1. Lord, remove not thy help to 
a distance from me, 2. look towards 
my defence: 3. deliver me from the 
lion's mouth, and my lowness from 
the horns of the unicorns. Ps. O 
God, my God, look upon me, * why 
hast thou forsaken mel far from 
my salvation are the words of my 
sins. 



The jubilant Hosanna is no longer heard. The multitudes have dis- 
persed and the Saviour is alone. Even now He experiences what that 
lonely hour of vigil on the Mount of Olives will hold for Him. Even now 
the feeling, which on the cross will cause Him to cry out: "O God, My 
God, why has Thou forsaken Me?" has overtaken Him. In most abject 
distress, in the face of a sea of sorrows which unmercifully overwhelms 
Him, He cries in this Introit: "O Lord, remove not Thy help to a dist- 
ance from Me!" This Introit like others wells up melodically from the 



156 Palm Sunday 

depths (cf. the luminous Introit for the second Mass of Christmas). Our 
Introit receives its somber character more especially from the double 
descent of a fifth over Domine ne longe, thus protracting the initial 
Domine. A light accent should be placed on the second, not the third, 
note of D6-(mine). Tuum exhibits special tenderness: Thou, O Lord, 
art the only One that can yet help me. 

In the second phrase aspice sounds like the cry of one harassed to 
death. Look Thou upon me with the eyes of Thy mercy and of Thine 
omnipotence! The Introit for Pentecost has a similar passage. There, 
however, scientiam vocis is only a majestic echo of orhem terrarum. Aspice 
marks the only high point of today's Introit. At Pentecost the d, which 
had already been sung twice, lessens the effect of the interval of a fourth; 
in the present piece, however, the interval of a fourth comes abruptly. 
The torculus over meam tends to retard and to weaken, making the out- 
cry aspice so much the more impressive. 

The third phrase no longer exhibits great agitation. It has a range 
of only a fifth. Its special means of expression is the repeated emphasis 
on the dominant c, and, following the lead of aspice, it stresses the sec- 
ond imperative, libera me. How fervent is the petition of the one who is 
praying: I am Thy Son, Thy well-beloved Son. The repeated a over de 
ore le-(6nis) and the repeated g over unicornu6-(rum) share some of the 
impressiveness of the high c. In the Offertory of the Requiem Mass, de 
ore leonis with its interval of a fourth and pressus is more effective. Here 
it merely repeats the formula of a me, which occurs also over (c6r)-nihus 
and in an abbreviated form over auxilium. In this phrase the accent is 
placed on libera me. The whole molds itself into a favorite cadence of 
the eighth mode. The ascending f a c, so frequently employed in the 
eighth mode, is here avoided throughout. Generally it is used to adorn 
bright and joyous texts and is found only once in connection with a 
supplicating text in the Introit for the sixteenth Sunday after Pentecost 
over tola. In a somewhat veiled and descending form we meet it here 
over tuum a me. 

Quiet resignation characterizes the end of the song. Nevertheless 
the prayer wells up once more almost vehemently: "O God, my God, 
why hast Thou forsaken Me?" The repetition of the first word already 
betrays the interior agitation. Forsaken Me! Now one disciple is about 
to betray and sell Me, another to deny Me, then all the rest flee! Even 
God Himself seems to forsake Me! 

Why has the Lord taken all this sorrow upon Himself? On account 
of our sins! 

N. Sch., 267 ff. 



Palm Sunday 157 

GRADUAL (Ps. 72: 24, 1-3) 

1. Tenuisti manum dexteram 1. Thou hast held me by the right 

meam: 2. in voluntate tua deduxisti hand: 2. and by thy will thou hast 

me: 3, et cum gloria assumpsisti conducted me: 3. and with glory 

me. i'. 1. Quam bonus Israel Deus thou hast assumed me. jll. 1. How 

rectis cordel 2. mei autem pene good is God to Israel, to them that 

moti sunt pedes, 3. pene effusi sunt are of right heartl 2. but my feet 

gressus mei: 4. quia zelavi in pec- were almost moved, 3. my steps had 

catoribus, 5. pacem peccatorum well nigh slipped: 4. because I had 

videns. a zeal on occasion of sinners, 5. 

seeing the peace of sinners. 

The sacred Passion dominates the liturgy of today's Mass. But if 
we listen a bit sharply we hear other notes also; if we scrutinize a bit 
closely, we discern lights springing up here and there in the night of sor- 
rows, foreshadowing a great morning — the dawn of Easter. The Epistle 
speaks of the voluntary sacrificial death of Christ, but at the same time 
of the glory He has thus won for Himself. Similarly in the Gradual the 
gaze of Christ passes to the Paschal solemnity, to His Ascension, when 
the Father will unite Him to Himself in glory. Looking back upon His 
earthly life. He thanks the Father for His protection. This, even in His 
bitterest sufferings, remains the chief sentiment of His heart: "How good 
is God!" True, He also thinks of His sufferings; He sees beforehand that 
His feet will no longer bear Him, that laden with His cross, He will 
stumble and falter, and all this because zeal against sin and zeal for His 
Father's glory consumes Him. But the joy of the coming glory trans- 
cends all sorrow. This thought was stressed still more in earlier times 
when the initial words were repeated. Even in the subsequent Tract, 
filled as it is with tragedy, at least the concluding verses speak of the 
blessing of the Passion for redeemed mankind. 

In .its three phrases the corpus presents three thoughts. The final 
syllables of each phrase bear a florid melisma. The second phrase as- 
cends upward; to balance this, the third phrase makes the same ca- 
dence after gloria as the first phrase. Melodically, a new fourth phrase 
begins with assumpsisti, having the same motive which opened the 
second phrase. Pauses in the text and in the melody do not entirely 
agree. A frequent reversion of the melody from / over d to c character- 
izes the first phrase. It is the expression of a quiet resignation. 

According to content and sentiment, the first phrase of the verse 
still belongs to the corpus. Although we seem to be singing in the first 
mode, nevertheless the interval of a fourth over corde, the inception on 
the dominant a, and the last five or six notes over videns lead us back 



158 



Palm Sunday 



to the fourth mode. The melody of redis cor de is repeated over moti sunt 
pedes; gressus met repeats the formula of (dedu)-xisti me in the corpus. 
Other slight repetitions are also found. The verse, moreover, ascends 
higher than the first part, which never goes above h\?. 

TRACT (Ps. 21: 2-9, 18, 19, 22, 24, 32) 

The present Tract seems to be the account of an eyewitness, rather 
than a prophetic hymn composed a thousand years before the accom- 
plishment of these events. 

Here again the mediant is indicated by the sign f; the caesura, 

by (-). 

1. Deus, Deus meus, respice in 
me, t quare me dereliquistil 2. 
Longe a salute mea t verba (■ — ) de- 
lictorum meorum. 3. Deus meus 
clamaho per diem, nee exaudies: f 
in node, et non ( — ) ad insipien- 
tiam mihi. 4. Tu autem in sancto 
hahitas, f laus Israel. 5. In te spera- 
verunt patres nostri: t speraverunt 
(• — ) et liherasti eos. 6. Ad te cla- 
maverunt, et salvi facti sunt: f in te 
speraverunt ( — ) et non sunt con- 
fusi. 7. Ego autem sum vermis, et 
non homo: f opprobrium hominum 
( — ) et abjedio plebis. 8. Omnes qui 
videbant me, aspernabantur me: f 
locuti sunt labiis et moverunt ca- 
put. 9. Speravit in Domino, eripiat 
eum: f salvum facial eum ( — ) quo- 
niam vult eum. 10. Ipso vero con- 
sider averunt et conspexerunt me: f 
diviserunt sibi ( — ) vestimenta mea, 
et super vestem meam miserunt sor- 
tem. 11. Libera me de ore leonis: f 
et a cornibus unicornuorum ( — ) 
humilitatem meam. 12. Qui timetis 
Dominum, laudate eum: f Univer- 
sum semen Jacob ( — ) magnificate 
eum. 13. Annuntiabitur Domino 
generatio Ventura: f et annuntia- 



1. God, my God, look upon me, 
t why hast thou forsaken mel 2. Far 
from my salvation f are the words 
( — ) of my sins. 3. my God, I shall 
cry by day, and thou wilt not hear: f 
and by night, and it shall not be 
imputed ( — ) as folly in me. 4. But 
thou dwellest in the holy place, t 
the praise of Israel. 5. In thee have 
our fathers hoped: f they have 
hoped: ( — ) and thou hast delivered 
them. 6. They cried to thee, and were 
saved : f they trusted in thee ( — ) and 
were not confounded. 7. But I am a 
worm and no man: t t^^ reproach 
of men (■ — ) and the outcast of the 
people. 8. All they that saw me have 
laughed me to scorn: t they have 
spoken with the lips, and wagged the 
head. 9. He hath hoped in the Lord, 
let him deliver him: f let him save 
him ( — ) seeing he delighteth in 
him. 10. But they looked and stared 
at me: t they parted ( — ) my gar- 
ments among them, and upon my 
vesture they cast lots. 11. Deliver 
me from the lion's mouth: f a^^ 
from the horns of the unicorn (• — ) 
my lowness. 12. Ye that fear the 
Lord, praise Him: f dH V^, the seed 



Palm Sunday 159 

hunt caeli justitiam ejus. 14. Po- of Jacob ( — ) glorify him. 13. There 
pulo qui nascetur quern fecit Do- shall he declared to the Lord a genera- 
minus, tion to come: f and the heavens shall 

show forth his justice. 14. To a 
people that shall he horn, which the 
Lord hath made. 

For the Passion the choir sings a simple melody, with middle and 
closing cadence. High / is the dominant, prepared for by the low d on 
the first syllable of the phrase. The Chronicler closes his melody in every 
instance with 6 g ä f, so that almost regularly the choir begins with a 
sixth (d). 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 68: 21, 22) 

A. 1. Improperium exspectavit cor A. 1. My heart hath expected re- 

meum, et miseriam:B. 2. etsustinui proach and misery: B. 2. and I 
qui simul contristaretur, et nonfuit: looked for one that would grieve to- 
3. consolantem me quaesivi, et nan gether with me, and there was none: 
invent: C. 4. et dederunt in escam 3. / sought for one to comfort me 
meam fel, 5, et in siti mea potaver- and I found none: C. 4. And they 
unt me aceto. gave me gall for my food, 5. and in 

my thirst they gave me vinegar to 

drink. 

The whole is divided into three parts, each of which sets in with 
low /. In part B the theme is announced. It speaks of profound reproach 
— the melody here and here alone descending to low c — and of misery, 
reaching its climax over miseriam. These are the two extremes of the 
phrase. But He who complains thus is resigned to all things; this is evi- 
denced, by the slow and measured ascending seconds, the subsequent 
fourths, and the tarrying on high c. 

Part B is concerned with the psychic sufferings of Jesus. His heart 
beat only for others, consumed itself for others. If anyone, then surely 
the suffering Saviour was justified in expecting that all those whom He 
had healed, whom He had assisted, whom He had given true peace of 
heart would accompany Him on His way of sorrows. He looks about 
Him. Where are they? Non fuit. Not one is at hand. Four times the 
tenderly complaining motive h d c ee h h pleads for sympathy. But in 
vain. Over contristaretur the annotated manuscripts have practically 
only simple neums, which demand a fluent rendition. There is here no 
question of labored expressions of misery, but rather of subdued, tearful 
reproaches. This brings non fuit with all its broad neums into sharper 



160 Palm Sunday 

relief. No doubt the parallelism of the text necessitated similar intro- 
ductions for et sustinui and consolantem. The second et non sets in a note 
lower and then ascends to a bewildering high e. The strikingly swift 
descent with inveni only heightens the artistic effect of this passage. 
That which is not denied the poorest wretch, that bit of heartfelt sym- 
pathy which accompanies even the most hardened criminal to his death 
■ — this was denied to the Saviour; not a single, mild, loving word, not a 
glance of pity alleviated His sufferings. And then as if the tortured breast 
could no longer contain all this woe, there escapes from His lips the cry 
of this harsh, painful et non inveni. Perhaps such combinations of notes 
made a different impression upon the ancients than they do upon us. 

Part C gives us an inkling of the tortures which the Saviour, who 
was harassed by fever, expressed in His cry: "I thirst." All ages, how- 
ever, have seen a deeper import in this cry than the mere expression of 
bodily pain. He received vinegar and gall, His tormentors made sport 
of His sufferings, they ridiculed Him and laughed at Him, and thus ele- 
vated His sufferings to the plane of the infinite. Expressive of these sen- 
timents, the melody once more rises to high e and then, as if burdened 
with sorrow, descends with harsh tritones. 

The quiet phrase et dederunt ... fel interposed between these two 
high points shows artistic finesse. It has the smallest range of any of the 
phrases (only a fifth). We find no protractions or accents with a pressus, 
no fourths, but predominantly seconds and the simple repetition of the 
formula which had already been employed over miseriam. The relaxa- 
tion here from the high tension of the preceding part affords the singer 
an opportunity to gather new strength for that which is to follow. Codex 
339 of St. Gall's gives the first seven notes over the word fel a broad form, 
thus in a way indicating to us the amount of bitterness latent in this 
word. The annotated manuscripts give prominence to the fact that the 
thrice-prolonged and accented c over the doleful, subsiding aceto should 
not work to the detriment of the lower a; and thus in spite of the stirring, 
even violent feelings, the beauty of the melodic line is preserved intact."^ 

In the most ancient manuscript the Saviour voices His reproaches 
in three other verses of Psalm 68, but He also knows that the time of 
grace and the fullness of God's bounty has now come. 

In the holy sacrifice of the Mass the Sä^viour appears, as it were, 
suffering and dying among us. But He ought no longer look in vain for 
consolation and sympathy. Let us present ourselves to Him under the 
symbols of bread and wine, which the priest now lifts up to God. 



N. Sch., 270 ff. 



Maundy Thursday 161 

COMMUNION (Matt. 26: 42) 

Pater, si non potest hie calix Father, if this chalice may not 
transire, nisi hibam ilium: fiat vo- pass away, hut I must drink it, thy 
luntas tua. will he done. 

How suitably this text has been chosen for a Communion song! The 
chalice which Jesus accepts here has become for us the chalice of salva- 
tion. The blood which we drink flows from the wounds of the Crucified. 
In today's Mass liturgy we hear for the first time the childlike word, 
"Father," which sets in with a tender bistropha on the dominant. The 
passage dc bdc h over hiham ilium corresponds to ag fag g over (po)-test 
hie calix. In the minor thirds and the half tone, it is true, we still perceive 
something of the painful. But b here partakes of the nature of a leading 
note and with melodically logical necessity leads to the c over fiat, to 
that heroic word: "Thy will be done!" 

It is characteristic of all these chants that the Saviour Himself 
speaks to us. He opens His heart to us and lets us gaze into the depths 
of woe and shame. He manifests to us His yearning for consolation and 
sympathy. How close He has come to us in these texts and still more in 
these heartfelt melodies; so close that we almost feel His breath, that 
we almost perceive the palpitations of His heart. We have need of such 
a Saviour, for He is our consolation. Under the influence of His love and 
grace we also shall find the strength to pray: Father, Thy will be done! 



MAUNDY THURSDAY 

In early Christian ages the faithful were wont to congregate to- 
ward evening for the Eucharistie celebration,^ in order thus to become 
intimately united to the Saviour in the Cenacle. The Secret used to form 
the introduction to the celebration. The Mass of the Catechumens is of 
later composition. The Introit is taken from the Tuesday in Holy Week. 

INTROIT (Gal. 6: 14) 

1. Nos autem gloriari oportet in 1. But it behooves us to glory in 

cruce Domini nostri Jesu Christi: 2. the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ: 2. 

in quo est salus, vita, et resurrectio in whom is our salvation, life, and 

nostra: 3. per quem salvati, et li- resurrection; 3. by whom we are 

herati sumus. Ps. Deus misereatur saved and delivered. Ps. May God 

nostri, et benedicat nobis: * illu- have mercy on us and bless us: * 



1 C. O., 51, 41 ff. 



162 Maundy Thursday 

minet vultum suum super nos, et may he cause the light of his coun- 
misereatur nostri. tenance to shine upon us, and may 

he have mercy upon us. 

The Introits of Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday of Holy Week 
speak of the holy cross, but stress also the glorification of the Crucified. 
Before the Saviour descends to the depths of His Passion and its affronts, 
before the flood of sorrows bursts upon Him, He stands before us in all 
His splendor. 

The text of this Introit might well be an inspiration for a paean of 
triumph and of victory, arousing enthusiasm and advancing in lively 
rhythm. But such is not the case. It would seem as if the composer, be- 
fore he wrote his song, had meditated with tender sympathy on the 
sacred Passion and had come to realize that for many all this would be 
in vain. With tears of compassion in his eyes he began to sing with this 
tender melody, made almost sorrowful through the thrice-repeated 
half-time interval, the Nos autem. 

A similar feeling is awakened if we answer the question: Who, then, 
are the others? as implied in the opening words: "But it behooves us." 
The Apostle has already said that the cross is foolishness to the heathen 
and a scandal to the Jew, but how is it regarded at the present time? 
The blasphemies of the moderns must fill us with indignation and sor- 
row and with a deep sympathy for our wounded Love, we shall strive 
to fathom the melody of Nos autem. If we then ask ourselves what our 
relation to the Crucified is, how we regard in practice the cross God has 
laid upon us, then we shall sing, not with arrogance, but humbly and 
modestly: Nos autem. 

The major third over oportet is not without purpose. Here it seems 
as if the holy cross were being slowly elevated before us; with nostri it 
stands before us in all its glory; the cross of our Lord. As the melody 
gradually increases, so also must the crescendo grow, till it attains its 
greatest ardor with nostri. Especial care must be taken that this high c 
be not sung unprepared, not raw and cold and angular, as were the 
timbers of the cross on Golgotha. 

The second phrase develops and confirms the theme announced in 
the first phrase. The human blood which reddens the trunk of the cross 
has become for many the drink of "salvation," supplying new life and 
courage and strength to overcome sorrow and woe and death. From it 
emanates eternal, blessed, glorified life. In the melody the second half 
of the first phrase is repeated. 

Textually the closing phrase forms a parallel to the second phrase. 
Here, as above over autem and often in plainsong, the tristropha serves 



Maundy Thursday 163 

to set the following word in greater relief: salvdti—"-we are saved." 
Liberäti repeats the motive of resurrectio, to which (glo)-ridri and autem 
are also related. With evident love the composer tarries on sumus, just 
as he gave nostri and nostra above melodic prominence. 

The psalm-verse with its somewhat harsh b following upon the ex- 
clusive use of &b in the antiphon is a cry for mercy, for enlightenment 
and blessing, so that the mysteries of the cross, its sufferings and its love 
may be revealed to us. 

At the end of days the cross will appear in the clouds of heaven. 
To those who courageously took up their cross and followed the Cru- 
cified, to those who, sacrificing their all furthered the interests of the 
Crucified, this cross will be a boon. Then, indeed, will the cross and the 
Crucified in the fullest sense be their salvation, their life, their resurrec- 
tion; then will the petition of the psalm-verse become a jubilant song of 
thanksgiving. Thou hast had mercy upon us. Now Thy glorious coun- 
tenance shines upon us and, overcome with joy, we gaze into the depths 
of Thy redeeming love. 

Musica s., 45, 49 fif. 

Today the Gloria in excelsis Deo is solemnly intoned by the organ 
and sung to the accompaniment of the church bells. Today is the birth- 
day of the Eucharistie Christ. 

GRADUAL (Philipp. 2:8-9) 

1. Christus f actus est pro nobis 1. Christ became obedient for us 

obediens usque ad mortem, 2. mor- unto death, 2. even the death of the 

tern autem crucis. jl. 1. Propter quod cross. ^. 1. Wherefore God also hath 

et Deus exaltavit ilium, 2. et dedit exalted him, 2. and given him a 

Uli nomen, quod est super omne name which is above every name, 
nomen. 

The corpus of the Gradual moves predominantly in a lower pitch 
about the fundamental note / and descends below it to d and c, thus 
giving a also a certain importance. All this would point to the plagal 
form of the F (sixth) mode. 

The verse has an entirely different character. It strives upward to 
the dominant of the fifth mode, sounds it, and even goes a fifth above it. 
This fits excellently to the text. In the corpus there is mention of the 
lowliness of Christ, in the verse of His glorification. 

Whether or not this be an original composition is difficult to say. 
The fact that Codex 339 of St. Gall's has only the initial notes of the 
florid melismas over ilium and nomen, thus presupposing the existence 
of the piece, bears no weight. The corresponding passages in the Gradual 



164 Maundy Thursday 

for the feast of St. Sylvester, Ecce sacerdos magnus, are likewise indicated 
only by their first notes. The fact, however, must not be overlooked 
that the melody over nobis works like a cadence, hence that it demands, 
or at least will bear, a greater pause. This is not the case in the present 
Gradual. Taken by themselves, the first five words do not express an 
independent thought. It is different with the Gradual Ecce sacerdos 
magnus, which, with the exception of a single passage in the verse, has 
exactly the same melody as today's Gradual. The same holds true of 
the Gradual Exiit sermo sung on the feast of St. John the Evangelist 
(q.v.). Hence, it seems more likely that one of these two Graduals is the 
original. Et dedit Uli nomen is also heard in the Gradual for the second 
Sunday in Lent and for the Assumption. The close of the verse occurs 
in no fewer than thirty Graduals.^ 

In spite of all this, however, we shall consider today's text and 
melody as one whole and render them thus. The corpus expresses grate- 
ful love for all that Christ in His abasement did for us. Nobis helps to 
produce this effect. The annotated manuscripts give practically every 
note here the broad form. The interpretation of Caecilia (29, 49 ff.) 
seems somewhat forced when it regards obediens as an agitated melodic 
movement and sees in it the natural repugnance which the youthful 
heart of Christ felt in the face of death and of the terrible death struggle 
He was to undergo. This interpretation would furthermore intimate 
that the resolved major chord over usque is restful, insofar as it reconciles 
Christ to the terrible duty imposed upon Him by obedience. The de- 
scending fourth of crucis may serve to visualize for us how the Saviour 
with the cry: "Father, into Thy hands I commend My spirit," bowed 
His head and died. 

If the corpus narrated the things Christ did for us, then the verse 
narrates what the Father did for Christ: exaltdvit ilium — He hath ex- 
alted Him. The melody here sounds like the ringing of Easter bells, 
vieing with the joys of heaven. The recitation on c over exaltdvit and after- 
wards on d over dedit Uli gives a more plastic form to the subsequent 
neums. As if in holy protest, we anticipate the glorification of the Saviour's 
name which will be blasphemed so terribly in the succeeding days, the 
inscription of which we shall find on the cross over the head of the Vic- 
tim. Here the melody modulates to c like the middle cadence in psal- 
mody. The psalmodic structure, moreover, betrays itself by the intona- 
tion at the beginning of the verse and by a sort of flexa on a, the last 
note of ilium. At the low inception with quod est we reverently bow be- 
fore the holy name of Jesus. 



1 Wagner, III, 384. 



Maundy Thursday 165 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 117: 16, 17) 

1. Dextera Domini fecit virtutem, 1. The right hand of the Lord 

2. dextera Domini exaltavit me: 3. hath wrought strength, 2. the right 
non moriar, sed vivam, et narrabo hand of the Lord hath exalted me: 
opera Domini. 3. I shall not die, hut live and shall 

declare the works of the Lord. 

The selection closes on a, showing that it has been transposed. In 
this manner it comes closer to its natural pitch, and consequently its 
low passages can be written without the aid of ledger lines. 

The three clearly discernible phrases have each as their principal 
development the ascent to high d in their second half. A still closer re- 
lation exists between the first and third phrases, insofar as they have 
their ending on the dominant and employ the same range. Similarly, 
the melody over (Dexte)-ra Dö-(mini) is heard in an abbreviated form 
over vivam. But virtutem, with its prolonged and accented d and the 
descending fourth, produces in consonance with its text a more power- 
ful effect than opera. The second phrase closes a major second below the 
fundamental — a modulation much favored by the second mode. The in- 
ception and continuance on the dominant indicate this thought: I shall 
not leave hold of this hand. Over exaltavit the three notes after the bi- 
stropha cad are to be united into one figure, after which the pressus is 
to be stressed. A lively rendition should characterize the third phrase. 
Here annotated manuscripts almost throughout have simple neum forms 
and twice mark the melody with "c"(cel€riter, rapidlyj. The word 
Domini, recurring thrice, shows us how freely plainsong treats the three 
syllables of the word. To the first syllable it assigns notes as follows: 
two, four, and one; to the second: five, one, and one; to the third: two, 
one, and nine respectively. 

Who is it that prays in this manner? In the first instance our thoughts 
turn to Christ. It is the eve of His death. He casts a glance in retrospect 
upon His Messianic activity and upon all the miracles His divinity 
wrought. He looks ahead to that which still awaits him. Well does He 
know that the right hand of the Lord will exalt Him, as, indeed, the 
Gradual jubilantly announced in its verse. He does not die, but in 
death obtains eternal life for Himself and for all the world. And in His 
resurrection and glorification, with His Church, He is an eternal, per- 
sonal hymn of praise of the great deeds of God. Thus, invested with 
power and grandeur, certain of victory. He steps across the threshold 
of death. 

But we may also consider this Offertory in the light of the Eucharist. 
Psalm 117, from which it has been taken, belongs to the number of those 



166 Maundy Thursday 

which were wont to be sung at the Passover, hence which Christ also 
sang at the Last Supper in the Cenacle. The Eucharist is a miracle, an 
honor and a glory to the Church, and a fountain of the richest life. Here 
is fulfilled the word of the Lord: "He that eateth My flesh . . . hath ever- 
lasting life." Hence the Church and with her the Christian soul sings: 
Non moriar — "I shall not die, but live." I shall attain to a life of eternal 
blessedness, and I shall laud the works of God and forever give Him 
thanks for the great things He has wrought in me. But the soul is already 
inspired to announce the works of the Lord. For in celebrating the li- 
turgy we recount His works and benefits and give thanks in a manner 
which is worthy and just and unceasing. 

Finally, this song may also be placed in the mouths of the penitents 
who today are again received into the church. The most ancient manu- 
scripts assign it to the third Sunday post Theophaniam (=Epiphaniam, 
q.v.J in connection with the Gospel in which the Lord in such a loving 
manner stretches forth His hand and heals the man stricken with leprosy. 
With evident delight the melody lingers over the word Dextera. Imagine 
the sentiments of thanksgiving and profound joy with which the peni- 
tents and their mother, the Church, prayed these words at the moment 
of reconciliation! Consequently the text permits of various interpreta- 
tions. In this manner we see how the liturgy can be made ever to bear 
new fruit. Renewed observation and contemplation of its peculiarities, 
its texts, and its melodies always reveals new relations, thus producing 
new and profound joy. 

COMMUNION (John 13: 12, 13, 15) 

1. Dominus Jesus, postquam 1. The Lord Jesus, after he had 

coenavit cum discipuUs suis, lavit supped with his disciples, washed 

pedes eorum, et ait Ulis: 2. Scitis their feet, and saith to them: 2. Do 

quid fecerim vohis, ego Dominus et you know what I, your Lord and 

Magisterl 3. Exemplum dedi vobis. Master, have done for youl 3. / 

ut et vos ita faciatis. have given you an example, that so 

you do also. 

In ancient times slaves washed the feet of their lords, and no special 
significance was attached to the action. It is entirely different when the 
"Lord Jesus," the "Lord and Master," performs this service — He of 
whom the Gospel of the present day speaks with such majesty: He 
knew "that the Father had given Him all things into His hands, and 
that He came from God, and goeth to God." For this reason the Com- 
munion begins on the dominant of the mode; and the return to this 



Good Friday 167 

dominant and the use of the same motive over ego Dominus et Magister 
surely does not occur by chance. 

A contrast to this melodic curve opening downward is formed by 
the curve opening upward, met with for the first time over cum disci- 
pulis suis and recurring frequently, indeed, almost too frequently. The 
melody would narrate the events of the Communion in a restful tone, 
but lays very special stress on one word. The chant had been practically 
syllabic; over Scitis, however, it grows into a melisma and ascends ma- 
jestically. Godex 339 of St. Gall's prolongs the first four notes. Such a 
melody is calculated to stamp itself on our hearts, there to re-echo and 
ever again remind us of the example given us by the "Lord Jesus," so 
that we may imitate it and become like Him. 

If we approach the table of the Lord filled with such sentiments of 
of humility and subjection, then surely the Lord will grant us the grace 
to realize more fully that which He has done for us. 

During the procession with the Blessed Sacrament the hymn Pange 
lingua is sung. 

We meet the first three words again tomorrow in the hymn for the 
adoration of the Cross. St. Thomas used the latter as a model for his 
Corpus Christi hymn, whose two final stanzas Tantum ergo and Genitori 
are heard at every solemn benediction with the Blessed Sacrament. The 
melody^ with its three phrases cannot compare, it is true, with the virile 
character of the hymn to the Cross; still, it also is filled with a strong, 
quiet joy. In the second and still more in the third phrase this joy is 
subdued through reverence for the great mystery. This is shown in the 
descent of a fifth, the graded diminution of the range, and the avoidance 
of large intervals in the third phrase. Each phrase has its arsis and the- 
sis. In the first and third phrases the arsis exerts its influence even in 
the second half of the phrase. Concealed in the second and third phrases 
is the closing cadence of the fourth mode: ah g e. 



GOOD FRIDAY 

When at the beginning of the service^ the priest and his assistants 
approach the altar they are not accompanied by song; nor does a single 
candle burn upon the altar. Clad in black vestments they cast themselves 
at the foot of the altar and, with their faces to the ground, pray in 



1 Wagner, III, 478, f. 

2 C. O., 51, 57 flf. 



168 Good Friday 

silence. When sorrow overpowers us, then words fail us. And today the 
most terrible scene will be enacted, for Christ dies upon the cross be- 
tween two criminals. With this announcement the pious soul trembles, 
for she remembers the words of the first Tract: The crucifixion is the 
work of divine justice, but at the same time it is our work. We are not 
innocent of the blood of this Just One. On the cross, moreover, is ac- 
complished the separation of the spirits. The cross is the great dividing 
point (in medio) of the world's history. The great and final parting will 
take place when the Crucified will come again as the Holy One "from 
the shady and thickly covered mountain," when His glory will fill the 
heavens, and the whole world will resound with His praise. 

FIRST TRACT (Heb. 3: 2, 3) 

1. Domine, audivi auditum tuum, 1. Lord, I have heard thy hear- 

t et timui: t consideravi opera tua, ing, f and was afraid: j / considered 
et expavi. 2. In medio duorum ani- thy works, and trembled. 2. In the 
malium innotesceris: dum appro- midst of two animals thou shalt he 
pinquaverint anni, cognosceris: t made known: when the years shall 
dum advenerit tempus, ostenderis. 3. draw nigh, thou shalt he known: f 
In eo, dum conturhata fuerit anima when the time shall come, thou shalt 
mea: f ^^ i^«> misericordiae ( — ) he shown. 3. In the time when my 
memor eris. 4. Deus a Lihano ven- soul shall he troubled: f in anger of 
iet, t et Sanctus de monte umhroso mercy ( — ) thou shalt he mindful. 4. 
et condenso. 5. Operuit caelos majes- God shall come from Lihanus, f 
tas ejus: f et laudis ejus plena est and the Holy One from the shady 
Urra. and thickly-covered mountain. 5. 

His majesty hath covered the heav- 
ens: t o,nd the earth is full of his 
praise. 

The sign (f) indicates the mediant, whHe ( — ) indicates the cae- 
sura. In the first verse the mediant occurs twice. The ascending fourth 
d-g with the prolonged / joined to it, which is heard several times, seems 
to be a peculiarity of this Tract. The melisma which closes the third verse, 
is only found again at the very end of the piece. In the fifth verse we 
hear a melody over the first two words which is also sung in the Alle- 
luia-verse of Christmastide, for example, in the third Mass for Christ- 
mas over the third phrase. 

SECOND TRACT (Ps. 139: 2-10, 14) 

1. Eripe me, Domine, ah homine 1. Deliver me, Lord, from the 

malo: f a viro iniquo ( — ) libera evil man: ■\ from the unjust man { — ) 



Good Friday 



169 



me. 2. Qui cogitaverunt malitia in 
corde :t iota die ( — ) constituebant 
praelia. 3. Acuerunt linguas sicut 
serpentes: f venenum aspidum ( — ) 
suh lahiis eorum. 4. Custodi me, 
Domine, de manu peccatoris: f ^^ 
ah hominihus iniquis ( — ) libera 
me. 5. Qui cogitaverunt supplantare 
gressus meos: f Absconderunt sup- 
erbi ( — ) laqueum mihi. 6. Et Junes 
extenderunt in laqueum pedibus 
meis: f juxta iter scandalum ( — ) 
posuerunt mihi. 7. Dixi Domino: 
Deus meus es tu: f exaudi Domine 
( — ) vocem orationis meae. 8. Do- 
mine, Domine virtus salutis meae: 
t obumbra caput meum ( — ) in die 
belli. 9. Ne tradas me a desiderio 
meo peccatori: f cogitaverunt ad- 
ver sum me: ne derelinquas me ( — ), 
ne umquam exaltentur. 10. Caput 
circuitus eorum: f labor labiorum 
ipsorum ( — ) operiet eos. 11. Verum- 
tamen justi confitebuntur nomini 
tuo: t et habitabunt recti cum vultu 
tuo. 



rescue me. 2. Who have devised 
wickedness in their heart: f all the 
day long ( — ) they designed battles.. 
3. They have sharpened their tongues 
like a serpent: f the venom of asps 
( — ) is under their lips. 4. Keep 
me, O Lord, from the hand of the 
sinner: f and from unjust ones ( — ) 
deliver me. 5. Who have proposed to 
supplant my steps: f the proud have 
hid ( — ) a net for me. Q. And they 
have stretched out cords for a snare 
for my feet: f by the wayside they 
have laid for me ( — ) a stumbling 
block. 7. I said to the Lord: Thou 
art my God: f O Lord ( — ), the voice 
of my supplication. 8. O Lord, Lord, 
the strength of my salvation: f over- 
shadow my head ( — ) in the day of 
battle. 9. Give me not up, from my 
desire to the wicked: t they have 
plotted against me: do not forsake 
me { — ), lest at any time they 
should triumph. 10. The head of 
them compassing me about: f the 
labor of their lips ( — ) shall over- 
whelm them. 11. But the just shall 
give glory to thy name: t and the 
upright shall dwell with thy coun- 
tenance. 



This Tract describes, above all, the psychic tortures which Christ, 
the true Paschal Lamb, underwent when He sacrificed Himself. The 
Lesson immediately preceding spoke of the Paschal lamb. At the very 
hour in which the blasts of the trumpet from the Temple indicated the 
time for the slaughter of the Paschal lamb of the Jews, the true Paschal 
Lamb was expiring upon the cross. The heart which had so ardently 
loved is betrayed, condemned, and repudiated. The people which Christ 
called His own has "the venom of asps under its lips." Raising His 
thoughts to God the Father He prays: I said to the Lord: "Thou art 
My God," soon to be followed by the cry: "Why hast Thou forsaken 
Me?" But He also perceives the blessing that will flow from His suffer- 



170 Good Friday 

ings. He sees, as the closing verse says, hosts of human beings who have 
l)een redeemed through His tortures. 

The Lessons and the Tracts serve only as a preparation for the 
Passion, the climax of the first act in today's drama. The second act 
iDrings the great'prayers of intercession. In these mention is made of the 
Confessores, who are named between the ostiaries and the virgins. Some 
are of the opinion that those who sing in church are meant here, since 
confiteri — the praise of God, is their office. 

The unveiling and adoration of the cross make up the third act. 

THE UNVEILING AND ADORATION OF THE CROSS 

Thrice in an ascending scale the Ecce lignum crucis is intoned by 
the priest and continued by his assistants. Then all kneel and, filled with 
deepest reverence, sing: "Come, let us adore!" 

During the adoration of the cross the choir sings the Improperia, 
those subdued, imploring lamentations of an unappreciated and despised 
love. No artist has painted the scene of the crucifixion so graphically as 
do these simple words and notes. They are the last words of the dying 
Messias-King to His people; not the words of condemnation or of judg- 
ment, but words calculated to soften stony hearts. They are spoken by 
the tender voice of the Author of grace, a voice offering pardon, asking 
only for one thing — understanding and love.^ 

Popule mens, quid feci tibil aut O my people, what have I done to 

in quo contristavi tel responde mihi. theel or in what have I afflicted 
'f. Quia eduxi te de terra Aegypti: thee: answere me. ^. Because I led 
jparasti crucem Salvatori tuo. thee out of the land of Egypt, thou 

hast prepared a cross for thy Sa- 
viour. 

The import of these words — the questions, the petitions, the com- 
plaints, the bitter sorrow, and the remnant of hope for the nation's 
conversion — has been voiced in a truly marvelous manner by the mel- 
ody. With restrained grief it rises from a heart wounded in its holiest 
sentiments, swelling perceptibly over aut in quo, then prolonging itself 
softly, as if Christ's gaze were fixed questioningly upon His people, 
penetrating their souls with all seriousness. The Saviour then progres- 
sively describes the love with which He guided His people, how He fed 
them with manna, planted them as a most beautiful vineyard. And ever 
again we hear the lamentation: Popule meus. 



1 c. O., 51, 60 ff. 



Good Friday 171 

These complaints of the dying Saviour apply to us also. What shall 
we answer Him? In our helplessness the Church directs us to reply with 
an act of homage to the "holy God," to the "strong God," to the "im- 
mortal God," coupled with cries for mercy. Originally, no doubt, Agios 
theos was addressed to the Holy Trinity; today, however, it is applied 
to Christ Crucified. On the cross He became as sin, and immolates Him- 
self between two thieves for the sins of the world; we, nevertheless, laud 
Him as the "Holy God." On the cross He is an object of misery, weak 
forsaken by all, yet we praise Him as the "strong One." On the cross His 
discolored countenance already bears the marks of the agony of death, 
still we celebrate Him as the "immortal One," and with full voice appeal 
to Him: "Have mercy upon us." 

This last invocation attains a powerful climax with g a b\? and a b c 
up to the prolonged and accented c over eleison. This illustrates beau- 
tifully how the high point of a melody is carefully prepared and then 
suddenly broken off. Besides c, the notes b and a in this phrase are pro- 
longed, just as in the preceding appeals / and a received special accents. 
In all probability this melody with the text found its origin in the Orient. 

The lamentations of the Saviour will not be silenced, but become 
more tender, more heartfelt, more sad. His strength seems to be dimin- 
ishing gradually. Let us analyze only a few verses. 

l.Ego propter teflagellavi Aegyp- 1. For thy sake I scourged Egypt 

tum cum primogenitis suis: et tu with its firstborn: and thou didst 
me flagellatum tradidisti. 3. Ego ante scourge me and deliver me up. 3. / 
te aperui mare: et tu aperuisti opened the sea before thee: and thou 
lancea latus meum. 5. Ego te pavi with a spear hast opened my side, 
manna per desertum: et tu me ce- 5. / fed thee with manna in the 
cidisti alapis et flagellis. 9. Ego te desert: and thou hast beaten me with 
exaltavi magna virtute: et tu me buffets and scourges. 9. / have ex- 
suspendisti in patibulo crucis. alted thee with great strength: and 

thou hast hanged me on the gibbet 

of the cross. 

Between the individul verses the choir sings Popule meus. 

The melody could scarcely be more simple. It moves within the range 
of a fifth and recites in both parts of the phrase on the third. Only the be- 
ginning and the close of each half bring some variety. It is a kind of 
psalmody having intonation, a flexa with more lengthy verses (Aegypto), 
middle cadence with two accents and a preparation; then a second in- 
tonation and closing cadence with two accents and a preparation. But 
in the final verse over the dactylic word before the last accent an e is 



172 



Good Friday 



placed upon the unaccented syllable. How powerfully this melody moves 
along, despite the like-sounding motives of Ego and et tu; or is it perhaps 
precisely because of this similarity in face of the powerful textual con- 
trast, that the Saviour would say: Since I was so prodigal with My 
love for thee, I might have expected some love in return, but thou ... I 
Suddenly a new feeling and sentiment is brought to the fore. Thus 
far the liturgy gave prominence to thoughts of sorrow, complaint, and 
heartfelt sympathy. But now, even on Good Friday, joy makes itself 
felt in the antiphon Crucem tuam and the hymn Pange lingua. The resur- 
rection-motive which was heard in the first Lesson for today is again 
utilized, and over the first four words we hear the melody of the Te Deum: 
eg ga a ag ahca. It avoids 6b, which imparted such a tender character 
to the Introit of Maundy Thursday, and replaces it with b, which breathes 
the joy of victory. 



Crucem tuam adoramus, Domine: 
et sanctam resurrectionem tuam lau- 
damus et glorificamus: ecce enim 
propter lignum venit gaudium in 
universo mundo. Ps. Deus miserea- 
tur nostri, et benedicat nobis: * il- 
luminet vultum suum super nos, et 
misereatur nostri. 



We adore thy cross, O Lord: and 
we praise and glorify thy holy resur- 
rection: for by the wood of the cross 
the whole world is filled with joy. 
Ps. May God have mercy on us, and 
bless us: * may he cause the light of 
his countenance to shine upon usi 
and may he have mercy on us. 



The festal and elevated feeling of the antiphon continues to resound 
in the hymn Pange lingua.^ It extols the cross as noble and rich in bless- 
ing, and the death of Christ as a voluntary sacrifice of the Lamb of God. 
Of particular beauty are the following stanzas: 



Crux fidelis, inter omnes 
Arbor una nobilis: 
Nulla Silva talem profert, 
Fronde, flore, germine: * 
Dulce lignum, dulces clavos, 
Dulce pondus sustinet. 

Flecte ramos, arbor alta, 
Tensa laxa viscera. 
Et rigor lentescat ille. 
Quem dedit nativitas: 
Ut superni membra Regis 
Miti tendas stipiie. 



Faithful Cross] Above all other. 

One and only nobU Treel 

None in foliage, none in blossom, 

None in fruit thy peers may be; 

Sweetest Wood and sweetest Ironl 

Sweetest Weight is hung on thee. 

Bend thy boughs, Tree of glory I 
Thy relaxing sinews bend; 
For a while the ancient rigor. 
That thy birth bestowed, suspend; 
And the King of heavenly beauty 
On thy bosom gently tendl 



1 Revue, 10, 51 ff. 



Holy Saturday 173 

The melody with its majestic lines and large intervals rises to pa- 
thetic jubilation — a striking contrast to the tender and gentle com- 
plaints of the Improperia. The first verse is the arsis, the second thesis, 
and the third merely a melodic repetition of the second. Thus we find 
it has the less artistic form ahh, rare in plainsong. The second and third 
verses with their ending dfedd correspond to the close of the first verse 
with g cha a. Inter omnes is also related with a c cb ag and (fron)-de, flore 
with da ag ed. 

A peculiarity of this hymn is its responsorial form. What was origin- 
ally the fourth last stanza appears as a refrain and is repeated in whole 
or only with its third verse after each stanza; evidently this arrangement 
is Syriac in form.-' In the ancient manuscripts of plainsong this hymn, 
as well as the following Vexilla Regis, bears the name of its composer, 
Venantius Fortunatus (fc. 600) — one of the few instances of an author's 
mention. 

The liturgy now continues with the Mass of the Presanctified. A 
procession is formed in silence, and without song or audible prayer it 
proceeds to the chapel or to the sepulchre in which the Blessed Sacra- 
ment is preserved. Here, indeed, the sight of the altar adorned with lights 
and flowers, fills us with the sentiments of Maundy Thursday. On the 
return to the high altar the hymn Vexilla Regis is sung. 

Is the descending line of the first verse to imitate the fluttering of 
the King's banners? The third verse shows an ascending movement. 
The fourth verse in its beginnings is like the flrst, but closes like the 
second half of the second verse. This hymn does not attain the warmth 
of the Pange lingua, but its structure is of more artistic value. 

May Christ Crucified be our light and our strength in life, and our 
hope in death! Let us pray that at that moment the petition of today's 
first Tract may be fulfilled in us: "In the time when my soul shall be 
troubled ... be mindful of mercy." 



HOLY SATURDAY 

After the blessing of the fire and the incense at the entrance of the 
church, the procession proceeds to the main altar. The deacon, follow- 
ing the cross, carries a three-branched candlestick decorated with 
flowers. He lights one arm of this candle and sings: Lumen Christi — "The 
light of Christ." All those participating in the procession kneel and 



I Jahrbuch fuer Liturgiewissenschaft, II, 8 f. 



174 Holy Saturday 

answer: Deo grdtias. This is repeated, as the second and third arms are 
lit, always in a higher pitch and with increased joy. 

Who will count all those who have earnestly sought after God and 
after truth! How often in their stress of soul have they implored on 
bended knee the light from above. And when of a sudden it flared up 
in their soul, when they recognized Christ, the Risen One, and recog- 
nized in His resurrection the most convincing proof of His divinity and 
the divinity of His Church, a sincere Deo grdtias welled up from their 
hearts; and the more brightly the light of Christ shone into their hearts, 
the more they felt themselves enriched in the possession of the truth, 
and ever again they cried: Deo grdtias. 

We also join in this cry and, united in festal procession, place our- 
selves among the followers of this light. It has become for us the light 
of life, leading us on to eternal, unending life. 

In the magnificent Exultet which follows, the deacon announces the 
joy of Easter, chanting the "triumph of so great a King" and the blessed- 
ness of redemption. 

After the fourth, the eighth, and the eleventh prophecy a Tract is 
sung in the brilliant eighth mode. On Good Friday the Tracts were com- 
posed in the more serious second mode. 

On the way to the baptismal chapel the Tract Sicut cervus is sung. 

TRACT Sicut Cervus (Ps. 41: 2-4) 

1. Sicut cervus desiderat ad fontes 1. As the har panteth after the 

aquarum: f ita desiderat anima mea fountains of water: f so my soul 

ad te, Deus. (— ) 2. Sitivit anima panteth after thee, God. ( — ) 2. 

mea ad Deum vivum: f quando My soul hath thirsted for the living 

veniam, et apparebo ante faciem Dei God: f when shall I come and ap- 

meil 3. Fuerunt mihi lacrimae meae pear before the face of Godi 3. My 

panes die et node, f dum dicitur tears have been my bread day and 

mihi per singulos dies: JJbi est night, f while they said to me every 

Deus tuusi day: Where is thy Godi 

The yearning of the catechumens for the new life, for the life in 
God, receives striking expression here. After the many days of anxious 
doubt, after bewailing their estrangement from God, they were now to 
appear before His face, were to become His children and receive this 
personal God into their heart. 

After the blessing of the baptismal fount it was customary in the 
early Church to administer solemn Baptism. We might here gratefully 
recall our own Baptism and all the great things it brought us, the interior 
beauty it conferred upon our soul, and the rare good fortune it bestowed 



Holy Saturday 175 

upon us in making us children of God. To recall the day of Baptism was 
always a source of greatest pleasure to the saints, and Dante's one great 
wish was that he be crowned poet laureate in the same place where the 
saving waters of Baptism had made him a child of God. 

From the baptismal chapel the procession returns to the main altar; 
during this time the Litany of the Saints is chanted. 

THE LITANY OF THE SAINTS 

These invocations afford us a glimpse of the Church triumphant. 
They show us the power of baptismal grace when the serious, purpose- 
ful, persistent striving of man co-operates with it. All these saints be- 
came in their lifetime ideals of moral perfection. Like ourselves, they 
had to struggle against such enemies of the soul as the Litany enumer- 
ates, against sin and the assaults of the devil. With Christ's grace, how- 
ever, they conquered all. And yet, exalted though they be in the pos- 
session of high degrees of virtue and blessed in their heavenly home, they 
are nevertheless close to us. Together with them we form one holy 
Church. Consequently when we cry: 'Tray for us," our petition is not 
in vain. Rather the refrain is taken up by our sainted brethren, who have 
a great affection toward us, who long for our presence, and whose prayers 
and merits are made available to us as a help toward the realization of 
the day when we may be joined to them before the throne of God. 

The range of the melody of the first invocations confines itself to 
the tetrachord g-c, from Pater de caelis Deus on, to the tetrachord a-d. 
From Propitius esto on, the melody has the range f-d; from Peccatores 
on, the range g-e. Thus the various divisions show a growth in range of 
the melody and a steady upward tendency from c to d and e. 

After the last Te rogdmus a longer pause is made, so that the Agnus 
Dei with its h\?, so striking in this connection, come not too abruptly. 
This is the Agnus Dei of Mass XVIII. 

If we consider the Kyrie an introduction, a threefold division be- 
comes apparent, of which the middle part with its downward movement 
forms in a certain sense a contrast to the first and third parts. 

To the accompaniment of the Easter Kyrie the priest, clad in joy- 
ous white vestments, approaches the altar and presently intones the 
Gloria in excelsis Deo. True, we heard it only on Maundy Thursday,, 
but seemingly weeks have passed since then. Mighty things have been 
accomplished in the meantime, and gripping scenes have been enacted 
in the shadow of the cross! But now all that has passed; the joyous ring- 
ing of bells announces to all the world the victory and joy of Easter, 
the new life in Christ for all mankind and especially for the neophytes. 



176 Holy Saturday 

The prescribed time of silence is over and the organ again booms forth 
to join in the jobilation. Great joy and solemnity accompany the salu- 
tation Agnus Dei in the Gloria today, for Christ has shown Himself to 
be the true Lamb; He has sacrificed Himself for us. 

ALLELUIA 

How shall we adequately render this word of praise? We should 
like to announce it to the whole world with cries of vehement exultation. 
And our chant? The melody sets in with the minor third, known to us 
from the Preface. Later editions of plain song that begin with a fourth 
are in error. After the first few notes we might surely expect a greater 
interval; but the melody again sinks back and repeats the same formula. 
This is followed not by a quiet clivis, but an onward-urging pes; finally 
there is an interval of a fourth. 

Wagner^ has called attention to the fact that the melody over Alle- 
agrees with that of the Per omnia saecula saeculorum, and that the ju- 
bilus on a bears some resemblance to the Dignum et justum. 

All this would depict for us the Church just awaking from a deep 
sleep, and not yet realizing that after so many days of enforced silence 
she is again allowed to sing Alleluia. The Alleluia is repeated three times, 
each time in a higher pitch, making it necessary to begin in a subdued, 
low pitch.^ But steadily the joy grows, steadily the jubilation increases. 
And once the climax has been reached, the melody continues impressively 
on high c with Confitemini (Ps. 117, 1). 

1. Confitemini Domino, quoniam 1. Praise ye the Lord, because He 

bonus: 2. quoniam in saeculum mi- is good: 2. because his mercy en- 
sericordia ejus. dureth for ever. 

The first half of either verse has the same close, in which there 
seems to re-echo a motive of the preceding Tract. The whole ends with 
the final motive of Alleluia. The text is explained in the verse of the 
Gradual for Easter Sunday. 

TRACT (Ps. 116: 1-2) 

1. Laudate Dominum omnes gen- 1. Praise the Lord all ye Gentiles: 

tes:'\ etcollaudateeumomnespopuli. f and praise him all ye people. 2. 

2. Quoniam confirmata est super Because his mercy is confirmed 

nos misericordia ejus : f et Veritas upon us : f and the truth of the Lord 

Domini manet in aeternum. remaineth for ever. 



1 III, 397 

2 



iii, a97. 

Another interpretation would hear in this threefold repetition the blast of trumpets. 



Holy Saturday 177 

We heard this song on the Ember Saturday of Lent. How devout 
and joyful it sounded today when at the solemn administration of 
Baptism individuals of all nations experienced the plentitude of divine 
mercy, when they formed an alliance with the God who is eternally 
faithful. 

After the priest has received Holy Communion, renewed jubilation 
sweeps through the house of God. Alleluia resounds again in a melody 
which in its simplicity, its brevity, and its harmony has all the char- 
acteristics of a true folksong. 

In the Magnificat that follows, the Blessed Virgin assumes the role 
of chanter and praises the Lord who has wrought such great marvels 
upon us, who has thrust the mighty from their seats and exalted the 
lowly, who has filled the hungry with good things and in His mercy has 
adopted us as His own children. The full effect of this pleasing, powerful, 
and gripping song can only be realized by actual participation in the 
services on Holy Saturday morning. 

ANTIPHON Vespere Autem 

Vespere autem sabhati, quae lu- In the evening of the Sabbath: 

cescit in prima sabbati, venit Maria which dawns in the first day of the 
Magdalene, et altera Maria, videre week, came Mary Magdalen, and 
sepulcrum, alleluia. the other Mary, to the sepulchre: 

alleluia. 

With lucescit joy overruns the almost typical limits of the melody. 

For the dismissal of the community, the deacon does not employ 
the usual formula; his heart is too full. He must continue with a twofold 
alleluia the Easter jubilation which he intoned in the Exsultet. Go, he 
tells us, and bring gladness into a world languishing for want of joy; 
carry into it a spirit of goodness and purity, and revivify it with con- 
solation and strength. 

Our answer is a spirited Deo gratias, alleluia, alleluia. For we realize 
what we are taking away with us, and how rich we have become through 
Christ and His liturgy. We know that the Church, her divine claims sub- 
stantiated by the miracle of the Resurrection, has resisted all the attacks 
of violence and pretended learning and come forth victorious. We believe 
in the power of truth, in the might of grace; and filled with the spirit 
of the primitive Church, filled with the courage and strength of the 
martyrs, we cry: Deo gratias, alleluia, alleluia. 



178 Easter Sunday 

EASTER SUNDAY 

INTROIT (Ps. 138: 18, 5-6) 

1. Resurrexi, et adhuc tecum sum, 1. / arose, and am still with thee, 
alleluia: 2. posuisti super me ma- alleluia: 2. thou hast laid thy hand 
num tuam, alleluia; 3. mirdbilis upon me, alleluia: 3. thy knowledge 
facta est scientia tua, alleluia, alle- is become wonderful, alleluia, alle- 
luia. Ps. Domine prohasti me et luia. Ps. Lord, thou hast proved 
cognovisti me: * tu cognovisti ses- me, and known me: * thou hast 
sionem meam et resurrectionem known my sitting down, and my 
meam, rising up. 

The opening word of today's Introit (Resurrexi) brings us directly 
to the mystery that is being celebrated. Christ Himself, gloriously risen, 
speaks this word to His heavenly Father. He has fulfilled the duty with 
which His Father had charged Him, and now He directs His first thought, 
His first prayer, to the Father. This took place during that "truly 
blessed night which alone deserved to know the time and hour when 
Christ rose again from the dead," as the Church sang yesterday in the 
Exsultet. Then the Risen One lifted His eyes and heart to the Father and 
prayed: Resurrexi et adhuc tecum sum. It is all inner fervor, this melody, 
breathing intense love, like a song coming from the quiet, unalterable 
depths of eternity itself. Exclusively personal, it has no thought of its 
listeners; no impetuous cries of triumph disturb it. But it is not gloomy 
or dismal; it is a smile of purest joy. It clothes the text with lights and 
colors to which we should otherwise have remained entirely obli\'ious, 
and thus it opens up new avenues to the understanding of the Paschal 
Mystery. 

1. "I arose, and am still with Thee"; that is, I am again with Thee. 
From the bosom of the Father, the second Person of the Blessed Trinity 
descended to us, assumed a nature capable of suffering, and thus to a 
certain extent forsook the glory which knew naught of pain or sorrow. 
He was, so to speak, cut off from the glory of the Father. And how keenly 
He felt this separation on the cross! But now He is again "in the glory 
of God the Father." He contemplates His glory, the boundless, golden, 
eternal glory which henceforth is proper to His human nature also. And 
He looks into the vastness of future time, which is blessed because all 
mankind is to share in His resurrection. The font of salvation is now 
opened to all, and its saving waters will bring us to glory, so that we may 
be united to Jesus our Head, and may be with the Father as He Himself 
is with the Father. Alleluia! 



Easter Sunday 179 

The real dominant of the melody and of the Resurrexi is /, which 
pervades the entire piece as a tristropha; it must be sung very lightly; 
it is, so to say, a quivering from very joy. Adhuc tecum sum has g for its 
dominant. Five notes precede the word tecum and five follow it. The en- 
tire first phrase confines itself to the tetrachord d-g. Its alleluia is also 
sung as proceeding from the heart of the risen Christ. But it may serve 
in all three phrases as our own cry — a jubilant, expressive Amen to the 
words of the Redeemer {Analyses, III, 10). 

2. "Thou hast laid thy hand upon me." Even when He was in the 
grave the hand of the Father rested protectingly over His Son. Then it 
permitted Him to shatter the fetters of death and to arise to a new life. 
Perhaps one may also apply these words to the hand of God demanding 
justice which weighed so terribly upon the Saviour that it forced from 
Him the words: "Only against Me He hath turned, and turned again 
His hand all the day" (Lamen. 3: 3). But today Christ substitutes the 
glad Alleluia: Alleluia for His sufferings, for His death, and for the 
fruits of His redemption. 

The calm melody with its strong accent on / may serve as a picture 
of the quietly sheltering hand of God. Super and manum remind us of 
the first alle-(lüia). Toward the end, the second alleluia must grow in 
warmth and thus prepare for the third phrase. The rising melody has 
the same end in view. This second phrase has three members, like the 
first, but a greater range: d-a. 

Now the third phrase may begin with all solemnity. It has four 
members, a tone-range of c-a, and a fourth which introduces a sort of 
modulation to low c. Amazement seems ever to grow in the heart of the 
Risen One. If we abstract from the first note, then the first alleluia is 
but a slightly shortened form of et adhuc tecum sum, and the second 
alleluia a repetition of the alleluia which follows that phrase. 

The gaze of the risen Christ turns back to the days of eternity when 
divine mercy conceived the plan (scientia) of redemption. God was to 
become man, the Impassible One was to suffer, the Eternal to be de- 
stroyed, but from this death a new and fruitful life was to emerge; man- 
kind, a nonentity before the majesty of God, was destined to obtain in 
the divine person of Jesus eternal reconciliation, unending glorification. 
Human power and malice were indeed to triumph for a short time, but 
then God's wisdom, omnipotence, and goodness were to assert them- 
selves so much the more gloriously. All these apparent contradictions 
found a wonderful solution (mirdhilis) in the resurrection of Christ. It 
is through this that our faith and our hope have received their founda- 
tion and corroboration. 



180 Easter Sunday 

In the psalm-verse, the God-man once again speaks of the trial 
which the Father had imposed upon Him. But He, the second Adam, 
stood the test. He is today the Blessed One who has proved Himself, 
who is adorned with the crown of life (Jas. 1: 12). Out of His abasement, 
out of His repose in the tomb (sessio), the glory of the resurrection 
blossomed forth. 

Whereas the Phrygian cadences e g f f e of the Introit proper have 
a tender ring, the somewhat severe psalmody expresses the virile joy of 
victory. Thereupon we tenderly and devoutly repeat the entire Introit. 
Thus this chant will impart to our soul genuine Easter joy, restrained, 
broad and deep, and we shall thank Mother Church that with this song, 
so uninviting at first sight, she leads us into the riches of the Easter 
liturgy. 

K. K., 23, 29 ff.; Analyses, III, ff.; Choralblaetter, Nr. 3. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 117: 24, 1) 

1. Haec dies quam fecit Domi- 1. This is the day which the Lord 

nus: 2. exsultemus 3. et laetemur in hath made: 2. let us he glad 3. and 

ea: ^. 1. Confitemini Domino 2. rejoice therein. ^. 1. Give praise to 

quoniam bonus: 3. quoniam in sae- the Lord, 2. for He is good: 3. for 

culum misericordia ejus. His mercy endureth forever. 

In the Introit the risen Lord spoke to His Father. Here all Chris- 
tendom breaks forth in loud rejoicing and praises the Father because 
He has had commiseration upon His Son and because the season is now 
past in which it seemed that the Father would pity Him no more. To 
that terrible Friday, the handiwork of men, succeeded the day which 
the Lord hath made. God's heart has again inclined toward His Son, 
and now His mercy endures forever. All this is told us by the marks of 
the passion on the glorified body of Christ. The blissful life of the di- 
vinity has become a permanent acquisition of the sacred humanity. 
Christ died once; He dies no more. 

How powerfully this song must have impressed the neophytes! In 
the early morning hours of Easter Sunday the churches gleamed with 
the dazzling white of their baptismal robes, which were perhaps even 
more beautiful than the silvery sheen of the Angels at the tomb. For the 
first time the neophytes experienced the happiness of being children of 
God; now their hearts overflowed with joy and thanksgiving that the 
Lord had delivered them from the hand of the enemy (Gradual for the 
coming Tuesday). And the assembled faithful rejoiced to know that 
the neophytes, for whose enlightenment and conversion they had stormed 
heaven for many long years, were now in the possession of baptismal 



Easter Sunday 181 

innocence and of the true faith. This thought alone was enough to make 
well up from their innermost hearts the song: "Give praise to the Lord, 
for He is good and His mercy endureth forever." 

It was on Easter evening, moreover, that the Lord not only wished 
peace to His disciples, but left to the entire world an unfailing source of 
peace in the Sacrament of Penance, which He instituted on this very day. 
This is the day, therefore, on which He bestowed upon His Church that 
great treasure of solace and consolation, which since that time has re- 
joiced the hearts of millions. Indeed, "the Lord is good and His mercy 
endureth forever." 

The melody has much in common with the typical melody which 
was explained on the first Sunday of Lent (q.v.). But it also possesses 
noteworthy peculiarities. The first motive opens the chant in an almost 
dreamy manner; the following Dominus, however, rises up in radiant 
tones. Laetemur in ea is more gracefully developed than in the former 
melody: c cdc a, dc ded c, ec efdh c. Quoniam bonus soars brilliantly above 
all else. The thought of God's goodness permits the singer to forget the 
limits to which the melody is otherwise confined. Although there is so 
much enthusiasm displayed, there is nevertheless a careful plan. The 
melody reaches its peak in Quoniam, and never thereafter does it rise to 
/, which has hitherto dominated the tonal line. The repeated e c a, which 
we feel to be a minor chord, and the broadening of the low g create a 
tension which finds a brilliant resolution in the G-major triad with its 
prolonged high g. The clivis which follows serves as transition to the 
tender bonus, which is to be rendered with great fervor. 

Musica s., 45, 74 ff. and 105 f. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (I Cor. 5: 7) 

Pascha nostrum immolatus est Christ our Pasch is immolated. 

Christus. 

This most striking thought of today's Epistle has called into being 
one of the most beautiful creations of choral chant. Here the triumphal 
shout of Easter is best realized. It is melodic thanksgiving and jubilation 
and revelry. For now, in very deed, the great work of our redemption 
is an accomplished fact. 

Over the Alleluia and in the first four notes of the first phrase of 
the juhilus, the melody shows an ascent, which in turn is answered by a 
descent in three groups of delightful turns. The first and second member 
of the jubilus have an identical ending; the third member in its second 
half reminds one of the close of the Alleluia on Holy Saturday. 



182 Easter Sunday 

The beginning should almost be piano, but should steadily gain in 
fervor and warmth. Pascha nostrum: how much grateful love nostrum 
shows! Immoldtus must be an exultant shout. The rich melisma has the 
form a a^ h c. Let a^ be a resounding amplification of a after which, how- 
ever, the next nine notes are to recede somewhat in volume; b in turn 
should come a little to the fore, while great eagerness should be evident 
in c. Strange to say, a and a^, with a different introduction, however, 
and at a lower pitch, are to be found over universi in the last verse of 
the Tract on the Ember Wednesday in Lent. 

Revue, 31, 33 f. 

SEQUENCE 

The joyfulness of the Alleluia continues (Sequentia) to resound in 
the Sequence, which owes its origin to Wipo (4*c. 1048), an ecclesiastic at 
the courts of Conrad II and Henry III. The Alleluia-verse supplies the 
theme for the I strophe: Sing the Paschal Victim's praisel With a power- 
ful motive, the following two strophes then set in. IIa. A Lamb the sheep 
did save-, and Christ back to the Father, sinless, sinners gave. IIb. Death 
and Life clashed in mysterious strife; Life's Captain, dead, now lives and 
reigns instead. 

The four succeeding strophes are a dialogue between the choir and 
Mary Magdalen. With the motive beginning an octave lower than that 
of IIa (acd), the melody now becomes somewhat more calm. Ilia 1. O 
Mary, say, what sawest thou by the wayl 2. The tomb of the living Christ; 
and the glory of Him risen. Illb 1. / heard the angelic word: I bowed to 
see the bands, the shroud. 2. Christ m/y hope is risen, and He is gone before 
you into Galileel 

Again the jubilant motive of IIa resounds. It springs from exultant, 
unshakable conviction. IV. Christ from the dead is truly risenl Victorious 
King, to us kind pity show. Amen. Alleluia. As far as victor Rex the melody 
is full of power, upn which a confident miserere with a softer coloring 
follows. A hearty Amen, Alleluia brings this marvelous song to a close. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 75: 9, 10) 

1. Terra tremuit et quievit, 2. 1. The earth trembled and was 

dum resurgeret in judicio Deus, 3. still, 2. when God arose in judgment, 
alleluia. 3. alleluia. 

We cannot sing this melody too solemnly or too majestically. Al- 
though employing the fourth mode, like the Introit, in spirit it differs 
radically, being full of force and irresistible power. One is tempted to 



Easter Sunday 183 

cry out: Though you plant both feet solidly upon the earth, there is no 
escaping; you must experience how at some period this solid earth and 
all things mundane will be shaken and destroyed. And all the world's 
clamor, its pomposity and boasting, its presumption to independence 
and autonomy, its singing and exultation will one day become mute 
when God comes in judgment. The magnificent Easter triumph which 
the Victor Rex gained over His enemies, over death and over all the 
powers of this world, guarantees also His final victory. The quaking of 
the earth on Easter morn is only a prelude to the mighty cataclysm which 
will come to pass at the end of time. 

The first phrase ascends gradually. After tremuit it rests on the do- 
minant of the mode, depicting perhaps, the fear of all creation. With et 
the melody reaches a height seldom attained by the fourth mode and 
strains the attention: even the boastful world will at some time come to 
feel exceedingly small and dejected. The final neums of this phrase were 
also used to conclude the first phrase of the Offertory of the Midnight 
Mass at Christmas. The second phrase bears some resemblance to the 
first. It also begins and ends with d, closes its first half with a, and twice 
reaches high c. Here the melody gains in amplitude and becomes more 
expressive of victory, especially at judicio with its quint, the pressus, 
and the harsh ghaga. Alleluia in its first member is related to that on 
the feast of the Ascension, although the latter is in the first mode. Now 
the melody no longer reaches to c — the h which preceded it even becomes 
&b — the whole becomes more tender, more personal. He who is one day 
to appear as our Judge, today again becomes our Redeemer in the Holy 
Sacrifice. 

COMMUNION (I. Cor. 5: 7, 8) 

1. Pascha nostrum immolatus est 1. Christ our Pasch is immo- 

Christus, alleluia: 2. itaque epule- lated, alleluia: 2. therefore let us 
mur in azymis sinceritatis et veri- feast with the unleavened bread of 
talis, 3. alleluia, alleluia, alleluia. sincerity and truth, 3. alleluia, 

alleluia, alleluia. 

The first phrase has the same text as the alleluia after the Gradual. 
There it overfiows with joy, like a rushing paean of triumph which is to 
inundate all the earth; here it is in an intimate Communion song, in 
which the exultation is more reserved. There an authentic mode is em- 
ployed (7); here a plagal (6). In the former melody everything strives 
toward the dominant and above it, while here it centers about the final 
note, almost too much so; the lowest note is a fourth below and the 
highest a fourth above the finale, as if it had been measured with a rule 



184 Easter Monday 

(f-c, f-h). But despite this modest means of expression the melody throbs 
with the consciousness of fresh life. 

It may seem strange that itaque carries so rich a melody, and stranger 
still that the neums should fall to the syllable -ta-. This is due to the in- 
fluence of early colloquial Latin, which put the accent on the syllable 
immediately preceding the enclitic -que. It is quite logical that the word 
should have such a rich melody, for it wishes to stress this thought with 
special emphasis: Since Christ has ofifered Himself as your Pasch, there- 
fore we are able to celebrate the Paschal feast and unite ourselves with 
Him in Holy Communion. We are, moreover, to celebrate it in sincerity 
and truth. For after the Paschal lamb had been slaughtered in the 
Temple, the Jews were no longer permitted to have any leaven in their 
houses. In like manner, the old leaven of sin may no longer have any 
place in the Christian's heart, now that Christ has offered Himself for 
us. Consideration of the sacrificial death of Christ and of the ardent 
love that prompted it ought to enkindle us and induce us to lead a pure 
and holy life. 

Christus is a graceful response to (Pas)-cha no-( strum). The two- 
note group in the first alleluia, in the last five notes of (i)-taque and 
(equ)-lemur, and the first four notes of d-(zymis) and veri-(tdtis) pro- 
duce a pleasing effect. The spirited ascent in the third phrase, which 
reaches its summit in the third alleluia, is likewise highly effective. 

Musica s., 52, 49 ff. 



EASTER MONDAY 

INTROIT (Ex. 13:5, 9) 

1. Introduxit vos Dominus in 1. The Lord hath brought you into 

terram fluentem lac et mel, alleluia: a land flowing with milk and honey, 

2. et ut lex Domini semper sit in alleluia: 2. and that the law of the 

ore vestro, alleluia, alleluia. Ps. Lord may he ever in your mouth, 

Confitemini Domino, et invocate alleluia, alleluia. Ps. Give glory to 

nomen ejus: * annuntiate inter the Lord, and call upon his name: 

gentes opera ejus. * declare his deeds among the gen- 
tiles. 

Here the neophytes, who wore their white robes at all the divine 
services of Paschal Week, are addressed. Baptism has led them into the 
land flowing with milk and honey, into the Promised Land of holy 
Church with its life-giving and invigorating sources of grace, with its 
sweet consolation. Hence it was that at Baptism they actually were 



Easter Monday 18& 

given milk and honey to taste. Perhaps the journey they have just com- 
pleted was made under a blistering sun and through the burning sand of 
the desert. But today their hearts are overjoyed at the loving guidance 
with which God has led their souls. 

In its first part, the melody shows special favor to vos and fluentem 
lac et mel. We are acquainted with the ascent over fluentem from egre- 
dientem of the Vidi aquam. It occurs again immediately in the second 
phrase over ut lex D6-(mini). Similarly, the close of the first phrase is 
found in an abbreviated form over the two last alleluia. Semper shows 
special vigor. 

After God has led you with such love. He may surely expect His 
will to be sacred to you, His law at all times to be in your mouths and 
in your hearts and to be accomplished in your lives. Grateful love de- 
mands this. But your eternal salvation is likewise assured thereby. It 
is just this faithful observance of His law that will lead you through all 
the dangers and allurements of the world, and bring you safely home to 
the eternal Easter, into the true Promised Land. 

We may regard these words as coming from the mouth of St. Peter, 
whose basilica is the station for today. By way of admonition he also 
raises his voice: Let the life of Christ fill your hearts. "Then it seems as 
if a tear flowed down the cheek of Peter" {K. L.). 

GRADUAL (Ps. Ill .24., 2) 

Haec dies ... [as yesterday]. This is the day . . . [as yesterday]. 

jl. 1. Dicat nunc Israel, quoniam ^. 1. Let Israel now say that He is 

bonus: 2. quoniam in saeculum good: 2. that His mercy endureth 

misericordia ejus. forever. 

Haec dies resounds throughout Easter Week until Saturday, when 
it appears in the form of the Alleluia. Today we may again sing the ju- 
bilant quoniam bonus in all its wonderful Easter glory. 

ALLELIUA VERSE (IMatt. 28: 2) 

1. Angelus Domini descendit de 1. An angel of the Lord descended 

caelo: 2. et accedens revolvit la-pi- from heaven: 2. and, coming, rolled 
dem, et sedebat super eum. back the stone, and sat upon it. 

The first member of the jubilus with its downward rolling move- 
ment is a sharp contrast to the upward tendency of the two members 
which fiank it. It occurs again, but slightly changed, over de caelo. The 
second member of the jubilus recurs over revolvit lapidem. Accedens is 
modeled upon alleluia. This piece is assigned to the eighth mode, and 



186 Easter Monday 

actually closes on g. But if we compare it with the Alleluia now sung on 
the feast of the Assumption, then it does not seem improbable that we 
here have the C mode with a close on the fifth above. 

The angel at the tomb occupies the mind of the Church consider- 
ably. We have met him already in the Gospel for Holy Saturday, and 
throughout the week he appears in the antiphons for Vespers and Lauds. 
Today we see him also in the Alleluia-verse and in the Offertory. 

OFFERTORY (Matt. 28: 2, 5, 6) 

1. Angelus Domini descendit de 1. An angel of the Lord descended 

caelo, et dixit mulieribus: 2. Quem from heaven, and said to the women: 

quaeritis, surr exit, sicut dixit, alle- 2. He whom you seek is risen as he 

luia. said, alleluia. 

At an early date this melody was set to the text Posuisti for the feast 
of St. Gorgonius (Sept. 9), was used also for the feast of St. Matthew, 
and finally was introduced into the Mass Laetdhitur common to martyrs. 
It is also sung on the feast of the Assumption to the text Assumpta est. 
He who can abstract from the historical side and look at these Offer- 
tories from a purely melodic point of view accordng to the relation of 
word and sound and according to their phrasirig, will without much 
hesitation place Posuisti first, Assumpta second, and Angelus third. In 
the Offertory Posuisti the words coronam and pretioso — "Thou hast set 
on his head a crown of precious stones" — receive a most effective treat- 
ment. With vitam petiit a new thought begins melodically, to which 
tribuisti ei, alleluia is admirably proportioned. In like manner, the cli- 
maxes of Assumpta est occur on the words gaudent and collauddntes, while 
ungeli and henedicunt, respectively, after the great development bring 
pleasant relaxation and rest. Benedicunt, it is true, produces this effect 
too dependently. The motive which in the two other Offertories is given 
to sicut dixit and to tribuisti ei, respectively, drops away entirely. But 
the first phrase of the Offertory for the feast of the Assumption rounds 
out beautifully. It will well repay one's efforts to compare the Offer- 
tories with one another: 

1. a) Angelus Domini descendit 

b) Posuisti Domine in cdpite ejus 

c) Assumpta est Maria in caelum 

2. a) de caelo et dixit mulieribus: 

b) coronam de Idpide pretioso: 

c) gaudent Angeli collauddntes 



Easter Monday 187 

3. a) quern quaeritis, surrexit sicut dixit, alleluia. 

b) vitam petiit a te, trihuisti ei, alleluia. 

c) benedicunt Dominum, alleluia. 

In this Offertory, one becomes painfully aware of the omission of 
the" ormer verses. Its present form does not entirely satisfy. Happily 
today's Gradual gives some indication of the melody of at least one of 
these verses. 

The melody of the third verse has been adapted to the Offertory 
Beäta es virgo, which is now given in the Votive Masses of the Blessed 
Virgin from Easter till Pentecost. Permanes does not allow of such an 
adaptation;! t is the same as alleluia in the Offertory for Easter Monday. 
Surrexit of today's Offertory and Creatorem of the former have identical 
melodies. 

In today's Offertory we are tempted to invert the two principal 
parts, to ging the narrative part first in a subdued manner and then to 
swing up to the higher regions (which now occur over caelo and mulieri- 
bus) with the words of the angel concerning the resurrection. But even 
in its present arrangement the melody appeals, because it has a certain 
elegance of movement, fluent melodic line, and charming motivation. 
How fine, for instance, is the line d c a gfa a over Domini, the descent 
and ascent over descendit and at its close the resemblance to the motive 
over (An)-ge-(lus), the contraction of this motive with the first part of 
descendit by the notes / gag, the notes a g a c c over D6-(mini), which is 
answered hy h g a c c over (muli)-e-(rihus)l The two well-proportioned 
groups over (sur)-rex-it expand rhythmically over the second syllable of 
alleluia; the alleluia itself with its tense (g) h, whose solution (g) ce 
comes only after four notes, produces a delightful effect. We might al- 
most speak of an intentional retarding of the leading note. Dixit with 
its energetic pressus likewise challenges attention. What was promised 
at that time has now become full reality. The Lord is truly risen. These 
words, together with the glorious alleluia, constituted the refrain to the 
verses. It is somewhat tiresome to meet the frequent close on the tonic; 
only three times is there a variation. 

The pious women who gave evidence of such noble courage and 
tender love in coming to the tomb of the Saviour, well deserve that 
their names be mentioned with honor in the liturgy. This happens more 
than once in this solemn Paschal Week. Indeed, the Oriental Church 
has a special feast on the second Sunday after Easter, called the feast 
"of women bearing myrrh." May they teach us how to become true 
searchers after God, how to place all our powers in the service of Jesus 
and His cause. His Church, and how to approach the altar with the true 



188 Low Sunday 

sacrificial spirit! At the Eucharistie Banquet the Risen One will then 
appear also to us in the splendor of His glory. 

COMMUNION (Luke 24: 34) 

Surrexit Dominus, et apparuit The Lord hath risen, and hath 

Petro, alleluia. appeared to Peter, alleluia. 

Today's Gospel tells us: "The Lord hath appeared to Simon"; the 
Communion, however, uses the name Peter, which is more familiar to 
the people. St. Peter's church was the scene of today's solemn service. 
How great is the forgiving love of the Saviour as shown by this appear- 
ance! He is almost compelled to demonstrate this love to St. Peter even 
on the feast of Easter. To us also the Risen One has appeared today in 
Holy Communion. 

Apparuit seems like an inversion of the final motive over (Domi)- 
nus. In an alleluia unusually long for a Communion, grateful joy finds 
expression for the love shown us in the redemption. To d c ah e corre- 
sponds a h a g c. It was only to avoid the key 6 b that the melody was 
transposed a fifth higher. 



LOW SUNDAY 

INTROIT (I Pet. 2, 2) 

1. Quasi modo geniti infantes 1. As newborn hahes, alleluia: 

alleluia: 2. rationdbiles, sine dolo 2. thoughtful, and without guile, de- 
lac concupicsite, alleluia, alleluia, sire ye the milk, alleluia, alleluia, 
alleluia. Ps. Exsultate Deo adju- alleluia. Ps. Rejoice unto God our 
tori nostra: * jubilate Deo Jacob. helper: * Sing aloud to the God of 

Jacob. 

The newborn child, in accordance with its instinct of self-preserva- 
tion, desires the milk of its mother. For this it needs no admonition. 
Thus should we also, in order to preserve the supernatural life, have a 
spontaneous longing for the nourishment of our souls, for truth, and for 
the Holy Eucharist. That is the wish of holy Mother Church. In ancient 
times she impressed this strongly upon the neophytes, who had put off 
their white baptismal robes yesterday. At present she sings it for first 
communicants. And with true maternal solicitude she sings it for us all. 
She cries out to us: Preserve the spirit of the children of God, remain 
simple, humble, and submissive to Him. Remain rationdbiles, children 



Low Sunday 189 

of the spirit; do not become children of the flesh. Remain sine dolo; pre- 
serve the truth without falsity, and love without envy. And come to 
me and nourish yourselves upon the stores which Christ has confided to 
me. Then deep joy will fill your hearts; God will be your Helper and you 
will rejoice and exult in His sight. 

The song is extremely simple, almost naive. After it has risen to the 
tonic of the sixth mode (f), it clings to it as if in fear. It moves about 
this note, several times descends lower, but always strives toward it 
again. This is especially shown with infantes, al-(lelüia). The plagal 
form of the F mode could scarcely be evidenced more clearly. Melodically, 
rationdbiles, with its harmonious line, is the highest point of the song. 
Its constituent notes are but a syllabic part of the psalm-verse of the 
Introit: adjutori nostro. The Introit for the vigil of Christmas resembles 
this melody to some extent. After sine dolo there is a sort of break. It 
is for this reason that in the translation it has not been connected with 
the subsequent lac, as some do who translate thus: "Desire after the un- 
adulterated milk"; it must be considered a separate phrase. Concwpiscite 
is a pleasing variant of (do)-lo. Of the three alleluia the second forms a 
contrast to the two others, which are identical with the exception of one 
single note. After the preceding d, the first sets in on c, while the third 
sets in on d after the preceding c; thus the beginnings are pleasantly 
varied. 

In the psalm-verse, since the second half of the text is very short, 
the melody cannot unfold itself entirely. 

FIRST ALLELUIA VERSE (Matt. 28: 7) 

1. In die resurredionis meae, 1. On the day of my resurrection, 

dicit Dominus, 2. praecedam vos in saith the Lord, 2. / will go before 
Galilaeam. you into Galilee. 

Manuscript 121 of Einsiedeln assigns this Alleluia to Thursday in 
Easter Week. The juhilus has the form a a^ b. It seems that the composer 
was much concerned about the words In die, but wanted to give still 
more prominence to praecedam vos which soars a fifth above the sur- 
rounding melody. This seems rather strange to us, and makes us doubt 
whether the composition at hand is entirely original. 

There is a free adaptation of text here. The words which are placed 
in the mouth of the risen Christ were spoken by the angel on Easter 
morning to the women at the tomb: "And going quickly, tell ye His 
disciples that He is risen: and behold He will go before you into Galilee; 
there you shall see Him." The singular melody is perhaps influenced by 
the fact that we have to do here with an extraordinary solemn appear- 



190 Low Sunday 

ance of the Risen One, at which, according to the testimony of St. Paul, 
more than five hundred disciples were present. 

SECOND ALLELUIA VERSE (John 20: 26) 

1. Post dies octo, januis clausis 1. And after eight days, the doors 

2. stetit Jesus in medio discipulorum being shut, 2. Jesus stood in the 
suorum, 3. et dixit: Pax vohis. midst of his disciples, 3. and saidi 

Peace he to you. 

Manuscript 339 of St. Gall's and 121 of Einsiedeln know nothing of 
this melody. 

The motive which sets in over -luia appears again in the third 
member of the juhilus; in the second member it sinks pleasingly a third 
lower; the second parts are identical in the first and second members, 
but in the third there is a slight difference. 

The first two phrases of the verse are clearly psalmodic in structure: 

Intonation Middle Cadence Closing Cadence 

Post dies octo jdrnds clausis 

Stetit Jesus in medio discipulorum suorum 

The third phrase repeats Alleluia with its juhilus. 

This Alleluia serves nicely as an introduction to the following Gos- 
pel. During the eight days after Jesus' appearance in the Cenacle on the 
evening of Easter Sunday the disciples, no doubt, asked about Him and 
yearned for His presence. For him who seeks, whose heart is filled with 
longing, a period of eight days seems a painfully long time. Suddenly 
Jesus stands in their midst. He comes with that blessed greeting: "Peace 
be with you!" He comes again with His cheering goodness, which seems 
to have become even more warm and profound since the resurrection. 
In today's Eucharistie celebration this appearance of Jesus will be re- 
newed. The Saviour wishes to come to us, to address also to us His joy- 
ful Pax vohis, to give us His peace, yes, even to give Himself. 

The explanation of the OFFERTORY is given on Easter Monday. 

COMMUNION (John 20, 27) 

1. Mitte manum tuam, et cog- 1. Put in thy hand, and know the 

nosce hca clavorum, alleluia: 2. et place of the nails, alleluia: 2. and 

noli esse incredulus, sed fidelis, he not incredulous but believing, 

alleluia, alleluia. alleluia, alleluia. 

This Communion song reflects in a pleasing manner the goodness of 
the Saviour, His winsome, touching love for us^-Here He speaks as to an 
invalid whom one wishes to spare all exertion. The melody prefers simple 



Second Sunday after Easter 191 

seconds and avoids all larger intervals. What a contrast to the impetu- 
osity of a Thomas with his pretentious demands! The Good Shepherd very 
carefully frees the erring lamb from the thorns in which it is entangled. 
The piece must be sung very devoutly and tenderly. And yet, with all 
its simplicity, it has its contrasts. Inserted among the Saviour's words 
we find a comparatively florid and bright alleluia, with which the melody 
also reaches its peak. At the end are two alleluia, which likewise extend 
to high Ob. There is also an interval of a fourth between fidelis and 
alleluia. These alleluia are the jubilant thanks of the Church for the 
Sariour's goodness. 

Also to us the Risen One directs these words: "Put in thy hand." 
In early times the Christians were wont to receive the Holy Eucharist 
in their hands. Our faith enables us also to touch His sacred wounds 
and united with Him we cry out in sincere thanksgiving: "My Lord and 
my God, alleluia!" 



SECOND SUNDAY AFTER EASTER 

INTROIT (Ps. 32:5, 6) 

1. Misericordia Domini plena est 1. The earth is full of the mercy of 

terra, alleluia: 2. verho Dei caeli the Lord, alleluia: 2. hy the word of 

firmati sunt, alleluia, alleluia. Ps. theLord the heavens were established, 

Exsultate justi in Domino: * rectos alleluia, alleluia. Ps. Rejoice in the 

decet collaudatio. Lord, ye just: * praise hecometh the 



Tender and mellow tones (thrice the half-tone interval recurs) which 
sing of God's mercy mark the beginning of this piece. For today is the 
Sunday of the "Good Shepherd." Everything breathes of His goodness 
His love, His understanding pity. He knows His own. He acknowledges 
every indication of good will; He recognizes our weakness and knows 
how to have compassion on us. All the earth must in very deed praise 
His merciful love, for He has given His life for everyone. Than this there 
is no greater love, as He Himself has declared. The melody develops 
very gradually. The notes d-f at the beginning become e-f-g over Do- 
(mini) and f-a on the third syllable of alleluia, yet so that the first phrase 
rests on /. 

A more energetic spirit is evidenced in the fourths of the second 
phrase and the accent on g. We are speaking here of God's almighty fiat 
This one word sufficed to stabilize the heavens. But to unlock for us the 
heaven of divine mercy, the Word of God went to a most cruel death. 



192 Second Sunday after Easter 

At this thought a heartfelt alleluia — the apex of the melody — must 
ascend from our hearts. We summon all the just to join in our song. 
The only other time we hear this bright, jubilant melody is at the end 
of the Introit of the Rogation Mass and in the more recent Introit for 
the feast of St. Paul of the Cross (April 28) . As usual in the fourth mode, 
the psalm- verse has a as its dominant. Thus we have the gradation: the 
first phrase /; the second g; the psalm-verse a. 

FIRST ALLELUIA VERSE (Luke 24: 35) 

1. Cognoverunt discipuli Domi- 1. The disciples knew the Lord 

Tium Jesum 2. in fr actione panis. Jesus 2. in the breaking of the bread. 

SECOND ALLELUIA VERSE (John 10: 14) 

1. Ego sum pastor bonus: 2. et 1. / am the Good Shepherd: 2, 

cognosco oves meas, 3. ei cognoscunt and I know my sheep, 3. and mine 
me meae. know me. 

These two Alleluia-verses pave the way for the Gospel. There the 
Lord will say: "I know Mine and Mine know Me, as the Father knoweth 
Me, and I know the Father." Both Alleluia speak of recognition of the 
Lord. The former leads us back to Emmaus and permits us to experience 
in ourselves the happiness of the disciples. Their hearts were burning 
within them when that mysterious traveling Companion spoke to them. 
But now they recognize the Lord Jesus in the breaking of the bread. 
Originally this melody was sung to the text Domine Deus, salutis meae, 
which is employed at present on the twelfth Sunday after Pentecost. 
Its explanation will likewise be found there. 

Similarly, the melody of the second Alleluia is not original. In the 
ancient manuscripts as well as in the present Gradual it is assigned to 
the feast of the holy Martyrs Marius, Martha, Audifax, and Abachum 
(January 19). The jubilus of Alleluia exhibits the form ab, cb, d. The 
verse repeats the melody of Alleluia and its jubilus over cognosco oves 
meas and over et cognoscunt me meae. Since the original is not drawn out, 
the similarity of sound between the words prompted this repetition. The 
effect is not an entirely happy one, because we hear the same melody 
four times. Two small variations, however, should be mentioned. The 
beginning of the second and third phrases is lighter than that of Alleluia, 
In the same manner, meas avoids the pressus at the close of the jubilus, 
for as yet there is here no question of a complete ending. The inception 
with the dominant over Ego sum is remarkably effective, even though 
we here have a text that has been substituted. 



Second Sunday after Easter 193 

Christ knows His own as He knows the Father. These words ought to 
be for us an infinitely great consolation. The Saviour's knowledge of the 
Father includes of itself His immeasurable and unending love for Him, 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 62: 2, 5) 

1. Deus, Deus mens, ad te de luce 1. O God, my God, to thee do I 

vigilo: 2. et in nomine tuo levabo watch at break of day. 2. and in 
manus meas, alleluia. Thy name I will lift up my hands, 

alleluia. 

Christ is the shepherd and bishop of our souls; today's Epistle 
applies these terms to Him. He keeps a faithful watch over His sheep, 
never resting, never slumbering. Hence it is but fitting that my first 
waking thought be directed to Him, that my heart turn to Him at the 
first streak of dawn (de luce). And this the more, since on this morning 
He again desires to be mine entirely, and wishes me to partake of His 
divine life in the Eucharistie Banquet. Just as at the Offertory the priest 
lifts up his hands together with the sacrificial gifts of bread and wine, so 
shall I also lift up my hands and offer myself as an oblation, singing my 
Alleluia in the joy of the Holy Ghost and confiding in the omnipotence 
of His grace (in nomine tuo). In early times these sentiments were ex- 
pressed by these verses: "I come before Thee, to see Thy power and Thy 
glory. Thou hast been my Helper. And I will rejoice under the covert of 
Thy wings." In the Offertory the divine Redeemer prays to His heavenly 
Father and protests His continual readiness to be sacrificed. Here and 
now He becomes the Lamb which is offered for us on the altar. 

In the quiet first phrase, luce is the only word which rises to some- 
what greater prominence. Is this perhaps to remind us of the sudden 
flashing of the light? The tone-sequences over the second syllable are 
heard at various times: in the Vidi aquam, where there is mention of 
flowing water with aqua ista; in the Offertory Inveni David, when it 
speaks of flowing oil with the words dleo sancto. Proper to almost all pieces 
of the second mode is the close of the first phrase on c. Only here the 
seconds, without any pressus, have not that strong modulatory power 
shown, for example, in the Introit Mihi autem for Apostles. In its first 
half, the second phrase is somewhat more lively, setting in immediately 
on the dominant and taking on a more ornate melody with in nomine 
tuo, upon which is placed a fourth as an antithesis to that occurring in 
the first phrase. The second part returns to the simple, almost naively 
pastoral style of the first phrase, which feeling is strengthened by the 
minor third d-f, the usual combination of dominant and tonic in pieces 
of the second mode. 



194 Third Sunday after Easter 

COMMUNION (John 10: 14) 

1. Ego sum pastor bonus, alle- 1. I am the good shepherd, alle- 
luia: 2. et cognosco oves meas, et luia: 2. and I know my sheep, and 
cognoscunt me meae, alleluia, alle- mine know me, alleluia, alleluia, 
luia. 

We have been allowed to participate in the breaking of the Bread. 
In Holy Communion Christ appeared as the true light in our hearts and 
has made us happy. Each Holy Communion is a pledge that the Good 
Shepherd will not rest until He has successfully led us to the springs of 
eternal life. He alone is the Good Shepherd. Hence Ego occupies a very 
emphatic position at the beginning of the piece. We shall remain united 
to Him, and if other voices entice us and seek to influence our judgment, 
then we shall turn to Him alone and listen only to His voice. We know 
Him and bend our knees before His presence. He, the "Only-Begotten 
of the Father, full of grace and truth," dwells in our hearts as the Word 
of God became flesh. 

The Communion has the same text as the second Alleluia-verse, 
but a different development. The two phrases et cognosco and et cog- 
noscunt, it is true, begin with the same motive. But in place of the paral- 
lelism in the Alleluia, the melody in the present case over et cognosco 
oves meas shows a lively upward swing with the range of a sixth. It por- 
trays the great love of the Good Shepherd for His sheep. But et cog- 
noscunt has only seconds and its range is but a third: compared to His 
knowledge of us, our knowledge of Him will always be fragmentary. 
Tenderness breathes from the half-tone intervals at the beginning, and 
yet there is also firmness shown in the double note (as found in our pres- 
ent version). Cf. Wagner (II, 147) concerning the notation of this pas- 
sage in the old manuscripts. In the notation of Montpellier which is given 
there, the hook does not belong to the neums, but to the letters ef. Re- 
markably simple is the alleluia which is inserted between the words of 
the Saviour, and also the two alleluia which are attached at the end, 
since this cry usually is sung with great spirit (cf. the alleluia in today's 
Introit). Here they strive to be nothing more than the simple melody of 
a shepherd in the fields. 

Revue, 20, 133 ff. 

* * * * 

THIRD SUNDAY AFTER EASTER 

INTROIT (Ps. 65: 1, 2) 

1. Jubilate Deo omnis terra, alle- 1. Shout with joy to God, all the 

luia: 2. psalmum dicite nomini ejus, earth, alleluia; 2. sing ye a psalm 



Third Sunday after Easter 195. 

alleluia: 3. date gloriam laudi ejus, to his name, alleluia: 3. give glory 

4. alleluia, alleluia, alleluia. Ps. to his praise, 4. alleluia, alleluia, 

Dicite Deo, quam ierribiliasuntopera alleluia. Ps. Say unto God: How 

tua, Dominel * in multitudine vir- terrible are thy works, O Lordl * 

tutis tuae meniientur tibi inimici in the multitude of thy strength 

tui. thine enemies shall lie to thee. "h 

A twofold division is made by the melody. The first part is sub- 
divided by the imperatives, Jubilate, dicite, and date. Each of these worda 
in its own way strives upward to c, and each has its last syllable on f^ 
the lowest note of this first part. The first and third phrases close on the 
tonic; the close of the second on a is a pleasing variation, the first part 
of whose alleluia repeats the motive of psalmum. This alleluia may also 
be found in Introits of the third mode, for example, that of Wednesday 
in Whitsun Week. We may consider the motive over dicite as a model 
for the extension over nomini ejus and gloriam laudi ejus. 

The threefold alleluia constituting the second part is in effect an- 
other imperative: "Praise ye the Lord!" But the melodic line differs 
from the imperatives above. First it descends to d, then to c, and finally 
soars upward with impelling force to c. 

Although the melody has a rather limited range (the first part con- 
fines itself to a fifth), still there is something impressive about it. With 
its numerous fourths it endeavors to work itself into the hearts of the 
people and to propel them into that atmosphere of joy with which it is 
itself filled. How vigorously omnis terra is stressed! All countries are to 
join in this jubilation. That should, at any rate, be the effect on ourselves 
as a result of meditating on the wonderful works of God, on the realiza- 
tion of His plan of salvation, the redemption through Christ's death 
upon the cross, our predestination to eternal glory. The very thought is 
enough to make the entire earth prostrate itself in humble obeisance be- 
fore God's face with its heart filled with joy. This will one day come to 
pass; at the great final resurrection all the earth will pay reverence to its 
King, its Lord, its God. Then those, too, who now boastfully pose as 
enemies of Christ and His kingdom, will of sheer necessity throw them- 
selves on their knees in adoration, and the entire celestial host will sing 
to Him its eternal Alleluia. 

FIRST ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 110: 9) 

Redemptionem misit Dominus The Lord hath sent redemption to 

populo suo. his people. 

At St. Gall's, in the tenth century, this melody was sung on the 
Thursday of Whitsun Week. Codex 121 of Einsiedeln lists it among the 



196 Third Sunday after Easter 

Alleluia at the end of the manuscripts. We became acquainted with it 
and its juhilus in the Christmas season. While the verse has a diffe^^ent 
close there, in today's melody the ending runs harmoniously into the 
juhilus of Alleluia. Only the Lord can send redemption to His people; 
rightly, therefore, are the words Redemptionem and Dominus and their 
accented syllables brought into prominence. 

SECOND ALLELUIA VERSE (Luke 24: 46) 

1. Oportehat pati Christum, et re- 1. It behooved Christ to suffer 

surgere a mortuis, 2. et ita intrare these things, 2. and so to enter into 
in gloriam suam. Ms glory. 

Codex 339 of St. Gall's does not mention this melody; Codex 121 
of Einsiedeln, however, assigns it to the Wednesday of Easter Week. 
With its rise to the tonic (e), its repetition of the major chord c-e-g, and 
the use of similar motives, it reminds one of the Alleluia Amdvit eum in 
the Mass for Doctors of the Church. Considered in this light, this Al- 
leluia, as well as the Amdvit eum, might be assigned to the C mode, with 
its close on the third. 

The juhilus has the form a ahb c; part a has a pleasant interchange 
of porrectus and torculus, while quiet seconds follow the energetic ascend- 
ing fifth in part b. Oportehat reminds us of Alleluia, intrare of the motive 
a, mortuis shows the infieunce of h, and in gloriam repeats et ira. Some 
have tried to show that the first half of the AWeluia-j uhilus with its low 
pitch refers to the suffering (pati) and that the second (higher) half ex- 
presses the joy of Easter. As far as musical comprehension of the text is 
concerned, we had best consider the rendition from the standpoint of 
declamation. We should rather stress Oportehat, and still more pati, and 
place special emphasis on the words ita and gloriam. This is the way the 
melody develops. 

Christ was under no absolute obligation to suffer, but all His suffer- 
ing was included in God's plan of redemption, and hence "the servant of 
God" (as Isaias calls the Messias) was impelled to fulfill this duty; it 
became, so to say, a necessity (Oportehat). Now His work is done. Simi- 
larly, the glory of the resurrection had to follow upon His suffering and 
death, and it is on this glory that the Alleluia congratulates the Lord. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 145: 2) 

1. Lauda, anima mea. Dominum: 1. Praise the Lord, my soul, 

2. laudaho Dominum in vita mea: 2. in my life I will praise the Lord: 

3. psallam Deo meo, quamdiu ero, 3. I will sing to my God as long as 
alleluia. I shall he, alleluia. 



Third Sunday after Easter 197 

In the first phrase the singer rouses himself to the praise of God 
with a fervor which is in no wise obtrusive or spectacular, but which 
for that very reason makes a more profound impression on a receptive 
spirit. The second and third phrases immediately draw the practical 
conclusions: lauddho, psallam. This is the singer's occupation not merely 
for the moment, but for all the time of his life; it is his vocation. As long 
as blood courses in his veins, as long as his heart beats within his breast, 
this sacred obligation should urge him on. For God's mercy attends him 
all the days of his life. The verses which formerly accompanied these 
verses ran as follows: "I will sing to the Lord as long as I live. Who 
keepeth truth forever; who executeth judgment for them that suffer 
wrong; who giveth food to the hungry. I will sing to the Lord as long as 
I live, alleluia. The Lord lifteth up them that are cast down; the Lord 
looseth them that are fettered; the Lord keepeth the fatherless and the 
stranger and the widow. The ways of sinners he will destroy. The Lord 
shall reign forever; thy God, O Sion, unto generation and generation. I 
will sing to the Lord as long as I live, alleluia." 

Only the Lord can effect all this. Hence the word Dominum towers 
prominently above all else. The ascending endings of the first Dominum 
and of mea are necessitated by the lower beginning of the following phrase. 
Perhaps the same reason applies for meo. Rhythmically these similar 
endings effect a great calmness, to which the identical or at least very 
similar intonations of Lauda, psallam, and alleluia contribute. Perhaps 
two neums on the unaccented syllable (qudm)-di-(u) are accounted for 
by the fact that colloquial Latin preferred to retain the accent on the 
stem syllable. The final alleluia is common to all the Offertories of the 
fourth mode during the Paschal season. Perhaps it received its form 
from the present Offertory, since its fiTst part resembles psallam and its 
close mea. 

COMMUNION (John 16: 16) 

1. Modicum et non videhitis me, 1. A little while, and now you shall 

alleluia: 2. Herum modicum, et not see me, alleluia: 2. and again a 
videhitis me, 3. quia vado ad Pa- little while, and you shall see me: 3. 
trem, aHleluia, alleluia. because I go to the Father, alleluia, 

alleluia. 

Here the Saviour says to His Apostles: Only a short time remains 
until the separation. It will begin in a few hours and will be completed 
on the evening of Good Friday. But it will last only a short time, for 
they will see Him again on Easter Day. In the first phrase the melody 
reflects the sorrow of parting by its stress @n the tonic and by its descent 



198 Fourth Sunday after Easter 

a fourth below it. In iterum modicum, which sets in on the lofty tenor 
and emphasizes it, as well as in the ascending melodic line over videbitis 
me, we see expressed the joy of reunion. Between the two sentences, as 
is only natural, an alleluia, redolent of the spirit of Easter, is interpolated, 
and receives further melodic amplification in the twofold alleluia at the 
end of the melody. 

When we participate in the Eucharistie Banquet, we cannot see 
the Saviour; His divinity and His humanity are veiled. But we can con- 
template Him with the eyes of faith. And the purer our heart is, the 
deeper does this gaze penetrate. This sight and possession and enjoyment, 
it is true, is short-lived (modicum), and here below it will never be per- 
fect; it will ever be a modicum. But Christ is going to the Father, and we 
may therefore sing a joyous alleluia. He goes to prepare a place for us, 
that we may see Him face to face throughout a blessed eternity. But, 
according to the words of St. Augustine^, He is also preparing us for 
this dwelling. Occasionally we become painfully aware that this work of 
preparation is going on. But it is to last only for a little while (modicum) 
after which we shall also be allowed to chant the eternal alleluia. 



FOURTH SUNDAY AFTER EASTER 

The lively expression of joy and thanksgiving for divine assistance 
which we find in the Masses for the fourth and fifth Sundays after 
Easter are, no doubt, influenced, as H. Grisar remarks (Das Missale im 
Lichte roemischer Stadtgeschichte, p. 85), by the general rejoicing which 
followed the overthrow of barbarian hordes through divine intervention. 
Perhaps there is reference to the raising of the siege of Rome under Witt- 
iges (A.D. 538). 

INTROIT (Ps. 97: 1-2) 

1. Cantate Domino canticum no- 1. Sing ye to the Lord a new can- 

vum, alleluia: 2. quia mirabilia tide, alleluia: 2. for the Lord hath 

fecit Dominus, alleluia: 3. ante revealed his justice, alleluia: 3. in 

conspectum gentium revelavit jus- the sight of the gentiles, alleluia 

titiam suam, alleluia, alleluia. Ps. alleluia. Ps. His right hand hath 

Salvavit sibi dextera ejus: * et wrought for him salvation: * and 

hrachium sanctum ejus. his arm is holy. 

A rising line marks the development of the melody. The first part 
of the first phrase has a range of a fourth, the second of a fifth; the sec- 



1 Tractatus 68 in Joann. 



Fourth Sunday after Easter 199 

ond and third phrases have a range of a sixth. The motive of Cantdte 
Domino recurs over fecit Dominus and the following alleluia. It is not, 
however, proper to this Introit. We heard it over sine dolo in the Introit 
for Low Sunday. Closer examination, in fact, shows that these two In- 
troits are similar in more than one way. They have the same mode and 
the same range; the close of the first phrase and almost the entire second 
phrase, moreover, show great similarity. Compare: 

(novum) alleluia: quia mirabilia fecit Dominus, alleluia, and (in- 
fantes) alleluia: rationdhiles, sine dolo. 

The small variant here observable shows the refined sense the an- 
cients had for forming endings. The formula over sine dolo has its final 
torculus a third below the tonic, thus facilitating immediate continuance 
of the melody over lac. The alleluia after Dominus, however, brings the 
entire second phrase to a close; for this reason the final torculus, suggestive 
of pleasant rest, is placed a fourth below the tonic. This at the same time 
provides a pleasant contrast to the endings of the first and third phrases. 

The third phrase begins with a sort of inversion of the preceding 
motive, vigorously stresses reveldvit, and accords still greater prominence 
to justitiam suam. According to melodic sense, the second last alleluia 
finds its fulfillment in the resolved major chord of the subdominant. 
The last alleluia is almost the same as the one which ends the first phrase. 

From the obvious similarity of this chant with the Introit Quasi 
modo, and from its restricted range, we can readily infer that it is not 
intended as a powerful song of victory, but rather a heartfelt song of 
thanksgiving for the wonder of wonders which the Father has wrought 
in the resurrection of His Son. He made known His justice to all the 
nations. He has accepted the expiatory sacrifice of His Son, and has 
glorified and transfigured Him because of it; He has manifested His be- 
loved Son as the Just One, through whom alone the world can attain to 
salvation and justification. 

The resurrection must also be ascribed to Christ Himself. For He 
indeed has the power to lay down His life and the power to take it up 
again. On the cross His right hand was cruelly pierced by a nail and His 
sacred arm was most painfully wrenched out of place. But by His own 
strength He overcame everything: sin, suffering, and death. 

Since today's Gospel and Communion treat of the coming of the 
Holy Ghost, we may likewise attribute the marvelous deeds to His 
activity, to the glory which, according to Christ's own assertion, He be- 
stowed upon Him, and the wonders which He has not ceased to work 
in the Church from the first Pentecost until the present time. 

Would that we might sing to the Father and to the Son and to the 
Holy Ghost a new canticle, with renewed love, renewed joy, renewed 



200 Fourth Sunday after Easter 

gratefulness, and in the same spirit as the Risen Christ sang the new 
canticle of His glorified humanity to the Father on Easter morning. The 
deeper we penetrate into God's marvels, the more spontaneously, the 
more lively, the more joyously will this song well from our hearts. 

FIRST ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 117: 16) 

1. Dextera Dei fecit virtutem: 2. 1. The right hand of the Lord 

dexter a Domini exaltavit me. hath wrought strength: 2. the right 

hand of the Lord hath exalted me. 

These words are known to us from the Offertory for Maundy 
Thursday. At that time they were spoken in anticipation; but now, 
after the feast of Easter, they are a glorious reality; each Sunday after 
Easter celebrates the victory of the Mighty One, who in the power of 
His own arm triumphed over death and sin. On the feast of the Invention 
of the Cross the same text is employed in the Offertory. First the Sa- 
viour had to be lifted up, nailed to the cross, and only then did He enter 
into His glory. 

The beginning of Alleluia and the endings over Dei, (vir)-tütem and 
Domini exhibit characteristics of the first mode. To the descending line 
over the first dextera the ascending line over the second comes as an an- 
swer. In the juhilus the formula gdbaga resembles dbcaga over me. 

SECOND ALLELUIA VERSE (Rom. 6: 9) 

1. Christus resurgent ex mortuis, 1. Christ rising again from the 

jam non moritur: 2. mors Uli ultra dead, dieth now no more: 2. death 
non domindbitur . shall no more have dominion over 

him. 

Psalm 117 continues the text of the first Alleluia-verse with the words : 
"I shall not die, but live." In the second Alleluia-verse the words of St. 
Paul repeat the same thought, correlating it directly with the general 
theme of the Easter season. The melody lingers on this one fundamental 
joyous thought, that death is now become an impossibility for Christ. 
The bitter flood of trial and suffering which overwhelmed Him can never- 
more disturb His body or His soul. Now is He "the Prince of Life," as 
the Easter Sequence refers to Him, and no power can ever diminish the 
plenitude of His bliss. 

This thought is expressed by means of parallel phrases, a device 
often met with in the psalms. The first phrase uses the principal motives 
of Alleluia with its juhilus, ah, ac, d: Christus = Alle- (luia), resürgens = 
the expansion of (Alle)-lüia, ex mortuis = jam non moritur = ac and d. 
The divisions of this first verse are evident: the arsis to mortuis, here a 



Fourth Sunday after Easter 201 

logical pause on the dominant of the mode; beginning with jam, the 
thesis, and a pause on the tonic. A correspondence exists between the 
closing formulas of (re)-sürgens and mortuis. Mors in the second phrase 
is not a recalling of the death agony, but a cry of triumphant joy. Boldly 
it soars up on a seventh, stresses the high note, then adds an animated 
torculus. The repetition sets in with a lively interval of a sixth, an un- 
common occurrence in plain song. Then it moves to a victorious comple- 
tion in cUmacus groups which, incidentally, should not be sung rapidly. 
Non domindhitur repeats Alleluia with its jubilus, thus giving the ju- 
bilant melody over mors undisputed first rank. 

The modal peculiarity of the piece lies in this, that it is assigned to- 
the first mode, but throughout avoids the note h, and that mors resembles 
the jubilus of the Alleluia Amdvit eum from the Mass for Doctors of the 
Church, assigned to the fourth mode (cf. also the second Alleluia-verse 
for the third Sunday after Easter). 

On the feast of Christ the King we meet the same melody. 

OFFERTORY 

The explanation was given on the second Sunday after Epiphany 
(q.v.). There is hardly any doubt that originally it was composed for this 
Sunday. On the former Sunday it invited the entire world to admire the 
love which God showed to men in the incarnation of His Son. But to- 
day we exult in thanksgiving for Christ's resurrection and the glory 
which it makes accessible also to us. What great things (quanta) are con- 
tained in the words of the Apostle! "But God, who is rich in mercy, for 
his exceeding charity wherewith he loved us, even when we were dead 
in sins, hath quickened us together in Christ ... and hath made us sit 
together in the heavenly places" (Ephes. 2: 4 ff.). 

COMMUNION (John 16: 8) 

1. Dum venerit Paraclitus Spiri- 1. When the Paraclete shall come,, 

tus veritatis, 2. ille arguet mundum the Spirit of truth, 2. he shall con- 

de peccato, et de justitia, et de ju- vince the world of sin and of justice 

dido, alleluia, alleluia. and of judgment, alleluia, alleluia.. 

Here, for the first time in the Mass-chants after Easter, there is 
mention of the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of truth, of His coming and of 
His activity. As the Gospel more fully explains. He comes to convince 
the world of its sin, the greatest sin, its rejection of the Son of God, its 
resistance to the truth taught by the Apostles and the Church and an- 
nounced to all the world. He comes also to show it justice, namely, the 
justice of the cause of Jesus. He whom the world condemned as a bias- 



202 Fifth Sunday after Easter 

phemer and a seducer is risen and ascended into heaven; hence He alone 
is holy, He alone is just. The Holy Ghost also prepares for judgment. At 
the death of Jesus He already dealt a mortal blow to the prince of this 
world; but at the final judgment He will fully glorify the Son of God. 
Against the proofs adduced (drguet) by the Spirit of truth, no pretentious 
learning and no power on earth can prevail. Truth will infallibly conquer. 
Hence drguet rightly marks the summit of the melody. For this reason, 
also, a twofold brilliant alleluia is added to this serious text, and for the 
same reason ille is vigorously stressed. The concluding formula h-a-g 
with the weighty full-step intervals in peccäto, justitia, and judicio, can- 
not be entirely unpremeditated. The melody over Spiritus veritdtis is a 
citation from the beginning of the Communion Ego sum pastor bonus for 
the second Sunday after Easter, or vice versa. Both Communions are 
also employed as responsories at Matins.^ 

The antiphon for the Magnificat on Tuesday after the fourth Sun- 
day after Easter has the same text and also some melodic resemblance. 

Our song must be sincere homage to the Spirit of truth, and at the 
same time a defiant challenge to all the vain pretences of a world which 
tries to ignore God. Today's Holy Communion will strengthen this re- 
solve. As often as we communicate, we announce the death of the Lord 
until He will come as the Holy One, the Judge of all the world. 



FIFTH SUNDAY AFTER EASTER 

(Cf. the remarks at the beginning of the fourth 
Sunday) 

INTROIT (Is. 48:20) 

1. Vocem jucunditatis annun- 1. Declare the voice of joy and let 

Hate, et audiatur, alleluia: 2. nun- it he heard, alleluia: 2. declare it 

tiate usque ad extremum terrae: 3. even to the ends of the earth: 3. the 

liheravit Dominus populum suum. Lord hath delivered his people, alle- 

alleluia, alleluia. Ps. Jubilate Deo luia, alleluia. Ps. Shout with joy to 

omnis terra : * psalmum dicite no- God, all the earth : * sing ye a psalm 

mini ejus, date gloriam laudi ejus. to his name, give glory to his praise. 

One might imagine that the Easter joy would gradually diminish 
in the successive Introits for the Sundays after Easter, for the more we 



Revue, 20, 137. 



Fifth Sunday after Easter 203 

recede from this feast, the closer we approach the day of the ascension 
and the departure of the Lord from this earth. But it does not. Other 
rules come into play here. The melodies for the Introits of the first, 
second, and fourth Sundays are devout, rather than jubilant. Into these 
the brilliant third Sunday is inserted. Now, rising above all these, com^s 
the Introit of the fifth Sunday: a clarion call of real Easter joy which 
would resound to the uttermost ends of the earth, as if conscious of the 
fact that never was there a more consoling message brought to cheer 
mankind. 

In its first half, the first phrase has an energetic ascent for its arsis, 
followed by a similarly proportioned thesis. How delicate the melodic 
line here is, avoiding everything rough or severe! By preference the new 
neum sets in on the last note of the preceding one (dge-eg-ga-acb, and 
the descending ca-ag-gag). After a brief arsis the second half brings a 
drawn-out thesis with the tetrachord d-g. Strength is thus gained for a 
renewed, powerful ascent. The second phrase begins with the same mo- 
tive as the first, but increases greatly in force with the fourth over usque. 
The effect is heightened still more by the two identical clives. And now 
comes a loud cry of joy with the torculus. It is not only tone-painting, 
but the manifestation of long-pent-up, surging joy in the heart of the 
singer. The third phrase brings the message itself. One might expect a 
still greater enhancement of the melody here. But a further develop- 
ment upward is hardly possible, for the third mode, the one selected for 
this piece, very rarely reaches above the high e used over extremum. And 
a repetition of that note might sound weak. Moreover, how is a royal 
message announced? First a fanfare and the rolling of drums, and then 
the solemn and quiet proclamation of the message. The greater and the 
more unexpected its contents are, the warmer and more mysterious will 
T^e its ring. That is the case here. The message announces our freedom 
from ignoble bondage, and the cessation of that misery of soul which 
once seemed so hopelessly abject because no man could help. It an- 
nounces our citizenship in a kingdom whose Ruler is the God of infinite 
love. What is more, it promises a life of eternal bliss in this kingdom. 
Hence we shall sing these words not so much with rousing joy as rather 
with deep emotion and heartfelt thanksgiving. But with the twofold 
■alleluia joy breaks forth anew. Over suum it has already reverted to the 
motive of the first phrase over audiatur; this it varies pleasantly toward 
the end and culminates in the florid neums over the final alleluia. 

This melody was adopted for the Introit of the feast of the Im- 
maculate Conception; and also, though less happily, for the feast of St. 
Anthony Mary Zaccaria (July 5). 

Analyses, I, 31 fif. 



204 Fifth Sunday after Easter 

FIRST ALLELUIA VERSE 

1. Sun exit Christus, et illuxit 1. Christ is risen, and hath shone 

nobis, 2. quos redemit sanguine suo. upon us, 2. whom he redeemed with 

his blood. 

In the eternal liturgy of heaven the saints never tire of singing: 
"Thou, O Lord, hast redeemed us to God, in Thy blood, out of every 
tribe, and tongue, and people, and nation, and hast made us to our God 
a kingdom" (Apoc. 5: 9, 10). Little wonder that the Church on earth 
again and again intones this hymn. Today we hear it in the Introit and 
in this Alleluia. As a city set on a hill cannot remain hid, so this redemit 
attracts the attention by its notation and still more by its rendition. It 
sets in a fifth higher than the preceding nobis; the following sanguine 
begins a fifth lower. Not infrequently plainsong employs this method of 
plastic expression (cf . the word aeterni in the Communion Beata viscera 
— the Son of the eternal Father whom Mary bore in her womb). Similarly 
here the emphasis is: We have been redeemed through the blood of 
Christ. Joyful remembrance of this fact urges us to express our thanks 
again and again. Here it is done in a simple yet affectionate manner by 
the two pressus over sanguine. The conjoined formula repeats the ending 
of (illü)-xit nobis. We might delineate the second phrase thus: high- 
low; and the first: low-high. The first half of the first phrase enlivens 
its simple melodic line with three pressus: feddc, efggf, edffe; the second 

half strikes out more boldly. We might, however, expect more light over 
illuxit. Four times alleluia with its jubilus varies the tone-sequence 
g f e d, and introduces it in three different ways . 

By Christ's resurrection our redemption was perfected and sealed, 
and if Christ now appears in His splendor, this is a consoling assurance 
that we also, as the Apostle told us in the Epistle for Holy Saturday, 
shall appear with Him in glory. 

SECOND ALLELUIA VERSE (John 15: 28) 

1. Exivi a Patre, et veni in mun- 1. / came forth from the Father, 

dum: 2. iterum relinquo mundum, and came into the world: 2. again 
3. et vado ad Patrem. I leave the world, 3. and go to the 

Father. 

Seldom does an alleluia begin immediately on the dominant of the 
mode, as this one does. The melody soars to heights which but few singers 
can reach. It should, therefore, be taken a minor or a major third lower. 
Alleluia with its jubilus has the following divisions: 



Fifth Sunday after Easter 205 

ab a c a^ 

Al -le - lu - ia\ . . . \ . . . \ . . . 

The verse confines itself almost completely to motives a and b: 
Exivi a=a}, et veni = a}, iterum = h, (relin)-quo = B}, mundum=a}, et 
vado = 2i, ad Patrem=h, Or one might say, more simply, that with the 
exception of the last four notes, it repeats Alleluia with its juhilus. The 
last thought thus receives an extremely florid melody. The composer 
had no intention of giving melodic symmetry to the symmetry of the 
text. In veni in mundum he avoided any such effect as the masters of 
polyphonic music aimed at in the descendit de caelis of the Credo. Nor 
did*he have any intention of working out a contrast between the two 
thoughts, a contrast which would express Christ's departure from this 
world and His return to the Father in a more brilliant, more jubilant 
manner. One and the same spirit pervades the entire piece. In the fre- 
quently repeated minor third d-f of the festal melody there lies hidden 
a feeling akin to quiet grief, to the pain of separation. The Son of God 
left the Father and for a short time bade farewell to the glory that was 
His; He came into this world to humiliate Himself and to die. Heaviness 
fills the disciples' hearts because the Master leaves them to go to the 
Father and will not return until later to take them to Himself. 

The text is taken from the Gospel which follows; hence this Alleluia 
is a transition and introduction to the Gospel. 

If one were to sing the passage vado ad Patrem, even though it re- 
sembles many another passage, with more fervor and warmth, as if re- 
joicing from one's heart with the Saviour that He is now about to go 
back to His Father, no one could take it amiss. 

We, in imitation of Christ, have gone forth from the Father and 
have been sent into this world in order to fulfill a mission, a mission 
which we must never lose sight of, no matter how persistently the allure- 
ments of the world cry for our attention. This resolve must ever re- 
main firm in our minds: "I must go to the Father; I must seek God in 
everything." Then we shall surely find Him, and death itself will not be 
able to affright us. With childlike confidence we shall say: "I go to the 
Father." 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 65: 8, 9, 20) 

1. Benedicite gentes Dominum 1. bless the Lord our God, ye 

Deum nostrum et ohaudite vocem gentiles, and make the voice of his 

laudis ejus: 2. qui posuit animam praise to he heard: 2. who hath set 

meam ad vitam, et non dedit com- my soul to live, and hath not suffered 

moveri pedes meos: 3. henedictus my feet to he moved: 3. hlessed be 



206 Fifth Sunday after Easter 

Dominus, qui non amovit depreca- the Lord, who hath not turned away 
tionem meam, et misericordiam my prayer, and his mercy from me 
suam a me, 4. alleluia. 4. alleluia. 

The present Sunday is the last before the feast of the Ascension. 
Christ looks back upon His earthly life and His passion. How often His 
enemies sought His life! Day and night, as He Himself says. On the 
Mount of Olives His soul was sorrowful nigh unto death. Burdened with 
the cross, He totters toward Calvary. With a mighty cry He calls to His 
Father. But His appeal seems to fall on deaf ears; there is no pity for 
His distress. Now, however, He has been heard; He lives again, and it 
is a life of glory immeasurable. The Father's grace is poured over His 
most sacred humanity as a stream of the "oil of gladness." Now He can 
waver no more. No matter how His enemies rage, He will ever remain 
the central figure of all history. 

We shall, therefore, sing this song in the spirit of Christ, as a con- 
tinuation of that canticle which He intoned in the Introit for Easter 
Sunday. The two songs are closely related; both express a joy which,, 
though outwardly subdued, fills the soul to its very depths. Considering 
the melody in this light, we can better understand the absence of melodic 
development, the modest range (only a sixth, if we abstract from the 
descent to the lower third at the beginning over amovit) despite the length 
of the piece, and the repetition of large melodic groups: (no)-strum et 
obaudite vo-(cem)= (a)-m6vit deprecationem me-(am), laudis ejus = pedes 
meos, et non dedit= commoveri, henedictus = qui non a-(m6vit). 

The first phrase, with its almost depressing beginning, is a far cry 
from the joyous exultation of the Introit; and yet the two basically ex- 
press the same thought. In the second phrase, however, we have a fresh 
and animated motive, which may be considered an amplification of 
Dominum in the first. There it runs c e g f f; here, especially in the more 
simple form over dnimam, d f a g f. In b. slightly varied form it appears 
over suam in the third phase. 

The chief repercussion of the second mode (d-f) is employed fre- 
quently, almost too frequently, / generally appearing as a bistropha or 
a tristropha. Special care must be given these notes, lest they sound 
clumsy; the whole selection, in fact, should be sung fluently. We may 
also make the song our very own, thanking God for the new life which 
Easter has brought to us, for the new life of grace which in His mercy 
He has perhaps repeatedly conferred upon us when we strayed from the 
right path^ He has graciously heard our prayer for mercy and made our 
joy complete. Now we are about to offer the holy Sacrifice, the noblest 
and most efficacious prayer, in the name of Jesus. That is what promotes 



Rogation Days 207 

the growth in us of the new life which Christ brought us; that is what 
gives us perseverance till the day of our glorification. How rich we are 
in Christ. May we never cease praising Him. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 95: 2) 

1. Cantate Domino, alleluia: 2. 1. Sing ye to the Lord, alleluia: 

cantate Domino, et benedicite nomen 2. sing ye to the Lord, and bless his 

ejus: 3. bene nuntiate de die in diem name: 3. show forth his salvation 

salutare ejus, alleluia, alleluia. from day to day, alleluia, alleluia. 

Today, it would seem, the Church is continually exhorting us to 
sing, to exult, to offer thanks. This Communion harks back to the happy 
melody of the Introit. The crescendo which one naturally expects in the 
repetition of the cry Cantate is effected with a graceful broadening of 
volume and range. We shall meet Domino again in the Communion for 
the feast of the Ascension, nomen in the same chant at the close of the 
second alleluia and again at the end of the annuntidte. Bene nuntiate, 
which begins a fifth higher than the close of the preceding phrase and 
carries a florid melody, fared very well at the hands of the composer. 
In annotated manuscripts each clivis is marked broadly. Diem reminds 
us of nuntiate. At salutare we see why the piece is transposed; normally, 
that is, a fifth lower, we should have eb. With its tritone the melody 
here seems to enter a kind of twilight; but this vanishes immediately, 
dispelled by the bright alleluia, a fifth higher. The alleluia are not such 
as are usually found in Communions, but rather in Introit^ Everything 
palpitates and sparkles with life. 

Now that the Saviour is in our heart, our song should be most 
spontaneous. When the aged Simeon was privileged to look upon "the 
salvation of God," a joyous, youthful song surged to his lips. But we 
were not merely allowed to see the Lord, but also to receive Him into 
our hearts. May our song ascend to the heavens to glorify His holy- 
name. Continually He fulfills the promise made in today's Gospel: 
"Amen, amen, I say to you, if you ask the Father anything in My 
name. He will give it you." How radiantly happy and confident this 
assurance should make us! 



ROGATION DAYS 

For the Exurge, see February 2. Compare what was said on Holy 
Saturday concerning the Litany of the Saints. 



208 Rogation Days 

INTROIT (Ps. 17: 7) 

1. Exaudivit de templo sancto suo 1. He heard my voice from his 

vocem meam, alleluia'. 2. et clamor holy temple, alleluia: 2. and my cry 

meus in conspectu ejus, introivit in before him came into his ears, alle- 

uures ejus, alleluia, alleluia. Ps. luia, alleluia. Ps. / will love thee, 

Diligam te, Domine, virtus mea: * O Lord, my strength: * the Lord is 

Dominus firmamentum meum, et my firmament, and my refuge, and 

refugium meum, et liberator meus. my deliverer. 

As on the feast of the Epiphany and of the Purification, so also to- 
day we have at the beginning of the Introit the use of the significant 
past tense: Exaudivit. In the Litany which preceded we often placed the 
petition: Te rogdmus, audi nos. We have been heard, and now subjoin 
the Introit as a song of thanksgiving. Its first phrase is so sincere and 
simple that it brings to mind one who has only recently been relieved 
of some great sorrow or pressing anxiety, and finds need to orientate 
himself to his new and improved conditions. Only in the second phrase 
does the melodic line become more comprehensive and sing of triumphant 
joy. Poor though I be, my cry has nevertheless reached His ears and heart, 
alleluia. The melody over vocem is repeated over aures. The alleluia at 
the end of the first and the second sentences rhyme; meam concludes in 
a similar manner. The parallelism of the text is intensified by the melody 
of the second phrase. 

The two final alleluia also conclude the Introit of the second Sunday 
after Easter. Otherwise the Introits of the fourth mode have a different 
ending in Paschal time. 

The first verse of the psalm from which the Antiphon has been taken 
usually constitutes the psalm-verse of the Introit. Today's choice could 
not have been more happy. God has approached us with such an in- 
surmountable love that we can but meet Him with the heartfelt words: 
*'I will love Thee, O Lord, my strength." Thou hast become "my firma- 
ment, and my refuge, and my deliverer." 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 117: 1) 

1. Confitemini Domino, quoniam 1. Give praise to the Lord, for he 

bonus: 2. quoniam in saeculum is good; 2. for his mercy endureth 
misericordia ejus. forever. 

The text of the Alleluia is the same as that of Holy Saturday, as is 
also the melody over the first two parts and, with the exception of the 
final vocalize, over the last two words. Even the Tract-form cadence, 
which on Holy Saturday concludes both half phrases, is here found over 



Rogation Days 209 

quoniam. In other respects this verse with its preceding alleluia has a 
melody of its own, as well as the atmosphere of gratitude and serenity 
which is proper to Introits. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 108: 30, 31) 

1. Confitehor Domino nimis in I will give thanks to the Lord ex- 
ore meo: et in medio multorum lau- ceedingly with my mouth, and in 
dabo eum, qui astitit a dextris pau- the midst of many I will praise him, 
peris, 2. ut salvam faceret a per- because he hath stood at the right 
sequentibus animam meam, 3. alle- hand of the poor. 2. to save my soul 
luia. from persecutors, 3. alleluia. 

Those who sing in church do so in the name of the Catholic people. 
The singer praises God in medio multorum — "in the midst of many." 
Today he sings in the name of all those who have taken part in the pro- 
cession, who with him have invoked the saints and have directed to 
Almighty God the petitions: Libera nos Domine and Te rogamus, audi 
nas. He represents all those Catholics, spread over the entire world, 
whose prayers have at one time or other been answered, and who, with 
the help of God's saving grace, have been protected against persecution, 
violence, and adulation, against cunning and seduction. The saints in 
heaven also join our song, for it was likewise through God's grace that 
they were liberated from sin and misery and were admitted to eternal 
bliss. The one perfect form of thanksgiving, however, is that which Christ 
offers to the Father in the holy Sacrifice of the Mass. 

The melody over the first three words recalls the beginning of the 
Introit Rot ate caeli of the fourth Sunday of Advent. Between the two 
conspicuous words Confitebor and nimis there is inserted a simple recita- 
tion on a, to which the recitation on g over et in medio multo- corresponds. 
The melody following this latter repeats the same figures c ga fa ag gc 
as are noted over nimis in ore meo. The idea of divine praise, which per- 
meates the first part of the Offertory, is brought to a climax by the special 
prominence given the word eum. 

The second part of the text, which gives the reason why the singer 
feels the urge to praise God, begins with qui astitit. In the Vatican Grad- 
ual this second part is not preceded by a major pause; as a matter of 
fact, the cadence over eum is not a final cadence. A major pause, more- 
over, would interrupt the flowing movement and disturb the inherent 
inner joy. Intervals of a fourth become numerous, making effective es- 
pecially dexteram and the broad, sonorous salvam. The melody over per- 
is found in the Introit of Ash Wednesday, pitched once as 



210 Rogation Days 

today and once a fifth lower; it recurs in the lower pitch over the final 
alleluia of today's Communion. A new expression of joy comes to the 
fore with dnimam, and concludes with a quiet cadence over meam. Heart- 
felt gratitude, however, expresses itself once more in the florid and 
rhymed harmonies of the alleluia. This same melody also concludes the 
Offertory of the eighth Sunday after Pentecost. 

COMMUNION (Luke 11: 9, 10) 

1. Petite, et accipietis: quaerite, 1. Ask, and you shall receive; seek, 

et invenietis: pulsate et aperietur and you shall find; knock, and it 
vohis: 2. omnis enim, qui petit ac- shall he opened to you: 2. for everyone 
cipit: et qui quaerit, invenit: 3. et that asketh receiveth; and he that 
pulsanti aperietur, alleluia. seeketh findeth; 3. and to him that 

knocketh it shall he opened, alle- 
luia. 

This melody might well be considered a model of musical tension 
with a concomitant relaxation. The very words: "Ask, seek, knock," ex- 
pressed as they are in a higher tone of voice, depict this feeling of tense- 
ness. The result of heeding these commands: "You shall receive, you 
shall find, it shall be opened unto you," will naturally be expressed in a 
more quiet and lower tone of voice. This indicates in general the out- 
lines of the melodic development in the first and second phrases. The 
close of the second aperietur with d ff makes the promise which is given 
all the more prominent and trustworthy. A fitting preparation is also 
thus afforded the alleluia. 

The first and second phrases show many similarities. Both divi- 
sions of the second phrase, which are practically identical as to melody, 
are an extended form of Petite and invenit, while pulsanti is an abbrevia- 
tion of pulsate. 

These words of the Saviour, taken from today's Gospel, should find 
application not only within the house of God, but in our everyday life 
as well. They are fulfilled in a wonderful way time and again at Holy 
Mass. We asked the Father for bread and in turn received heavenly 
Manna in Holy Communion. We sought out the Saviour and found Him; 
we knocked and He opened for us all the treasures of His goodness and 
love. Outside the house of God we should also ask for heaven's grace and 
blessing; there also, if we seek we shall find Him, and if we knock it shall 
be opened to us. The more intimately we remain united with our Euchar- 
istie Saviour, the more abundantly will He give us all that is conducive 
to our eternal salvation. 



The Ascension of Our Lord 211 

THE ASCENSION OF OUR LORD 

INTROIT (Acts 1: 11) 

1. Viri Galilaei, quid admiramini 1. Ye men of Galilee, why wonder 

aspicientes in caelumi alleluia: 2. you, looking up to heavenl alleluia: 

quemadmodum vidistis eum ascen- 2. he shall so come as you have seen 

dentem in caelum, ita veniet, 3. him going up into heaven. 3. alle- 

alleluia, alleluia, alleluia. Ps. Omnes luia, alleluia, alleluia. Ps. O clap 

gentes plaudite manihus: * jubi-' your hands, all ye nations: * shout 

late Deo in voce exsultationis. unto God with the voice of joy. 

When we met the Saviour at Christmas, we greeted Him with the 
seventh mode. The motive dc ed dd over the accented syllable of Galilaei 
reminds us also of nohis in the Introit for the third Christmas Mass. 
Now the seventh mode leads the Lord back to the Father, who today 
will speak that long-promised word: "Now sit Thou at My right hand." 
On Bethlehem's fields once the angels sang; today we again hear angels. 
They seem to have a special preference for the seventh mode in plain- 
song. Their words are addressed to the Apostles, who find it impossible 
to turn their eyes away from heaven, whither their dearest Lord and 
Master has ascended. And here the angels do not say, as the Acts of the 
Apostles report: ^'Why stand you looking up to heaven?" but: Quid ad- 
miramini aspicientes- — "Why wonder you, looking up to heaven?" This 
word also supplies the key to the understanding of this Introit. The 
Apostles may not stand still and rest. Now is the time of labor, of strife, 
of suffering. Now they must fulfill the commission with which the Lord 
charged them. Now they must sow the seed in tears, in sweat, and in 
sorrow. Not till later will the time come for repose, for blissful contempla- 
tion of God. Perhaps the angel wished to stress another thought: "It is 
diflacult for you to realize that your dearest Lord has departed from you. 
You cannot but wonder, and it is wonder that tends to make you sad. 
But be comforted! He will come again; you will see Him; and never 
again lose sight of Him. Just as true and real as His ascension is today^ 
will His return be with power and majesty." This consoling thought, 
finds expression in the jubilant cries of alleluia. And St. Luke tells us 
(24: 52) that the disciples returned to Jerusalem "with great joy." 

This rejoicing seems to increase still more in the psalm- verse: "Oh^ 
clap your hands with joy, all ye nations." When the Holy Father enters; 
St. Peter's (today's station, by the way, is at St. Peter's), the enthusiasm 
and the applause of the people is surprisingly vehement and inspiring. 
But how trifling even that will appear, when compared to the greeting 



212 The Ascension of Our Lord 

which will be shouted out by all the peoples of all the centuries when 
Christ will again appear at the end of the world! 

Today we also exult and rejoice, because the work which the Father 
gave His Son to do is now perfected. His glorification is ours also. He has, 
in the words of today's Communicantes, set at the right hand of the Fa- 
ther's glory the substance of our frail human nature which He had taken 
to Himself, and He says to the Father: "Father, I will that where I am, 
they also may be whom Thou hast given me." 

The. melody calls for an easy and joyous rendition. Codex 121 of 
Einsiedeln gives evidence of a fine esthetic sense by employing light 
neum constructions everywhere except over alleluia, and in five places 
notes a "c" (=celeriter) and once "st" (^statim) over this chant. 

The neums over Galilaei reminds us of the intonation of the solemn 
melody for the psalm-verse. One might also assert that there is a correla- 
tion between the first of the three last alleluia and the middle cadence 
of the psalm-melody (plaudite manihus), although there is an obvious 
difference between the pes with accented d and the clivis with accented 
/. Moreover, in the alleluia this / is sung a second time, which individua- 
lizes it still more. It marks the summit of the entire piece. In the ren- 
dition, this climacus, and all the alleluia in fact, demand a most hearty 
rendition. Our joy should be voiced wholeheartedly. The rhythmic mo- 
tive over admiramini, dedc c (4 plus 1), runs through the entire piece, 
recurring over aspici-(entes), vidlstis e-(um), (ascendent tern in cae — and 
over the second caelum. After the accented syllable of aspicientes the 
melody sinks a fifth. This makes the following line, expressing the 
heavenward gaze of the disciples, more effective. 

In the second phrase, the melody moves lightly about c. Neverthe- 
less quemadmodum and ita veniet are brought well to the fore. Special 
gravity and majesty are produced by the pause on c. The quiet second 
alleluia forms a contrast to the enthusiastic first alleluia, while the third 
strikes a mean between the other two. 

Revue, 21, 107 ff.; Analyses, III, 28 ff.; Der Chorhote, 2, 26 ff. 

FIRST ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 46: 6) 

1. Ascendit Deus in juhilatione, I.God is ascended with jubilee, 2. 

2. et Dominus in voce tubae. and the Lord with the sound of a 

trumpet. 

For the melody, see the third Sunday of Advent. Like the verse for 
the Introit, this text is taken from Psalm 46, which is eminently suited 
to the Ascension. It was originally sung after a victory gained by the 
Israelites, and was meant to tell how the God of the Covenant, en- 



The Ascension of Our Lord 213 

throned upon the ark, was borne to Mount Sion amid the acclaim of His 
people and the sound of trumpets. At that time the Lord was invisible. 
Today He ascends to heaven before the eyes of His disciples: videntihus 
Ulis, according to the words of the fifth antiphon at Vespers. Alleluia- 
verse and Offertory give prominence to the significant word Ascendit. 
As a parallelism to them we may mention the Alleluia-verse and the 
Offertory of the feast of the Assumption, where Assumpta est ("she 
was taken up") stands first. He, our Lord and Saviour, ascended on high 
by His own power, accompanied by much rejoicing. This joy is above all 
in His own soul, which, only a few short weeks ago, was sorrowful unto 
death upon this very Mount of Olives. Joyous shouts of angels likewise 
surround Him; some angels are escorting Him and others are awaiting 
Him in heaven. Then there is also the ineffable joy of the saints whom 
He is leading to their reward. 

Perhaps its seems strange that the word Dominus appears as an in- 
dependent melodic phrase. On the third Sunday of Advent the heart- 
felt et veni and on Pentecost et creahüntur, both complete thoughts, occupy 
this place. But here, too, the word Dominus is to be especially stressed. 
For Christ has shown Himself the Lord over life and death, over nature, 
grace, and glory; He is the living Ark of the Covenant, which bears in 
its heart the law of redemptive love and the manna of eternal life, and 
is now entirely immersed in the radiant light of glory. 

SECOND ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 67: 18, 19) 

1. Dominus in Sina in sancto, 1. The Lord is in Sinai, in the 
ascendens in altum, 2. captivam holy place, ascending on high, 2. 
duxit captivitatem. he hath led captivity captive. 

This song also presupposes a victory over the foes of God's people; 
several of the enemy are being led along in the triumphal procession as 
captives. In this victory the Lord has revealed Himself in His majesty 
as on Mount Sinai, when He gave Moses the Decalogue. Still more glo- 
riously and majestically Christ today mounts above all that is earthly 
and makes His entry into the heavenly court. By a happy coincidence, the 
most significant neum of this piece stands above the word ascendens. St. 
Paul comments on this psalm-verse: "Now that He ascended, what is it, 
but because He also descended first into the lower parts of the earth? 
He that descended is the same also that ascended above all the heavens, 
that He might fill all things" (Ephes. 4: 7-10). Now He leads captives 
captive. Sin, death, and hell, which formerly made man their captive, 
have become His booty. But also those who had previously been confined 
to limbo as in captivity today enjoy the privilege of entering into blissful 



214 The Ascenion of Our Lord 

captivity with Christ. "And the Mount of Olives, the place of ascension 
to heaven, expands over the entire earth; each hour the joyous multi- 
tude of the freed, newly captured children of God, now gloriously going 
to their home, grows larger. Those liberated from purgatory and limbo 
were the first to chant this Alleluia of the Ascension. The Apostles and 
the disciples, who saw the glory of this ascending Master, have joined 
them to augment the choir, and at their side millions are singing before 
the throne of God, the palm of victory in their hands. A yearning to 
join this choir and sing this wondrous Alleluia pervades the heart of 
every Christian" {Caecilia, 29, 65 ff.). 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 46: 6) 

This Offertory has the same text as the first Alleluia; its melody, 
however, is original. By quiet seconds it solemnly ascends upward. One 
seems to see the radiant form of the Lord rising from the earth and ma- 
jestically soaring up to heaven. Rightly does this spot mark the climax 
of the piece. This line must be sung very sustainedly. A great crescendo 
must develop, which is to swell to forte over juhilatione. In the second 
half of the first phrase the feeling changes slightly. The Lord ascends in 
jubilation. What broad lines the melody here assumes; how it rings and 
echoes with its pressus with the stress on high c! And still, how solemn 
the closing cadence is! In the verse which was formerly joined to this, 
the enthusiasm is even greater. We there find the following passage: 

aGG ccc Gccc Gccc aFG GaG GaG 
in voce ex- sul- ta- ti- 6- nis. 

The second phrase begins with the same motive as in. The sequence 
acgg rounds out to the pleasant agcaa, which calls for full and satisfying 
tones. Alleluia is the usual closing word in Offertories during the Easter 
season. Compare the alleluia of Easter Sunday, whose solemn pathos 
re-echoes in our present melody. 

With the sound of trumpets the Lord ascended. With the sound of 
trumpets He will come again, and mightily will they then call out (Tuba 
mirum spargens sonum.) Today, however, at least in spirit, we go with 
joyful heart to the altar of sacrifice to participate in that great proces- 
sion which accompanies the Saviour on His ascent into heaven. 

In the ancient manuscripts this Offertory is assigned to the Sunday 
within the octave of the Ascension. In place of it was sung the Offertory 
Viri Galilaei, having the same text as the Introit. Its melody resembles 
that of the Offertory Stetit Angelus for the feast of St. Michael (Septem- 
ber 29). Ascendit has the same richly descriptive melody as ascendentem 
in the Offertory formerly sung on this feast. 



Sunday within the Octave of the Ascension 215 

COMMUNION (Ps. 67: 33, 34) 

Psallite Domino, qui ascendit Sing ye to the Lord, who mounteih 
super caelos caelorum ad Orientem, above the heaven of heavens to the 
alleluia. east, alleluia. 

The texts of the first Alleluia and the Offertory are taken from Psalm 
46; those of the second Alleluia and the Communion from Psalm 67. 
From the standpoint of mode, however, the Offertory and the Com- 
munion belong together. Again we meet a prominent rising line over 
ascendit super. But it is more effectual here, preceded and followed as it 
is by two short, low-pitched phrases. Plainsong, it seems, likes to assign 
high notes to super. Caelos and caelorum are similarly treated. 

"We believe that Christ has ascended to heaven, has gone up toward 
the rising sun. Similarly do we, when we go to the altar, to the sacrificial 
banquet, go toward the rising sun; for the church should have its high 
altar facing eastward. Then we sing psalms to the Lord, our hearts filled 
with -sincere thanksgiving. 



SUNDAY WITHIN THE OCTAVE OF THE 

ASCENSION 

INTROIT (Ps. 26: 7, 9) 

1. Exaudi, Domine, vocem meam, 1. Hear, Lord, my voice with 

qua clamavi ad te, alleluia: 1. tihi which I have cried to thee, alleluia: 

dixit cor meum, quaesivi vultum 2. my heart hath said to thee: I 

tuum, vultum tuum Domine re- have sought thy face, thy face, 

quiram: 3. ne avertas faciem tuam Lord, I will seek: 3. turn not away 

a me, alleluia, alleluia. Ps. Do- thy face from me, alleluia, alleluia, 

minus illuminatio mea, * et salus Ps. The Lord is my light, * and 

mea: quem timehol my salvation: whom shall I f earl 

In the present instance the melody of the psalm-verse in a way 
eclipses that of the antiphon. Although it preserves its recitative and 
syllabic character and has no such groups of neums as the antiphon, 
nevertheless, on account of its high pitch, its stressing of the dominant 
a, its ascent to high g in both halves of the verse, it possesses a brightness 
and freshness which is lacking in the antiphon. Instead, the antiphon 
breaths a lyric tenderness. Perhaps it is a longing for the Spouse of the 
Church, for Him whose countenance is no more visible since Ascension 
Day. And when the Church looks about her on earth, what does she see? 



216 Sunday within the Octave of the Ascension 

A thousand dangers surging up against her! Now she can only implore 
heaven that the Lord turn not away His eyes, His grace, His high favor 
from her. How different is the present text from those of the fourth and 
fifth Sundays after Easter! And the change in the spirit of the melody is 
even more striking. In accordance with the Master's instructions, the 
disciples, together with Mary, the mother of Jesus, are assembled in the 
Cenacle, fervently praying for the Consoler, the Holy Spirit, who is to 
strengthen them so that they may bear witness to Christ. Heartfelt 
prayer: that is the basic idea of the antiphon. 

The psalm-verse has a bright and hearty ring, as if Pentecost had 
already arrived and all fear for the sufferings of the apostolate had van- 
ished: "The Lord is my light and my salvation. Who, then, can make 
me afraid?" It sounds like the answer to the suppliant Exaudi. In the 
mystery of the Holy Eucharist, which is truly an anticipation of the 
Parousia, the final coming of the Lord, all the longing of the Church is 
satisfied. Even now His eternal light illuminates the pathway of life, 
our round of daily work; and we are invested with His strength. 

The antiphon begins with a motive proper to the third mode. Com- 
pare, for instance, the beginning of the Introit for the fifth Sunday after 
Easter. In its normal position, that is, a fifth lower, we should have 
here dd e\^ c f. It is on account of this eb that the piece was transposed. 
The motive over clamdvi ad te, which always descends before an accented 
syllable and thus gives prominence to the latter, is heard again in the 
second phrase over quaesivi and in the third over avertas. The petition 
is thereby made all the more urgent. Worthy of note also is the gradation 
of introductory intervals: g c at the beginning of the first phrase, a d at 
the beginning of the second, a ef from me to allehiia. 

In earlier times the station was at the church called Sancta Maria 
ad Mdrtyres, the former Pantheon. It was there that the picture of the 
Lord's face, called Veronica nostra by Dante, was preserved in a coffer 
secured with thirteen keys. Later this casket was transferred to St. 
Peter's. How significant and appropriate it was to sing this Introit, in 
which there is such frequent mention of the Lord's face, before this 
picture!^ 

FIRST ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 46: 9) 

1. Regnavit Dominus super gentes: 1. The Lord hath reigned over all 

2. Deus sedet super sedem sanctam the nations: 2. God sitteth on his 
suam. holy throne. 



1 Schuster, The Sacramentary, II, 379. 



Sunday within the Octave of the Ascension 217 

The juhilus presents a graceful interplay of motive with the cli- 
macus + pes and the climacus + clivis. Its middle part is the most pro- 
minent. Setting in a fifth higher than the ending of the preceding word, 
as super omnes does, the word Deus receives still greater prominence by 
its ascending melody, which again goes over into a climacus -\- clivis. 
Perhaps there is attempted tone-painting here, as in other pieces con- 
taining this word (cf. the Communion for the Ascension and the Gradual 
for the third Sunday of Advent). The two ascending dives over Re- 
receive an augment over -gnavit. This melody does not say much con- 
cerning God's kingly rule over all nations; Deus must therefore be made 
so much the more impressive. The entire piece is to be sung with a quiet 
and measured movement. 

As King over all the world, Christ is enthroned at the right of the 
Father. We rejoice in His glorification. God's beauty now transfigures 
His most sacred humanity. 

SECOND ALLELUIA VERSE (John 14: 18) 

1. Non vos relinquam orphanos: 1. / will not leave you orphans: 

2. vado, et venio ad vos, 3. et gaude- 2. / go and I come to you, 3. and 
hit cor vestrum. your heart shall rejoice. 

After the somewhat cold first Alleluia, we here have a song full of 
consolation, soothing the pain of separation and banishing the feeling 
of loneliness and isolation, a song of glad returning. "Through the Holy 
Ghost the Lord will come into our inmost heart, will be one with us, 
will be much closer to us than He was formerly to the Apostles when He 
dwelt among them in the flesh. Our heart will feel His nearness and will 
rejoice." {W. K.) 

Here we have one of the most devout melodies cast in the first mode ; 
no doubt, it purposely avoids a greater range in order to penetrate the 
more readily into our heart. 

Alleluia consists of two groups which are almost identical: a lower 
one within the tetrachord c-f over the first two syllables of Alle- and a 
higher one with the tetrachord /-6b over the two final syllables -Mia. 
The two groups complement each other and form a symmetrically con- 
structed whole. 

The juhilus^ has the form a a a^ b. Designedly the fifth d-a marks 
the peak of the theme of the juhilus; in an energetic line it combines all 
that precedes. Its first note begins Alleluia; the second closes it; more- 
over, these two notes predominate in both groups. The theme of the 
juhilus^ is taken from the figure over -luia, the higher group. This expresses 

1 Wagner (III, 412) gives a fine explanation of the divisions. 



218 Sunday within the Octave of the Ascension 

most fully its character of an overflowing of joy inspired by God. The 
descending climacus is repeated. It seems a third climacus would like to 
join, but suddenly the melody bends backward. The general rule, that 
the selfsame formula should not be employed more than twice in the 
same way, is here adhered to not only in the smaller detail, but is also 
observed on a larger scale in the form a a a^ b of the entire juhilus. At 
first a^ is little more than a repetition of a, but the pressus after the first 
four notes causes the melody to veer over to the thesis, which reaches 
completion in the two smaller mutually corresponding groups that fol- 
low. The high points of the successive figures form the stepwise descend- 
ing line h\> a g f, an effective form of cadence structure. A similar ar- 
rangement is found in the Alleluia for the twenty-third Sunday after 
Pentecost. 

In the verse, Non relinquam resembles alleluia; in vado the melody 
rises to an accented bb, thus becoming strikingly tender and gentle. The 
descending group over venio reminds us of Alle-. The verse melisma on 
the accented syllable of gaudebit presents a succession of descending 
two-note figures (dives) in its first part; in the second part it has ascend- 
ing podatus until it comes to a close on a. 

The OFFERTORY was explained on the feast of the Ascension. 

COMMUNION (John 17: 12, 13, 15) 

1. Pater, cum essem cum eis, ego 1. Father, while I was with them, 

servaham eos, alleluia: 2. nunc I kept them whom thou gavest me, 
autem ad te venio: 3. non rogo ut alleluia: 2. hut now I come to thee; 
tollas eos de mundo, sed ut serves 3. / pray not that thou shouldst take 
eos a malo, alleluia, alleluia. them out of the world, hut that thou 

shouldst keep them from evil, alle- 
luia, alleluia. 

Let us first consider this piece from a musical viewpoint only. The 
final alleluia is the same as the one which occurs at the end of the first 
phrase. Ut serves eos a malo, together with the penultimate alleluia, is 
practically nothing more than a shortened repetition of ut tollas eos de 
mundo. And this entire third phrase bears considerable resemblance to 
the second half of the first. Hence two large phrases can be distinguished 
melodically, each of which has two parts. In the first. Pater, cum essem 
cum eis and nunc autem ad te venio, the melody tends vigorously upward 
to a height rarely attained by the fourth mode. The second phrase glides 
downward on an easy decline, enlivened only by the word-accents. Ad 
te venio with its accented c marks the summit of the piece. Hence, we 
may not compare it with eis of the first phrase, since in the latter word 



Whitsunday 219 

the note a, rather than c, bears the accent. Venio, setting in a third above 
the tonic, stands out very prominently, and is excellently suited to its 
text: "Now I come to Thee." It is a veritable reaching up of the Sa- 
viour's arms to His heavenly Father, a taking wing and leaving this 
realm of space and time, a song which wells up from the heart after a 
difficult mission happily fulfilled. Truly can He say to the Father: "I 
have finished the work which Thou gavest Me to do." 

It seems strange, therefore, that cum essem cum eis should receive 
a similar melody. Why the great expansion over these words? Did the 
composer perhaps first sing ad te venio and then try to create a parallel 
in the first half of the first phrase? 

A special tenderness, as if coming from the very heart of Jesus Him- 
self, is revealed in the second half of each phrase. With what motherly 
care He shielded His disciples from everything that might have harmed 
them when His enemies sought to exploit their ignorance and inexperi- 
ence! When He was immersed in a world of suffering on the Mount of 
Olives, how concerned He was that nothing happen to His disciples! 
Those who were entrusted to Him He again confides to the hands of the 
Father and implores Him to keep them out of harm's way. The two 
alleluia at the end continue these heartfelt desires of Jesus. 

In the Cenacle, after the first Eucharistie Banquet, Jesus had prayed 
thus. In Holy Communion we are again "given" to Him. Now within 
us He prays to the Father, as He taught us to pray in the final petition 
of the Lord's Prayer: that we, laboring in the world and for the good of 
the world, may remain untainted by its spirit; that we may be in the 
world like a ray of the sun which, though it furnishes light and warmth, 
nevertheless remains free of the sin that is committed in its light. 

Rass. gr., 7, col. 420. 



WHITSUNDAY 

INTROIT (Wisd. 1 : 7) 

1. Spiritus Domini replevit or- 1. The Spirit of the Lord hath 

hem terrarum, alleluia: 2. et hoc filled the whole earth, alleluia: 2. 

quod continet omnia, scientiam ha- and that which containeth all things 

bet vocis, alleluia, alleluia, alleluia. hath knowledge of the voice, alleluia, 

Ps. Exsurgat Deus, et dissipentur alleluia, alleluia. Ps. Let God arise, 

inimici ejus: * et fugiant, qui oder- and let his enemies be scattered: * 

unt eum, a facie ejus. and let them that hate him, flee from 

before his face. 



220 Whitsunday 

The very first word tells us that today's feast is dedicated to the- 
Holy Ghost and His marvelous workings. In the same manner the first 
word at Christmas (Puer) directed our attention to the divine Child, 
and the first word of the Introit for Easter (Resurrexi) indicated the 
song which the Risen One sings to His Father. What a tender and de- 
vout ring that melody had! Today, however, our song tells of a power- 
which sweeps everything before it, of a force which nothing can with- 
stand. There is a feeling of mystery about its low-pitched beginning.. 
But then the melody expands with tempestuous speed, expands until it 
fills the entire earth. But it is no devastating hurricane, breaking the 
nations as a reed and making poor humanity cry out in despair. It ra- 
ther resembles a storm of spring, imparting new strength to an aging 
world, from which new creations rise: the marvel of the Catholic Church, 
the phenomenon of holiness on the sinful earth, the prodigy which bears 
God in its heart as the sweet guest of the soul. Hence, in spite of all its 
impetuosity and power, this song is extremely pleasant to our musical 
sense. Upon the broken D-minor tritone over Spiritus follows the bril- 
liant F-major tritone over replevit, over the penultimate alleluia, and in 
a descending line over -rum, alle-(lüia). A profusion of light pours out 
from the C-major chord, descending from the upper e^, and gleams 
again, though in a milder form to correspond with the more serene text, 
over hahet vocis as e^ca. 

"The Spirit of the Lord hath filled the whole world." In the be- 
ginning He moved over the waters, put life into inert matter, disposed 
and ordered it, and thus perfected creation. On the day of the Incarna- 
tion He descended upon the most pure Virgin and consummated the mir- 
aculous creation of Christ's humanity. On Pentecost He perfects the 
new creation of the Church founded in Christ's blood and by His love 
and His power makes her exceedingly fruitful. He fills the entire world 
not only in its length and breadth, but also in its depth, with the riches 
of His grace and His most intimate union. He is the Spirit of the "Lord,"^ 
of the Father and the Son, God of very God. 

For a discussion of the text of this Introit, cf. Wagner, II, 66^ 
Compare also the first phrase with the second antiphon of today's Ves- 
pers. With replevit a broadly expanding crescendo should set in. One must 
exult with the universal Church. It is not mere word-painting, such as 
one finds, for instance, in C. M. Weber's Oheron in the passage "rund 
um die ganze Welt" ("round about the world") in the aria "Ozean, du 
Ungeheuer." In this chant we have rather a glimpse into eternity, and 
an enraptured wonderment at the greatness, the wisdom, and the power 
of Him who fills the whole earth. 



Whitsunday 221 

Et hoc in the second phrase is a slavish translation of the Greek, in 
which language Pneuma (Spirit) is a neuter noun. We should naturally 
'expect et hie here, taking the masculine Spiritus into consideration. After 
et hoc a very short pause for breathing is to be recommended. Then 
quod cdntinet omnia is to be sung straight on; and even after the last 
word the pause should be very slight. In this manner the gradation 
g a c^(dmnia), hc^ d}(scienti-), a d} (-am habet) is brought out more clear- 
ly. The cadence after vocis requires a resolution and receives it in the 
following alleluia. For this reason the three alleluia may not be con- 
sidered as an independent third phrase, although their length might 
tempt one to do so; they must be taken as a necessary conclusion and 
coda-like extension of the second phrase. There is some resemblance 
iDetween the two phrases. Taking the principal notes into consideration, 
one might sketch them thus: 

First phrase: dfaf fac dVc gc af fag; 

Second phrase: fgc d^e^c a af fag. 

With the exception of one note, the final alleluia is the same as the 
one at the end of the first phrase. With its limited range and fourfold 
stressing of a it harmonizes with the alleluia after vocis and is the expres- 
sion of quiet joy, while the penultimate alleluia with its bright ring and 
the accentuation of the tenor c harks back to the jubilant festal spirit 
of the entire antiphon. 

Since the Holy Ghost sustains and rules all things, nothing can be 
hidden from Him. He hears everything, all verbal and all silent longing, 
and every sigh for glorification which goes through creation as a whole 
and through each individual soul. He hears our singing and praying, too, 
all of it, and accepts it graciously. 

Perhaps there was still another thought in the mind of the compo- 
ser today. The Holy Ghost is the Spirit of knowledge; He has the most 
perfect possible knowledge of Himself. But He has also the power and the 
means to manifest His being. As God once revealed Himself on Sinai 
amid thunder and lightning, so He makes Himself known today in the 
fiery tongues, in the roar of the mighty wind, in the impressive sermon 
of the prince of the Apostles, and in the miracle of tongues wrought 
upon the Apostles. 

Psalm 67, of which only the intonation here appears, portrays the 
history of Israel from the time of its liberation from Egypt to the es- 
tablishment of God's kingdom on Sion, as a triumphal procession which 
God Himself leads through the desert to the consternation of His enemies 



222 Whitsunday 

and for the glory of His people {W.K.). Today the psalm is for us a con- 
fiding look into the future. The Church realizes that she has many ene- 
mies who hate her and who do all in their power to destroy her. Thus 
it was already on the very first Pentecost, and thus it will remain through- 
out the centuries. But the Church knows no fear: God fights for her. 
When He arises and shows His flaming countenance, all the enemies are 
instantly dispersed. The final victory is to the Church. Hence she sings i 
Gloria Patri et Filio et Spiritui Sancto. 

Whoever lives himself into this song seems to feel that the Spirit 
of the Lord filled also the heart of the composer and bestowed upon him 
this power of song. May the Holy Ghost likewise fill our hearts, that our 
chant may penetrate into the hearts of the faithful like Pentecostal 
grace! 

Revue, 7, 172 ff.; 23, 135 ff.; Analyses, IV, 21 ff.; Mus. divina, 1, 9 
ff.; Choralhlaetter, No. 5.; Tribune de Saint-Germain, 11, 203 ff. 

FIRST ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 103: 30) 

1. Emitte Spiritum tuum, 2. et 1. Send forth thy Spirit, 2. and 

creabuntur: 3. et renovabis faciem they shall be created; 3. and thou 
terrae. shall renew the face of the earth. 

Today there is a clear connection between the Alleluia and the pre- 
ceding Lesson, a relationship which is not so obvious on some other days, 
and often is lacking entirely. In a vivid, captivating manner the matvel 
of Pentecost was held before our eyes. How wondrous were its effects. 
The Spirit had descended upon the Apostles, who a short time before 
were much like the lifeless clay of Adam's body before God had breathed 
a soul into it. Now they have become a new creation; they are filled with 
life, wisdom, courage, and energy; are determined to carry the richness 
of life which they received to the ends of the world and renew the entire 
earth. Oh, may He come again, this Holy Ghost, and again effect a new 
creation! That is the suppliant cry of the present Alleluia-song. 

How vitally necessary the Holy Ghost is to us! And how many men 
there are who know nothing of Him, who no longer know the meaning 
of spirit and grace and purity and the supernatural life. They have lost 
all religious sense. The material world alone captivates them. Would 
that the Spirit who in the beginning swept over the waters, might once 
again sweep over this matter and vivify it! How fervently this petition 
rises from the heart of the Church! And yet we clothe it in the jubilant 
cry of Alleluia, because we know that we have a right to this Spirit in 
virtue of the fact that we have been redeemed. 



Whitsunday 223; 

SECOND ALLELUIA VERSE 

1. Veni Sande Spiritus, reple 1. Come, Holy Spirit, fill the 

tuorum cor da fidelium: 2. et tui hearts of thy faithful: 2. and kindle^ 
amoris in eis ignem accende. in them the fire of thy love. 

This melody must be numbered among the most impressive and 
most beautiful in the entire Graduale. "Here all kneel"— that is the 
simple rubric. And when at high Mass the bishop with his assistants 
kneel down at the throne, when all those in choir bend the knee, then 
this one wish is uppermost: Would that I might sing this chant with that 
deep fervor with which it was first conceived and then sung throughout 
the centuries, with that depth and ardor with which the Blessed Virgin 
called upon the Holy Ghost during the novena preceding Pentecost Day! 
Like the dew from heaven its tones should sink into the hearts of the 
faithful. 

It seems almost presumptuous to analyze this melody; one fears to. 
dissect so fragrant a flower. There is a threefold accent in the alleluia with 
its juhilus: the second time with an interval of a fourth, the third time 
with an interval of a fifth. Twice the ending is formed with c d, once 
with e d. The alleluia furnishes the theme, the verse the variations.. 
Veni resembles alleluia. That which follows, as far as fidelium, derives 
its melodic material from the second member. Et tui amoris utilizes the 
motives of the third phrase. It is impossible to sing this passage too 
tenderly; and yet one ought to introduce a crescendo in the repetition. 
For the longing after the pure, deep, faithful, enrapturing love of the 
Holy Ghost is ever increasing. After the development has reached its 
climax, the quiet thetic forms efedcd should diminish in volume. With 
the pressus, which occur several times in the piece, blunt increase in 
volume must be avoided. It must be prayerful throughout: humble, 
reverent, yet confiding withal. 

The Sequence is composed of five double strophes^, each of which 
is made up of three spondaic verses. According to the latest investiga- 
tions, its authorship must be assigned to Stephen Langton, chancellor 
of the University of Paris (»1-1228). 

In its first verse the first strophe uses the melodic material of the 
second alleluia, c d e f e d c d', it h, therefore, its melodic continuation, 
just as in content it is a further development of the Alleluia's fervent 
supplication. Thus we have here a Sequentia (continuation) in the full 
sense of that word. From the depth of our indigence the motive rises, is 
heard a fourth higher in the second verse, and with a change of interval 



1 Wagner, I, 274. 



224 Whitsunday 

in the third verse, thus presenting the form a a} a?. The interval of a 
sixth between the second and third verses is quite rare in plainsong. 
Surprising, too, is the rise of the final syllable of the word at the end of 
the verse. The same thing occurs in some of the following pairs of stro- 
phes. The first pair of strophes sings of the Holy Ghost as the source of 
light and oi the soul's riches: 

la. Come, Holy Spirit, come; lb. Come, thou father of the poor, 

And from thy celestial home Come, thou source of all our store, 

Shed a ray of light divine. Come, within our bosoms shine. 

The second pair of strophes sets in on the dominant and with joy- 
ful confidence rises an octave above the tonic. They praise the Holy 
Ghost as the source of consolation in trials and sufferings. Here the ren- 
dition ought to be somewhat more forceful: 

2a. Thou of all consolers best, 2b. In our labor rest most sweet. 

Thou, the soul's most welcome guest. Grateful coolness in the heat. 
Sweet refreshment here below. Solace in the midst of woe. 

The third pair of strophes sets in on the octave, a proceeding un- 
known to the classic period of plainsong composition and hardly to be 
found before the eleventh century. How stirring is this plea for the 
saving light! The passage ddcbcdcat the beginning was taken over, 
it seems, from (in la)-b6re requies. In the third verse, bb a g f corresponds 
to d c & a of the first: 

3a. most blessed light divine, 3b. Where thou art not, man hath 

Shine within these hearts of thine, nought, 

And our inmost beings fill. Nothing good in deed or thought. 

Nothing free from taint of ill. 

Thus far the Sequence was almost continually rising and expanding. 
In the subsequent pair of strophes the melody describes a curve and be- 
comes appreciably more tender. Graceful harmony marks the lines of 
the first and second verses: bab cbag=fef gfed. 

The third verse is almost the same as the opening motive in the 
Sequence for Corpus Christi (Lauda Sion). This is the only pair of stro- 
phes which close on the tenor. Care must be taken that the first note of 
each verse be not prolonged, otherwise a trivial three-eighths time will 
result : 

4a. Heal our wounds; our strength 4b. Bend the stubborn heart and will 

renew; Melt the frozen, warm the chill; 

On our dryness pour thy dew; Guide the steps that go astray. 
Wash the stains of guilt away. 



Whitsunday 225 

After this decrease in range and volume, the former liveliness and 
impressiveness returns in the final pair of strophes: in fact, it is even 
increased. Fiery and turbulent as the flashing of the tongues of fire in 
the "mighty wind" is the ring of the first and last members; they can 
well bear to be sung forte. They have descending fifths at the beginning, 
and endings which correspond to one another (acha = dfed). The middle 
verse is more quiet. The final strophe again sets in on the octave. Just 
as the very first strophe insistently prays Veni four times, so the last 
pair four times has da: Give, O Holy Spirit! 

5a. Thou on those who evermore 5b. Give them virtue's sure reward, 

Thee confess and thee adore Give them thy salvation, Lord; 

In thy sevenfold gifts descend. Give them joys that never end. 

Amen. Alleluia. 

The composer of this song was a veritable harp of God, on which 
the Holy Ghost Himself played. Its tones will continue as long as man- 
kind looks up in heartfelt prayer to the "Father of the poor." 

Whoever realizes the neediness of his own heart, whoever can sym- 
pathize with all that moves the heart of his fellow man, whoever reflects 
while he peruses the text and the melodic development, upon the work 
of the Holy Ghost in souls and in the Church, will of his own accord 
arrive at the rendition which is most suitable for this magnificent song. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 67: 29, 30) 

1. Confirma hoc Deus, quod opera- 1. Confirm this, God, which 

tus es innohis:2. atemplo tuo, quod thou hast wrought in us: 2. from 
est in Jerusalem, 3. tibi afferent thy temple, which is in Jerusalem 
reges munera, alleluia. 3. kings shall offer presents to thee, 

alleluia. 

On Christmas (first and third Masses), on Easter, and on Pente- 
cost the Ofifertory belongs to the fourth mode. But how varied is the 
feeling! At Christmas it is a meditative, blissful, intimate song, not in- 
tended for the big outside world; at Easter, a melody full of power and 
weight, a pean of victory; and now, on Pentecost Day, a fervent yet 
joyously moving prayer, calling upon the Holy Ghost much like today's 
second Alleluia. Solemnly the melody increases over the first words. Hoc 
presages great things. The strange beginning of Deus only tends to make 
the petition the more intensive: God alone can supply our needs. To 
the ending with the pressus at the close of the first half of the verse cor- 
responds that of the first phrase over nobis. With the tristropha, the only 
one in the piece, the melody reaches its peak. Most thankfully we ac- 



226 Whitsunday 

knowledge the great things which God has worked in us. And we beg 
that these magndlia Dei may not be taken from us, that the Spirit of 
grace may estabb'sh and "confirm" us against all attack from within 
and from without, that the life of grace may more and more penetrate 
our entire being, may spiritualize and transfigure it, so that, like the 
sacrificial gifts which are now placed upon the altar, Christ may through 
the working of the Holy Ghost be glorified in us by our putting on His 
spirit of sacrifice. With what deep emotion we ought to chant this song! 
Over operdtus es the torculus gag, must predominate. Then we must 
take care that in nobis be not harsh and blunt; it should rather be sung 
with special warmth. 

In its first half the second phrase also closes with a pressus as the 
first did, continues with /, and also reaches high c, though only once. 
Tuo and est correspond. The melody makes the phrase more independent 
than it actually is. Here we are, no doubt, to think of the new Jerusalem 
which the Spirit of God has bestowed upon us, or of the Cenacle with its 
marvels, or of the wonderful sanctifying activity of the Catholic Church. 

If the Spirit can again be active in our souls, can establish and 
"confirm" them, what, then, will His effect be? Simply this, that we 
shall function properly as participants in the kingly priesthood, and 
shall offer our gifts, not in a sorrowful or forced manner, but magnani- 
mously, in the joy of the Holy Ghost. Tibi and reges have a similar ring. 
Offerent is rightly assigned a prominent position. The three torculus over 
munera are arranged in climactic order. Alleluia repeats the melody of 
hoc Deus in the first phrase. 

The first phrase adverts to the things which God has done for us, 
while the second reminds us of the dignity and burden of our kingly 
priesthood. 

Revue, 3, 3 ff. 

COMMUNION (Acts 2: 2, 4) 

1. F actus est repente de caelo 1. There came suddenly a sound 

sonus advenientis spiritus vehemen- from heaven as of a mighty wind 

lis, ubi erant sedentes, alleluia: coming, where they were all sitting, 

et repleti sunt omnes Spiritu Sane- alleluia: 2. and they were all filled 

to, loquentes magnolia Dei, alle- with the Holy Ghost, speaking the 

luia, alleluia. wonderful works of God, alleluia, 

alleluia. 

In most Masses the Ite missa est harks back to the melody of the 
Kyrie. In a similar way this Communion reminds us of the festive en- 
thusiasm of the Introit. With striking clearness it portrays in the first 



Monday in Whitsun Week 227 

phrase the sudden coming of the Holy Ghost. One seems actually to 
hear the mighty wind in the recurring fifths and the ascent to / with 
its interval of a fourth. That is word-painting which, although it vio- 
lently urges us along, is nevertheless enjoyable. In spite of all His might 
and power, the Spirit who comes is the Spirit of order, of life, and of 
love. 

The structure of the Communion is strikingly plain, and its affilia- 
tion to psalmody unmistakable. The two phrases have in their first half 
an energetic and lively ascent with the tenor d, and in their second half 
a more quiet, meditative spirit with the proper tenor c and a descent to 
the tonic. This division extends even to the two final alleluia: the first 
shows an animated upward movement, the second closes quietly. 

The first phrase speaks of the coming of the Paraclete, the second 
of His activity. One becomes aware of the freshness and liveliness with 
which Factus est sets in, if one transposes the pes from the final syllable 
to the accented syllable and notes the contrast. With Puer in the Christ- 
mas Introit such a procedure is very suitable to praise the dear Christ- 
child, but here a more energetic rhythm is called for. As for the rest, 
the word-accents play the leading role in the formation of the melody. 
The second phrase is less sparkling, less striking than the first. Never- 
theless, with its bright, joyous ascent over Spiritu Sancto, with the ac- 
centuation of magnalia, with its florid melody and the tritone 6-/, im- 
pelling us to admiration of the marvel here recounted, it has a beauty 
all its own. Filled with the divine life, with the Holy Ghost, the Apostles 
are impelled to praise and glorify the great things God has done, just as 
Mary, who is sitting in their midst, filled with the Holy Ghost, sang her 
Magnificat and glorified God, who had done "great things" (magna) to 
her. 

"In a certain way, the miracle of Pentecost becomes visible in Holy 
Communion. The Holy Ghost, it is true, does not come in the form of 
fiery tongues, but in the form of bread He enters into our hearts; for 
Christ is filled with the Holy Ghost. And although the species disinte- 
grate, the Paraclete wishes to remain with us, to take hold of us spirit- 
ually, and fill us with holy enthusiasm" (W.K.). 
* * * * 

MONDAY IN WHITSUN WEEK 

In content the INTROIT is closely related to that of Easter Mon- 
day. Today, too, the neophytes are to shout with joy over the "honey- 
sweet" mystery of the Holy Eucharist. For the explanation of the 
melody, see the feast of Corpus Christi. 



228 Monday in Whitsun Week 

FIRST ALLELUIA VERSE (Acts 2: 4) 

1. Loquehantur variis Unguis 1. The apostles spoke in divers 

Apostoli 2. magnalia Dei. tongues 2. the wonderful works of 

God. 

Again and again the Church, marvels, this week, at the astounding 
miracles of tongues. Repeatedly she reminds us of God's almighty rule 
in the history of mankind in general and of each individual soul in par- 
ticular. 

The alleluia has two parts, the first of which confines itself to the 
tetrachord c-f, while the second reaches up to high c. We met a similar 
melody on the Sunday after the Ascension. The first member of the ju- 
hilus shows a fine manipulation of the motive: f g ah\? a g and efgdgf; 
the second member also has two related tone-sequences. Loquehantur is 
a further development of alle- while -luia and the greater part of the 
jubilus are repeated as far as Unguis. Before this word a short pause is 
indicated, while in the corresponding passage in the jubilus we have a 
half pause, which is well justified by the pressus with the modulation to 
c. Here, however, the related words variis Unguis are to be joined to- 
gether as closely as possible. Apostoli may also be regarded as the con- 
tinuation of -hiia, but here the threefold c far outweighs the / which be- 
gins the group. For this reason we do not sing h\? here, but a strongly 
accented h. It is interesting to note the display of power resulting from 
the / with its subsequent 6b, and the c with its subsequent b. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 17: 14, 16) 

1. Intonuit de caelo Dominus, 2. 1. The Lord thundered from 

et AUissimus dedit vocem suam: 3. heaven, 2. and the Most High gave 

et apparuerunt f antes aquarum, his voice: 3. and the fountains of 

alleluia. waters appeared, alleluia. 

The Offertory is borrowed from Tuesday in Easter Week. Through- 
out the octaves of Easter and of Pentecost we hear the rushing foun- 
tains of water, reminding us that we were reborn out of water and the 
Holy Ghost. Hence it is that the melody reaches its highest point in the 
third phrase of our present chant. A grateful and joyous spirit pervades 
the entire piece. 

The close of alleluia corresponds with Dominus in the first phrase. 
This and the second phrase have the same range, but a different melodic 
development. In its second half the second phrase closely follows the 
tone-sequences of the first mode. A light secondary accent on the last 
note of vo-(cem) will help to clarify the rhythm. The preceding notes 



Trinity Sunday 229 

may be considered as a simplification of the motive bb g f e d f f over 
caelo; the first two neums over this word are heard again over (apparu) 
-e-(runt). 

On Pentecost the Lord let His voice be heard in a special manner: 
suddenly from heaven (de caelo) came the noise of a mighty wind. But 
it was not like the reverberation of thunder, for it marked the coming 
of the Holy Ghost, of Love itself. 

COMMUNION (John 14: 26) 

Spiritus Sanctus docehit vos, alle- The Holy Ghost shall teach you, 

luia: quaecumque dixero vohis, alle- alleluia, whatsoever I have said to 
luia, alleluia. you, alleluia, alleluia. 

The words of the Saviour may be regarded as a solemn solo, and 
the cries of alleluia as the grateful, joyous answer of the community. 

The intrusion of the first alleluia is somewhat disturbing to the clear 
psalmodic construction of this antiphon, which has an obvious intona- 
tion, middle cadence on the tenor, and a final cadence. The accented 
syllable consistently occupies a higher position than the following 
syllable. Thus the melody follows the natural declamation of the words. 

Christ, who has just come into our hearts in Holy Communion, 
addresses us as He once did His disciples: Let yourselves be instructed 
by the Holy Ghost. He will lead you to all truth, and the truth will 
make you free and happy. Alleluia. 

To announce the "great things of God" (magnolia Dei) in the liturgy 
ought to be for us a sacred and sweet duty, to which we should dedicate 
ourselves heart and soul. 



TRINITY SUNDAY 
(The first Sunday after Pentecost) 

It was not until 1334 that this feast was extended to the universal 
Church. As early as the eighth century, however, the Mass formulary 
had been composed for a votive high Mass in honor of the Holy Trinity. 
In the earliest manuscripts we can therefore find the chants for this 
feast. But in great part they are only accommodations of melodies from 
other texts. The Introit has its melody from the first Sunday of Lent, 
the Gradual and the Offertory from the feast of SS. Peter and Paul, 
and the Communion is a free adaptation of the Comvaunion Feci judicium 
from the second Mass for a Virgin Martyr. 



230 Trinity Sunday 

In and by Himself God is infinitely happy. A sea of delight issues 
from the Father to the Son, and from both of these it overflows upon 
the Holy Ghost, and again flows back from Him. And yet it seems that 
something in the essence of the infinite God seeks for some further 
complement. Nothing is wanting to His perfect happiness, but He 
would share His love with others and pour blessings, grace, and happi- 
ness upon them from His own overflowing Heart. Every act of God to- 
ward His creatures is therefore an act of charity. Still more resplendent, 
however, does God's mercy appear when He offers reconciliation and 
forgiveness to sinful man after he has trodden God's holiness underfoot, 
when He renovates the temple of the soul which man in his folly has 
wasted and destroyed, and adorns it with His gifts of grace. We can never 
sufficiently thank God for this great love. What a price He paid for our 
redemption! Today, then, we hear this phrase repeated in the Introit, 
Offertory, and Communion: "He hath shown His mercy to us." The 
entire Mass formulary becomes one great "Glory be to the Father. . ." 
as a conclusion to the work of redemption begun at Christmas and 
brought to completion at Pentecost. Each of today's chants begins with 
an exhortation to praise God; Introit: Benedicta; Gradual, Alleluia- 
verse, and Offertory: Benedictus; Communion: Benedicimus. Few Mass 
formularies exhibit such unified structure. 

INTROIT (Tob. 12:6) 

1. Benedicta sit sancta Trinitas, 1. Blessed be the Holy Trinity and 

atque indivisa Unitas: 2. confitehi- undivided Unity: 2. we will give 

mur ei, quia fecit nobiscum miseri- glory to him, because he hath shown 

cordiam suam. Ps. Domine Dominus his mercy to us. Ps. O Lord, our 

nosier: * quam admirabile est no- Lord: * how wonderful is thy name 

men tuum in universa terral in the whole earth. 

The melody was explained on the first Sunday of Lent. Its adapta- 
tion here is not an entirely happy one. Particularly unfortunate is the 
fact that the ascending melody over the accented syllable of glorificdbo 
eum is here fitted to the unaccented syllable (confite)-bi-(mur ei). It seems 
that the seven syllables of this text were parcelled out to the seven 
groups of notes which are carried by the seven syllables of the original 
with no reference to the word-accent. Furthermore the second half of 
the first phrase begins with the motive which in the original brings the 
first phrase to a close. Nevertheless, the entire feeling of the original is 
admirably suited to that of our present Introit: it is a joyously moving 
song of thanksgiving. 

Gregoriusblatt, 28, 106 fif.; Gregoriusbote, 25. 10 f.; Revue, 7, 124 flf. 



Trinity Sunday 231 

GRADUAL (Dan. 3: 55, 56) 

1. Benedictus es, Domine, qui 1. Blessed art thou, O Lord, who 

intueris ahyssos, 2. et sedes super beholdest the depths, 2. and sittest 
Cherubim, jll. 1. Benedictus es Do- upon the Cherubim, f. 1. Blessed 
mine, in firmamento caeli, 2. et art thou, O Lord, in the firmament 
laudabilis in saecula. of heaven, 2. and worthy of praise 

forever. 

There are times, many times in fact, when we stand face to face 
with inscrutable mystery. The most eminent naturalists, for instance, 
have made statements such as this: "It is something we do not know 
and never expect to know." Mysteries there are also in the human heart; 
yes, even in the depths of our own heart. But for the world's Creator 
there is no mystery: all things are evident to Him. In the Epistle we have 
just heard the words: "Of Him, and by Him, and in Him, are all things." 
He need inquire of no one. He knows what is in man. He is the Searcher 
of the hearts and the reins, and before Him the darkness is as the noon- 
day brightness (Ps. 138: 11). Even the most noble creatures in the 
spiritual creation, the Cherubim, stand infinitely lower than He and are 
privileged to be His footstool. God reigns above all; who can praise Him 
worthily? Yet behind the ramparts of heaven a marvelous song resounds 
unceasingly. It is the praise and glory which each person of the Most 
Holy Trinity offers the others. They alone perfectly realize how praise- 
worthy God is. This song re-echoes unto all eternity, and the angels and 
saints of heaven join in with this never-ending Gloria Patri .... 

The melody has been borrowed from the feast of SS. Peter and 
Paul. Instead of in firmamento caeli the ancient manuscripts read in thro- 
no regni tui: Blessed art Thou on the throne of Thy empire. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Dan. 3: 52) 

1. Benedictus es, Domine Deus 1. Blessed art thou, Lord God of 

patrum nostrorum, 2. et laudabilis our fathers, 2. and worthy of parise 
in saecula. forever. 

The Gradual is the only song today which does not treat explicitly 
of God's mercy, but of His infinite splendor. In the Alleluia-verse this 
same thought is emphasized. The merciful love of God is, however, im- 
plicitly contained in the reference to the patriarchs and prophets of the 
Old Law, which was but a prelude to the fullness of grace of the New 
Covenant. Even in the most ancient manuscript the melody, which was 
explained on the vigil of Christmas, is assigned to this Mass. 



232 Corpus Christi 

OFFERTORY (Tob. 12: 6) 

1. Benedictus sit Deus Pater, 1. Blessed he the Father, and the 

unigenitusque (2.) Dei Filius, 2. only-hegotten{2.)SonofGod2.and 

Sandus quoque (3.) Spiritus: 3. also {d.)the Holy Spirit: 3. because 

quia fecit nohiscum misericordiam he hath shown his mercy towards us. 
suam. 

The figures in parentheses indicate the fine divisions in the original 
melody for the feast of SS. Peter and Paul, and show that our present 
Offertory has little regard for the proper phrasing. It is gratifying to 
note, however, that the words Benedictus, Pater, unigenitus, Spiritus, and 
nohiscum are brought clearly into the foreground. Similarly, the melodic 
development over Sanctus quoque may well serve to increase our rever- 
ence for the Holy Ghost and the entire mystery of the triune God. 

Let us give thanks! But let us do so mindful of the fact, mentioned 
in the today's Secret, that our thanksgiving can be acceptable only if 
God's grace is working to make of us an eternal sacrifice to Himself! 

COMMUNION (Tob. 12: 6) 

1. Benedicimus Deum caeli, 2. 1. We hless the God of heaven, 2. 

et coram omnihus viventihus con- and before all living we will praise 

fitebimur ei: S. quia fecit nohiscum him: 3. because he has shown his 

misericordiam suam. mercy to us. 

The first phrase is very faithful to its original (see p. 229) ; not so the 
second. The melody over qua fecit, which here opens the third phrase, 
forms the close of the second phrase in the original. Here again the 
phrasing is not entirely happy. Small heterogeneous pieces compose the 
last part: nohiscum is like scuto in the Communion for the first Sunday 
of Lent; the close is found in a number of chants, for example in the In- 
troit for the tenth Sunday after Pentecost over in aeternum. 

We still are numbered among the living who can praise and thank 
God. In each holy Mass the triune God makes holy our sacrificial gifts 
and converts them into the sacrifice of Christ, and in the sacrificial Ban- 
quet the Father and the Holy Ghost, together with the Son, join them- 
selves to us, and thus prove that their life and mercy are truly infinite. 



CORPUS CHRISTI 

With the words Exsultdte— jubilate of the Introit-verse is announced 
the theme of today's feast, of the Mass, and of the procession which 



Corpus Christi 233- 

follows. The psalm from which these words have been taken was once 
sung at the feast of Tabernacles, which was celebrated in the open, in 
tents constructed of boughs in memory of the tent-life of Israel in the 
desert. Hence it also refers to the dwelling of God with us in the desert 
of this world, and to today's festive procession in the open over a path 
decorated with boughs {W.K.). Today Mother Church's heart overflows 
with joy — with joy that extends beyond the confines of the church 
building. All Nature is to exult with her. And, conversely, Nature, with 
her trees now wearing their most beautiful green, with her wreaths and 
garlands, is allowed to make a solemn entry into the church. For this is 
also her festal day. From her the Saviour has selected the two species, 
bread and wine, under the appearance of which He gives Himself to us. 
In 1264, under Pope Urban IV, this feast was extended to the uni- 
versal Church; its liturgy was composed by St. Thomas Aquinas {"i- 1274). 
The melodies have been borrowed from earlier Sundays or feasts; the 
following Introit, for instance, has received both text and melody from 
the Monday in Whitsun Week. 

INTROIT (Ps. 80: 17) 

1. Cihavit eos ex adipe frumenti 1. He fed them with the fat of 

alleluia: 2. et de petra, melle satura- wheat, alleluia: 2. and filled them 
vit eos, 3. alleluia, alleluia, alleluia. with honey out of the rock, 3. alle- 
ys. Exsultate Deo adjutori nostro: * luia, alleluia, alleluia. Ps. Rejoice 
jubilate Deo Jacob. to God our helper: * sing aloud to 

the God of Jacob. 

Profound awe and reverence for the true Manna marks the beginning 
of this piece; yet it sounds like the joyous ringing of bells. This Manna 
is the nourishment of our souls! That is the thought of the first phrase, 
which never extends beyond the tenor, but twice descends to low a. The 
accented syllable of adipe carries only a single note, while the following 
unaccented syllable has a tristropha. We meet this construction rather 
frequently. Compare, for example, the Introit for the fourth Sunday 
after Pentecost (Illumindtio), the Offertory for the fifteenth Sunday after 
Pentecost (Dominum), the Offertory for the sixteenth Sunday after 
Pentecost (Domine), the Communion for the seventeenth Sunday af- 
ter Pentecost (Domino). 

The second phrase augments the initial motive of the first phrase: 
acdf becomes cdfg over melle; and, as further development, dgffga. 
Rightly does saturdvit mark the summit of the piece. Before the melody 
reaches it, however, there is a retarding motive (cf. dolo on Low Sunday), 
downward bent, making the development of saturdvit all the more bril- 



234 Corpus Christi 

liant. This second phrase speaks of the sweet consolation which the 
Holy Eucharist brings to us; of the spiritual satiety which strengthens 
us against all the allurements of the world. The three alleluia may be 
regarded as an independent phrase. Here the ascending fourth over 
saturdvit is answered by a descending fourth. The second alleluia closes 
on c, like eos above; on account of its e it can very effectively modulate 
to a full tone below the tonic. This song must proceed from a heart in 
which joy reigns supreme. 
N. Sch., 295 ff. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 144: 15, 16) 

1. Oculi omnium in te sperant, 1. The eyes of all hope in thee, O 

Domine: 2. et tu das Ulis escam in Lord: 2. and thou givest them meat 

tempore opportuno. ^. 1. Aperis tu in due season, f. 1. Thou openest 

manum tuam: 2. et imples omne thy hand: 2. and fittest every living 

animal henedictione. creature with thy blessing. 

God is the Creator and the Preserver of the natural world. But He 
is still more concerned about preserving and promoting the life of the 
soul. If we look at Him today, if by our steady gaze we become one, so 
to speak, with the altar and the Blessed Sacrament, then He will not let 
us wait in vain, but will bestow upon us streams of blessing and of vital 
power. 

In the manuscript the melody with this text is assigned to the twen- 
tieth Sunday after Pentecost. The corpus of the Gradual and the verse 
have the same florid closing cadence: opportuno — henedictione. The first 
phrase of the corpus unfolds until it reaches the tenor and closes with a 
cadence known to us from the fourth Sunday of Lent: mihi. Over (il)-lis 
the final groups of neums appear a third lower. It is surprising to see 
that the unaccented syllable of Aperis carries such a florid melisma. P. 
Wagner (II, 66) thinks that the melody was originally composed for a 
Greek text and only later transferred to a Latin one; this opinion, how- 
ever, is contested by CO. (49, 126). A similar line of pressus, but with a 
finer grouping, is met with in various Tracts, for example the second 
verse of the first Tract on Good Friday over medio, and in several Gradu- 
als, that of the second Sunday after Epiphany over ( miser ic6rdi)-ae in 
the verse. Manum resembles the first half of (Dömi)-ne, while imples 
reminds us of (tempo)-re. The entire piece calls for a lively rendition. 

According to K.L. the Gradual and the Alleluia- verse have the fol- 
lowing mutual relations: the Gradual is taken from the Old Testament, 
treats of Nature, and tells of God the Provider, who hears His creatures 



Corpus Christi 235 

saying their grace before meat. The Alleluia-verse is taken from the 
New Testament, is a prelude to the Gospel, and treats of grace and of 
the Food of the soul. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (John 6: 56, 57) 

1. Caro mea vere est cibus, et 1. My flesh is meat indeed, and 

sanguis mens vere est potus: 2. qui my blood is drink indeed: 2. he that 

manducat meam carnem, et hihit eateth my flesh and drinketh my 

meum sanguinem, in me manet et blood, abideth in me, and I in him. 
ego in eo. 

With what earnestness the disciples on the way to Emmaus be- 
sought the Lord to remain with them, for the night was approaching! 
Here our Saviour not only gives us the assurance that He will remain 
with us, but that He will remain in us when we are united with Him in 
Holy Communion. Thus the indefectible Light itself, the Light which 
can never be dimmed, is within us! Our souls will be the house where 
Truth dwells, where falsehood can never intrude. We shall be filled with 
the life and strength from which all the saints, whom we rightly ad- 
mire, have drawn. Hence He truly is what our hungering and thirsting 
soul needs in life and still more in death. Our present song expresses 
thanks for these many graces. 

Alleluia with its jubilus has the form abc; no inner relationship 
exists between it and the melody of the verse. Several times during the 
year we meet this melody: first, on Corpus Christi; second, on the feast 
of the Transfiguration; third, on the feast of St. Lawrence; fourth, on 
the feast of St. Michael (second Alleluia); and fifth, on the feast of the 
Holy Rosary. In the most ancient manuscripts it is found with the text 
Laetdbitur Justus: "The just shall rejoice in the Lord, and shall hope in 
Him: and all the upright in heart shall be praised." The melody is en- 
tirely begotten of the text, an energetic song of exultation, which leaves 
this earth far below it and soars up to the ethereal blue — describing the 
joy and the delight of the singer. The original, unfortunately, is no 
longer sung. In it the beauty and clarity of the structure, which is psal- 
modic in character, is better revealed. Two phrases begin with an in- 
tonation and then have a florid middle cadence. In the first phrase there 
follows not a mere recitation on the tenor, but a very ornate melisma 
with a repetition; finally comes the closing cadence. The melody of 
alleluia with its jubilus is joined to the last words of the verse to form 
the third phrase. In the first part of the original an independent thought 
is expressed: "The just shall rejoice in the Lord," thus fully justifying 
the pause on the dominant after the middle cadence. But b towers above 



236 



Corpus Christi 



the two a parts. A brief survey will show the relation between the ori- 
ginal composition and the adaptations mentioned and numbered above. 





FIRST PART 




Intonation 




Middle Cadence 


Laetdhitur 


Justus 


in Domino 


1. Caro mea 


vere est cihus 


et sanguis meus 


2. Candor est 


lucis 


aeternae 


3. Levita 


Laurentius 


honum opus 


4. Concussum 


est mare 


et contremuit 


5. Solemnitas 


gloriosae 


Virginis 


Florid Melisma 




Closing Cadence 




Et sperd- 


-hit in eo 


1. vere est potus, qui 


manducat 


meam carnem 


2. et speculum sine md- 


-cu-la 


3. operd- 




-tus est 


4. terra 




[without closing 
cadence] 


5. Mariae ex semine 


SECOND PART 


Ahrahae. 


Intonation 


Middle Cadence 


Closing Cadence 


et lauda- 


-huntur 


omnes 


1. et Mbit 


meum 


sdnguinem 


2. et 


imdgo 


honitdtis 


3. qui per signum 


crucis 


caecos 


4. [irregular] 


uhi Archdngelus 


Michael descende- 


5. ortae 


de trihu 


Juda 



THIRD PART 



recti corde 

1. in me manet et ego in eo. 

2. illius. 

3. illumindvit. 

4. -hat de caelo. 

5. clara ex stirpe David. 



The structure is clearest in the verse Laetdhitur. Of the others, verse 
2, that is, that of the feast of the Transfiguration, bears the closest re- 
semblance. The third also is good. In 1, a new thought begins with the 



Corpus Christi 237 

melisma that is repeated, thus handicapping the effectiveness of the 
melody; for its upward surge, about which there can be no doubt in this 
type of Alleluia, is thereby weakened. The third part, whose melody is 
formed somewhat differently, does not give the feeling of a finished 
organic whole in which all parts are attuned to one another. 

SEQUENCE 

The Sequence owes its origin to St. Thomas Aquinas. In superb 
language it enunciates the dogma of the Holy Eucharist. Its accompany- 
ing melody was composed by Adam of St. Victor ( "f c. 1192). In its 
original form it was a hymn to the cross, for which the Alleluia Dulce 
lignum (May 3) supplies the initial motive (egagchag). In the double 
strophe Dogma datur and quod non capis this motive returns a fourth 
higher ( egagchag = dcdcfedc). All the strophes close on the tonic and 
most of them with the formula ag fg g. Occasionally this is preceded by 
ah or ch. Less often we have c ag fg g or ga fg g. The individual verses 
close on the dominant or on c. Toward the end the closings on the domi- 
nant increase; the final double strophe has it thrice. 

At Beuron this chant is sung in six minutes. This observation is 
not made with any intention of prescribing a set tempo, but merely to 
show that even this Sequence takes a comparatively short time to sing. 

la. Praise, Sion, praise thy Saviour, * Shepherd, Prince, with 
glad behavior, * Praise in hymn and canticle: lb. Sing His glory without 
measure, * For the merit of your Treasure * Never shall your praises fill. 

2a. Wondrous theme of mortal singing, * Living Bread and Bread 
life-bringing, * Sing we on this joyful day: 2b. At the Lord's own table 
given * To the twelve as Bread from Heaven, * Doubting not we firmly 
say. 

3a^. Sing His praise with voice sonorous; * Every heart shall hear 
the chorus * Swell in melody sublime: 3a^. For this day the Shepherd 
gave us * Flesh and Blood to feed and save us, * Lasting to the end of 
time. 

3b^. At the new King's sacred table, * The new Law's new Pasch 
is able * To succeed the ancient Rite: 3b^. Old to new its place hath 
given, * Truth has far the shadows driven, * Darkness flees before the 
Light. 

4a. And as He hath done and planned it, * "Do this," hear His 
love command it, * "For a memory of me." 4b. Learned, Lord, in Thy 
own science, * Bread and wine, in sweet compliance, * As a host we 
offer Thee. 



238 Corpus Christi 

5a. Thus in faith the Christian heareth: * That Christ's Flesh as 
bread appeareth, * And as wine His Precious Blood: 5b. Though we feel 
it not nor see it, * Living Faith that doth decree it * All defect of sense 
makes good. 

6a. Lo! beneath the species dual * (Signs not things), is hid a 
jewel * Far beyond creation's reach! 6b. Though His Flesh as food a- 
bideth, * And His Blood as drink — He hideth * Undivided under each. 

7a. Whoso eateth It can never * Break the Body, rend or sever; * 
Christ entire our hearts doth fill: 7b. Thousands eat the Bread of Heav- 
en, * Yet as much to one is given: * Christ, though eaten, bideth still. 

8a. Good and bad, they come to greet Him: * Unto life the former 
eat Him, * And the latter unto death; 8b. These find death and those 
find heaven; * See, from the same life-seed given, * How the harvest 
differeth! 

9a. When at last the Bread is broken, * Doubt not what the Lord 
hath spoken: * In each part the same love-token, * The same Christ, 
our hearts adore: 9b. For no power the Thing divideth^ — * 'Tis the sym- 
bols He provideth, * While the Saviour still abideth * Undiminished as 
before. 

10a. Hail, angelic Bread of Heaven, * Now the pilgrim's hoping 
leaven, * Yea, the Bread to children given * That to dogs must not be 
thrown: 10b. In the figures contemplated, * 'Twas with Isaac immo- 
lated, * By the Lamb 'twas antedated, * In the Manna it was known. 

11a. O Good Shepherd, still confessing * Love, in spite of our trans- 
gressing,^ — * Here Thy blessed Food possessing, * Make us share Thine 
every blessing * In the land of life and love: lib. Thou, whose power 
hath all completed * And Thy Flesh as Food hath meted, * Make us, 
at Thy table seated, * By Thy Saints, as friends be greeted, * In Thy 
paradise above.^ 

OFFERTORY (Lev. 21 : 6) 

1. Sacerdotes Domini incensum 1. The priests of the Lord offer 

et panes offerunt Deo: 2. et ideo incense and loaves to God: 2. and 
sancti erunt Deo suo, 3. et non pol- therefore they shall he holy to their 
luent nomen ejus, alleluia. God, 3. and shall not defile his 

name, alleluia. 



1 Transl. by Msgr. Henry, in Britt's Hymns of the Breviary and Missal. (Benziger Bro- 
thers 1922.) 



Corpus Christi 23& 

Through Holy Orders priests- — and they alone — have received the 
power to offer the Sacrifice of the New Covenant. Consequently their 
lives must be holy. But they act as the mediators of our Sacrifice, and 
for this reason we, too, must be holy. Let bread and incense be the 
symbols of our labor, our prayer, and our sacrificial spirit. If we rise 
superior to selfishness, to worldly pleasure, to the world's way of think- 
ing and acting, and go up to the altar of sacrifice with hearts vibrant 
with pure love of God, like incense, which seeks only what is above and 
is consumed for God, then are we a kingly priesthood, a holy nation. 

The melody has been borrowed from Whitsunday (see p. 225), fits 
fairly well to the text whose content is related to it, and has received a 
rather good adaptation. 

COMMUNION (I Cor. 11: 26, 27) 

1. Quotiescumque manducahitis 1. As often as you shall eat of this 

panem hunc, et calicem hibetis, bread and drink the chalice, you 

mortem Domini annuntiabitis, do- shall show forth the death of the 

nee veniat: 2. itaque quicumque Lord, until he come: 2. therefore 

manducaverit panem, vel biberit whosoever shall eat this bread or 

calicem Domini indigne, reus erit drink the chalice of the Lord un- 

corporis et sanguinis Domini, alle- worthily, shall be guilty of the body 

luia. and blood of the Lord, alleluia. 

The Offertory took its melody from Whitsunday. It was natural, 
then, to borrow the Communion melody from the same Mass. But there 
is a great difference in content and spirit between the two. Here the ren- 
dition should be inspired by the intensely serious text. 

Taking only the text into consideration, this Communion is a direct 
continuation of the Communion for Passion Sunday (p. 148). E\ery 
Eucharistie celebration, every Holy Communion announces the death of 
the Lord. Bread and wine are consecrated separately. By virtue of the 
words of consecration, under the species of bread the Body of the Lord 
is represented, as it were, bloodless and lifeless, just as the Blood of the 
Lord is, so to say, separate in the chalice. But our faith tells us that 
under both species Christ is totally present. Christ is present: how pure, 
then, must be our heart! What a frightful sacrilege does he commit who 
communicates unworthily! For him the bread of life and the chalice of 
salvation open the door to destruction, to damnation. 

After the impressive Domini we may not disregard the significant 
indigne. After corporis or after erit a very slight pause is recommended. 
The words donee veniat receive an independent melodic phrase. Therein 
is voiced the guarantee that the Holy Eucharist, the holy Sacrifice, and 



240 Sunday within the Octave of Corpus Christi 

Holy Communion, with their infinite blessings will be preserved in the 
Church and will continue until the end of time, until the Lord will come 
for the final jugdment. Then shall we see Him as He is, face to face, and 
with inefifable bliss we shall be allowed to immerse ourselves in His glory. 

The alleluia at the end, which sounds rather strange after the words 
of the text, is demanded, first of all, by the analogy with the Introit and 
the Offertory. Secondly, it softens the seriousness of the words and gently 
leads back to the fundamental idea of the entire feast, the mentis jubi- 
Idtio, to the grateful exultation of the heart, which again is given full 
play in the procession. 

Musica Sacra, 52, 85 f. 

* * * * 



SUNDAY WITHIN THE OCTAVE OF CORPUS 

CHRISTI 

INTROIT (Ps. 17: 19, 20) 

1. F actus est Dominus protector 1. The Lord hath become my pro- 

meus, et eduxit me in latitudinem: lector: and hath brought me forth in- 

2. salvum me fecit, quoniam vo- to a large place: 2. he saved me, 

luit me. Ps. Diligam te Domine because he was well pleased 



fortitudo mea: * Dominus firma- me. Fs. I will love thee, Lord, my 
mentum meum, et refugium meum, strength: * the Lord is my strong- 
et liberator mens. hold, and my refuge, and my de- 

liverer. 

When the evening of his life was approaching, David looked back 
upon all that the long years had brought him. There had been much 
suffering; many had been inimical to him; bitter woe, the torture and 
affliction of turbulent passions, had saddened his heart. But by far out- 
weighing all this was the help which God had bestowed upon him, the 
protection which had come upon him from on high. Hence he cries out 
with a grateful heart: "The Lord has become my Protector! I will love 
Thee, O Lord, Thou my strength!" 

The saints in heaven voice the same sentiments: "The Lord hath 
become my Protector, and hath brought me forth into a large place." 
Their happiness now is boundless. They are forever freed from all that 
is small and mean and imperfect, from all that formerly oppressed them, 
from all that was defective. Now they enjoy perfect liberty. They have 
been saved, and forever sing a canticle of grateful love. 



Sunday within the Octave of Corpus Christi 241 

We who still tarry upon earth surely have every reason to thank 
God for having become our Protector, for having led us into the open, 
into the perfect liberty of the children of God, and for having become 
our Redeemer from a motive of pure love. Our thanks ought to be es- 
pecially sincere when we think of the Eucharistie Saviour and of the 
protection which His grace affords us against all the enemies of our soul, 
against whatever oppresses it, weakens it or obscures its vision. How 
entirely is He who was made flesh become our protector in the Holy 
Eucharist! What love will He not show us in this Sacrament until the 
very end! When we consider this, then surely the words Diligam te must 
well up from our inmost hearts. I shall attempt to repay Thy infinite 
love with my own poor love. Thou art my strength against all the vio- 
lence of my unchecked nature. Thou art my refuge and my rescue, to 
whom I may have recourse in my every need. 

In the first phrase joy continually tends toward development, until 
the motive over eduxit me attains its full measure with the words in 
latitudinem. It is the song of one who suddenly finds himself free and in 
broad daylight after a long imprisonment in a narrow, dark, and dank 
dungeon. It ought not cause surprise that this same melody occurs in 
the Introit Stdtuit. Here also it transfigures that loftiest of all themes: 
the dignity of the priesthood. The ascent at protector mens bears some 
relation to the Dominus prope of the Introit Gaudete (Third Sunday in 
Advent): it is also somewhat reminiscent of the beginning of the In- 
troit on the feast of St. Stephen. 

The construction is apparent at first sight. Of the two phrases which 
compose the piece, the first has its half cadence and its full cadence on 
the doiminant (a), the second at times on the tonic of the mode (d). The 
first phrase exhibits an arsis laid on a grand plan, while the second is a 
clear thesis. Whereas / is banned from the first half of the first phrase, 
the note h\? occurs four times; the second half is influenced by high c, 
and h occurs thrice. At eduxit the two podatus are to be interpreted 
broadly. The first phrase has a descending fourth (d-a) over eduxit; the 
second phrase two descending fourths (g-d). The motive over me fecit 
is heard again over voluit with a quiet closing formula which releases the 
tension of the fourths. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 119: 1, 2) 

1. Ad Dominum, cum tribularer, 1. In my trouble I cried to the 

clamavi, 2. et exaudivit me. jl 1. Lord, 2. and he heard me. jll 1. 

Domine, libera animam meam a Lord, deliver my soul from wicked 

labiis iniquis, 2. et a lingua dolosa. lips, 2. and a deceitful tongue. 



242 Sunday within the Octave of Corpus Christi 

This Gradual continues the thoughts of the Introit and is a joyfully- 
animated song of thanksgiving for favors granted. A retrospective glance 
at the help which the singer has received from God's bounty gives him 
courage confidently to present his new petitions in the verse. Wicked 
lips afflict him also, speaking what is unjust (Idhiis iniquis), accusing 
him without cause, and calumniating him. And even if the Epistle for 
the Sunday says: "Wonder not if the world hate you," this hate, never- 
theless, presses heavily upon the soul. Others come with honeyed words, 
but they are false (lingua dolosa); they wish to deceive and seduce. Lord, 
save me from this peril! 

The ordinary construction of Graduals, which assigns a plagal 
mode to the corpus and the corresponding authentic mode to the verse, 
is followed here in the first words Ad Dominum; but then the melody 
immediately changes over to the authentic form and emphasizes it al- 
most more than the verse. The verse thrice closes on the tonic; the 
corpus never. The melody over dum trihuldrer has for its schema the 
middle cadence of the simple psalm-tone of the fifth mode / a c-d c; 
that over exaudivit, the close of the solemn tone of the lessons, c g a f, 
which receives still greater amplification in the verse over lingua. In the 
verse care must be taken that the bistropha and the two tristrophas be 
interwoven into the whole in an elastic yet subdued manner. The sec- 
onds over libera dnimam should have a soothing effect. We hear the same 
sequence of tones over meam that appeared in the close of the corpus of 
the Gradual. Ldhiis and the central group of notes over dolosa are re- 
lated. The melismas over iniquis have been taken over from those over 
clamdvi in the first part. In the ancient manuscripts this Gradual is as- 
signed to the Friday after the second Sunday in Lent. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 7: 2) 

1. Domine Deus meus, in te 1. Lord my God, in thee have I 

speravi; 2. salvum me fac ex omni- put my trust; 2. save me from all 

bus persequentibus me, 3. et libera them that persecute me, 3. and de- 

me. liver me. 

The Alleluia with its jubilus has the form a b b-^. Alleluia is the ar- 
sis; the jubilus is the thesis. Twice the descent is retarded and held to- 
gether by a pressus. In the verse three great curves swing upward as 
arses, to which a triple descending thesis corresponds. 
Arsis Thesis 

1. in te speravi 1. salvum me fac 

2. ex omnibus 2. persequentibus me 

3. et libera (me) 3. me 



Sunday within the Octave of Corpus Christi 243 

The closing neum of each arsis, ah c a a, returns in the closing neum 
of the thesis a fifth lower as d efd d. The close of the third strophe (me) 
is in a richer strain, thus swelling the melody of the thesis considerably. 
It resembles to some extent the juhilus of alleluia. With this melodic 
arrangement that of the text naturally does not agree, as is readily ap- 
parent from its punctuation. A little difficulty is experienced in the be- 
ginning of the verse Domine Deus mens. It possesses the character of a 
thesis, although no arsis actually precedes it. One might say that it is a 
free repetition of the thesis of the juhilus. 

Domine Deus suggests quiet repose in the fatherly arms of God; in 
te speravi, a most firm trust in Him who is the Author of earthly changes, 
who directs and governs them all. However great the difficulties that 
arise, this trust in God remains unshaken. Omnihus and lihera may per- 
haps suggest the tribulations of the Psalmist who, pursued by his ene- 
mies, places all his confidence in God alone. The rich melismas on the 
last word, with their downward movement, speak of rest. This impres- 
sion is strengthened when alleluia with its juhilus is repeated. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 6:5) 

1. DomÄne convertere, et eripe 1. Turn to me, O Lord, and de- 

animam meam: 2. salvum me fac liver my soul: 2. save me for thy 
propter misericordiam tuam. mercy's sake. 

Marked by a special style and a childlike naivete of tone, this Offer- 
tory stands alone among all the Offertories. Only the Offertory Do- 
mine in auxilium of the sixteenth Sunday after Pentecost is related to 
it, for it follows the same mode, the sixth, and confines itself almost to 
the same range. Soon, however, it shows a tendency to form melismas, 
while here syllabic chant predominates with a trustful adherence to the 
tonic /. The stressed syllable tends to form a pes; twice indeed it be- 
comes a torculus. The second phrase bears the same features as the 
first, although the melody is somewhat more ornate. The closing neums 
of the third last and the second last syllable are freqnuetly emphasized 
in the sixth mode. It would almost appear as if the melody wished to 
tone down the strong expression eripe me ("loose me from"). Salvum me 
foe has an entirely different coloring from the petition in the Alleluia- 
verse. The theme of the whole might be put thus in the words of Mori- 
kes: "0 Lord, into thy hands let all things be placed^ — the beginning 
and the end." 

But when we consider the Gospel, how it was selfishness which kept 
the invited guests from the "great banquet," then we shall pray earnest- 
ly: O Lord, free me from blindness and delusion, from all dangers that 



244 Sunday within the Octave of Corpus Christi 

threaten my soul, and let me taste what Thou hast prepared for me in 
Thy banquet. 

The two additional verses which are given in the old manuscripts 
for the Monday after Passion Sunday are similarly suggestive of rest. 
Only the word Domine of the first verse is somewhat more ornate. In the 
second part of the second verse the melody assumes the brighter color- 
ing of the fifth tone and even becomes melismatic over the second last 
word, ossa. The confident salvum me fac propter misericordiam tuam 
brings the whole to a close. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 12: 6) 

1. Cantaho Domino, qui bona 1. / will sing to the Lord, who 

tribuit mihi: 2. et psallam nomini giveth me good things: 2. and will 
Domini altissimi. make melody to the name of the 

Lord most high. 

As is apparent from the closing note a, this piece was transposed a 
fifth higher, since the final interval is a full step. Ordinarily the ending 
would run thus: d e d. li the beginning of the piece is transposed a fifth 
lower, then we have b 6 e\? c e\>. According to the old notation, this eb 
could only be written a fifth higher, namely as bb. Besides acting as the 
passing note, the eb also plays the role of tenor. On the Wednesday of 
Ember Week in Lent the Offertory, which is composed in the fourth 
mode, begins almost exactly like the melody over Cantdbo Domino. Why 
was not the Communion composed in a similarly easy style? Evidently 
because it had in view what was to follow. For from qui bona on, the sec- 
ond tone, to which the entire piece is assigned, makes itself heard. In 
the Introit for the fourth Sunday after Pentecost, which certainly be- 
longs to the second mode, the passage qui bona tribuit mihi recurs over 
the words: et salus mea, quem timebo. The combination of the fourth and 
second mode — here effected by c (ordinarily /) — signifies an ascent over 
against the tenor eb which preceded it. And only after the singer has 
lived himself into the new mode does the b = e occur twice, although 
each time as passing note, so that compared to the preceding 6b = eb, it 
is not at all disturbing. 

In the second part of the Communion, the melody shows a rise 
seldom found in a plagal mode. The name of the Most High must be 
glorified. He, although infinitely superior to all that is mundane, has 
deigned in His love to look upon man. Yet more. He has associated him- 
self most intimately with man; He has become one with him in Holy 
Communion. He could not bestow a greater good (bona tribuit) than 
Himself — all His holiness, all His merits, graces, and gifts above measure. 



The Most Sacred Heart of Jesus 245 

Were we able fully to comprehend this immense boon, how our hearts 
would exult! In this manner we must conceive the joy expressed in the 
melody. If the formula for this Sunday's Mass were not much older 
than that for the feast of Corpus Christi, we should be tempted to say 
that it is an echo of the jubilation with which we paid our homage to the 
Eucharistie Lord as He moved through the streets several days ago. 
And if we are depressed because we are unable to thank God as is His 
due, then we possess the sweet consolation that the Saviour in our 
breasts is our canticle of praise- — that He offers adequte praise to the 
Father for us. Manuscript 121 of Einsiedeln endeavors to bring closer 
to us the full meaning oiAltissimi, by giving the four torculus and the two 
deepest notes — the second mode is wont to indulge in these plunges — a 
broad marking. 

* * * * 

FEAST OF THE MOST SACRED HEART OF 
JESUS 
(Friday after the Octave of Corpus Christi) 

In the seventeenth century, St. Margaret Mary Alacoque, of the 
Order of the Visitation, strove earnestly to obtain the recognition and 
institution of the present feast. Only in 1856 did Pius IX prescribe its 
celebration for the universal Church. Pius XI gave it an octave and 
raised it to the same rank as the feasts of Christmas and Ascension. It 
was assigned a new Mass formula and Office by a decree of January 29, 
1929. The present Mass formula has various points in common with the 
Mass Miserehiiur hitherto prescribed for the universal Church and the 
Mass Egredimini permitted to some localities. The thought which per- 
vades today's feast is indicated by the Preface. In that beautiful compo- 
sition the pierced Heart of our Lord is glorified as the sanctuary of di- 
vine liberality, from which flow streams (torrentes) of mercy and grace. 

INTROIT (Ps. 32: 11, 19) 

1. Cogitationes cordis eius in 1. The thoughts of his heart to all 

generatione et generationem; 2. ut generations; 2. to deliver their souls 

eruat a morte animas eorum et alat from death and feed them in famine, 

eos in fame. Ps. Exsultate justi in Ps. Rejoice in the Lord, O ye just, * 

Domino, * rectos decet collaudatio. praise hecometh the upright. 

The words of the Introit point to the significance of the Sacred Heart 
of Jesus in the history not only of the world but of the individual soul. 
That it might deliver humanity from eternal death, the Heart of Jesus 



246 The Most Sacred Heart of Jesus 

itself went into death. In order to appease the hunger of souls and bring 
salvation to the world, this Heart offered its very flesh and blood, yes, 
its own Self together with its overflowing truth and love. And this offer- 
ing was not an isolated event of the remote past only, but continues 
from generation to generation — in generatione et generationem. To be an 
inspiration at all times and daily to bring divine consolation is the con- 
stant yearning, desire, and will of the Sacred Heart. How manifold have 
been its experiences with the souls of men and how varied the reactions 
to its all-embracing love! There have always been and will always be 
souls that requite love for love by making a complete oblation of self. 
But there are also the great number of those who close their souls to the 
influences of divine love, who are irresponsive to the many gifts of grace, 
and who show themselves faithless even to the point of hatred. In spite 
of all this, the Heart of Jesus has not become embittered; although 
wounded, it continues to pour forth the riches of its merciful love. It 
is ever faithful, prepared to give help in generatione et generationem. As 
the Mother of God sings of the mercies of the Lord that continue from 
generation to generation, so the Preface of today reminds us that the 
fire of love in the Sacred Heart continues to burn without interruption. 
The words et generationem should not be sung too hastily. As the 
melody develops, our grateful love should likewise develop. This will be 
effected the better, the more we realize how much the merciful love of 
God means to us throughout our life. And just as this love embraces all 
creation, we would desire all creation to rejoice and sing the praises of 
the Sacred Heart. The fact that numberless holy souls in heaven and 
on earth join in our song of jubilation is a matter of encouragement and 
comfort to us. As members of this great family of God we employ the 
words of Psalm 32 to express our sense of gratitude to divine Providence 
that it has created all things, that it directs and knows all things, and 
that it is ever present to help us in attaining our eternal salvation. The 
initial verses of this same psalm describe the joy of the just, the conclud- 
ing verses the rejoicing of our own soul, for "in His holy name we have 
trusted." 

Like the text, which is composed of different verses of the same 
psalm, the melody is a combination of various parts of several Introits. 
The melody over Cogitationes Cordis eius in generatiö-(ne) shows some 
similarity to that over Domine refugium fadus es nobis a generati6-(ne) 
at the beginning of the Introit for Tuesday after the first Sunday of 
Lent. The fact that both excerpts end with the same word may have 
brought about this association. The following et generationem repeats in 
abbreviated form the melody over conventum fdcite in the Introit Lae- 
tdre of the fourth Sunday of Lent. 



The Most Sacred Heart of Jesus 247 

The entire second phrase et eruat is the same as the third phrase of 
the Introit Laetdre. In the original melody, exsuUetis depicts a feeling of 
jubilation, the accented syllable of satiemini is effectively emphasized, 
while the wide intervals of a fourth and fifth, together with the agree- 
able melody which stresses the word accent of consolationis, give us a 
premonition and experience of the fullness of divine consolation. On ac- 
count of its abbreviated text, today's new Introit had also to contract 
the original melody. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 24: 8, 9) 

1. Dulcls et rectus Dominus, 2. 1. The Lord is sweet and righteous: 

propter hoc legem dabit delinquen- 2. therefore he will give a law to 
tihus in via. '^\ 1. Dirigetmansuetos sinners in the way. ^. 1. He will 
injudicio, 2. docebit mites vias suas. guide the mild in judgment: 2. he 

will teach the meek his ways. 

The Epistle depicts St. Paul on bended knee praying for us to the 
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ that our inner man might be strength- 
ened and that Christ might dwell in our heart, and that,- rooted and 
founded in His love, we should comprehend the glory of our vocation 
and the charity of Christ which surpasses all understanding. This divine 
charity forms the theme of the present Gradual, the words of which 
afford us great comfort. God is good to His creatures and faithful: He 
is all-high, all-powerful, all-sublime, and awe-inspiring (Wolter, Psallite 
sapienter, I, 330). The psalm excerpt which forms today's Gradual con- 
tinues with the words: "All the ways of the Lord are mercy and truth." 
Indeed, the Lord is merciful and faithful even to those who err in the 
way' — or as others would translate: who fail against the law. And with- 
out doubt, to this class we must also ascribe ourselves, the more so if we 
carefully and truthfully scrutinize the actions of our own life. Notwith- 
standing the complaint of our Saviour in the Reproaches of Good Fri- 
day: "Thou art become to Me exceeding bitter," He remains dulcis, 
sweet and gracious. Notwithstanding His complaint: "All have turned 
from righteous ways," He remains faithful, and wills not the death of 
the sinner. Out of the fullness of His love He gives us the Law, imparts 
to us enlightenment and grace, affords us the means whereby we can be 
absolved from the guilt of sin that we might again realize peace in our 
souls, and gives us the strength to order our life in accord with His di- 
vine will. If we but allow Him to lead and guide us, then surely will 
His charity also permeate our being. His words will teach us how to be- 
come meek and humble, and will instill into us a desire to share with 
others His peace and contentment. On our part, let us promise this good 



248 The Most Sacred Heart of Jesus 

and faithful God henceforth to remain true to His ways, those straight 
paths that lead to eternal life. 

The melody over et rectus Dominus might be derived from the 
Gradual Concupivit rex of the Mass Vultum tuum (the second for a Vir- 
gin not a Martyr). The florid neums over et are found over the signifi- 
cant rex in the latter Mass. It is more probable, however, that today's 
melody is to be sought in the Gradual of the twenty-second Sunday 
after Pentecost (q.v.). At any rate, the beginning over Dulcis (ecce) and 
the entire melody from delinquentibus to the end is taken from that 
Gradual. 

A note of importance seems to permeate the entire melody. Dulcis 
is sung somewhat slowly and subdued. The thoughts suggested at the 
beginning of the text are well accommodated to the range of a fifth over 
Dominus. The neums over mansuetos are also employed over (inquirent)- 
tes on All Saints. The coda of judicio is identified as a wandering melis- 
ma. The rich vocalization over suas occurs frequently as a termination 
of Graduals in the first mode. 

ALLELUIA (Matt. 11: 29) 

1. Tollite jugum meum super vos 1. Take my yoke upon you 2. and 

2. et discite a me, quia mitis sum learn of me, because I am meek 

et humilis cor de: et invenietis re- and humble of heart: and you shall 

quiem animabus vestris. find rest to your souls. 

That burdened souls might find their rest in Him is the great desire 
of our divine Saviour. To this end He pleads with us that we take His 
yoke upon ourselves and follow His example. Consider the yoke which 
He bore! Fully conscious of His divine dignity and majesty He humbled 
Himself and descended to the lowest depths of humiliation and abjec- 
tion; He became an object of bitterest scorn, underwent most cruel and 
painful tortures, and climaxed His life by death upon the cross. But He 
bore this yoke willingly. He embraced His cross lovingly and kissed it 
tenderly. And now He pleads with us to bear our yoke submissively, to 
lose our own will in His divine will, to subject our desires to His divine 
dispensation, in fine, to accept our state of life with its concomitant 
hardships as something which is to the advantage of our souls, as the 
yoke appointed for us to bear. Then we shall find rest to our souls. 

The Gradual melody is the only one of today's Mass which is not 
modeled on some other melody. The sincerity and warmth which char- 
acterize its first part make it immediately appealing. Alleluia with its 
jubilus has the form a + b + c (c^). Thepressus on aa, gg and ee enliven 



The Most Sacred Heart of Jesus 249* 

the movement. Tollite jugum me-(um) is similar to -leluia with its ju- 
bilus. The motive over Tollite recurs in a slightly modified form over 
ju-(gum) and quia. The melody over (me)-um super vos and (qui)-a 
mitis sum shows an effective rhyme which, with its tender melody re- 
miniscent of the Improperia of Good Friday, fits the text well. Although 
the melody at the conclusion is effective harmoniously, it all but isolate» 
the humilis corde which follows and with which it is logically connected. 
In view of this, the pause after mitis sum should be made very short. 
The richly developed melody over et and its inception of a sixth after 
the first pause recurs, with the exception of the first three notes, over 
re-(quiem). The same might be referred to that over mors in the Alleluia 
of the fourth Sunday after Easter. The melodic distinction given the 
word requiem is well merited. Its somewhat austere character indicates 
that this rest can be attained only at the price of constant vigilance. 

The Tract for votive Masses after Septuagesima employs recognized 
typical forms. Lengthy vocalizes are avoided except at the very end. 
The descent of a fourth at the beginning of the third phrase happens 
rarely at this place in Tracts. The text as such mirrors the underlying 
thought of the feast: the goodness and love of the Sacred Heart. 

The Alleluia for Paschal time is the same as that for All Saints (q.v.). 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 68: 20) 

1. Improperium exspectavit Cor 1. My heart hath expected re- 

meum et miseriam, 2. et sustinui proach and misery, 2. and I looked 
qui simul mecum contristaretur et for one that would grieve with me 
non fuit; 3. consolantem me quae- hut there was none: 3. and for one 
sivi et non invent. that would comfort me, and I 

found none. 

The Gospel led us to Golgotha and pictured to us our dead Saviour 
"whom they have pierced," whose side they opened with a spear. Un- 
concerned about strict chronology, the Offertory permits us to listen to 
a last word which the dying Christ directs to mankind. Text and mel- 
ody repeat the first three phrases of the Offertory of Palm Sunday 
(q.v.) and give us an insight into that which the Heart of Jesus endured. 

Even today Christ awaits — but in vain — many who come not. 
They have neither time nor heart for Him; neither is there a grateful 
remembrance of that love for which He underwent a most cruel death. 
Let us, therefore, share His grief with Him the more intimately. By a 
worthy rendition of this touching song we shall move the faithful as- 
sembled in the house of God to correspond more fully to the expecta- 
tions of the Sacred Heart. 



250 The Most Sacred Heart of Jesus 

OFFERTORY for Votive Masses during Paschal Time 

(Ps. 37: 7, 9) 

1. Holocaustum et pro peccato 1. Burnt offering and sin offering 

nonpostulasti;tuncdixi:Eccevenio. thou didst not require: then I said, 

2. In capite lihri scriptum est de Behold I come. 2. In the head of 

me ut facer em voluntatem tuam: 3. the hook it is written of me that I 

Deus meus, volui et legem tuam in should do thy will: 3. O my God, I 

medio cordis mei, 4. alleluia. have desired it and thy law in the 

midst of my heart, 4. alleluia. 

The melody is taken from the Offertory for the Dedication of a 
Church (q.v.). With a slight variation in its concluding text, this same 
melody was sung in the Sacred Heart Mass Egredimini and from there 
passed over to the text of the present Mass. In the original there are 
three phrases differing from one another in text and sentiment. The 
first phrase portrays a simple heart (in simplicitate cordis) joyfully bring- 
ing sacrifice. Today's Offertory emphasizes the words pro peccdto. The 
second phrase of the original further stresses the ''great joy," the en- 
thusiastic spirit of sacrifice, which unites the people with its king, David. 
Today, by happy chance, the gradation of melody takes place over the 
words voluntatem tuam. The third phrase of the original brings a fervent 
prayer: "Preserve this will of their heart." The closing syllable of vo- 
luntatem ftoday: medio) once more vibrates with the joy of the first two 
phrases. Domine Deus ftoday: cordis mei) reverts to the charming sim- 
plicity of the first phrase. 

In reality there is one main thought which permeates the entire 
Offertory of the new feast. Mankind throughout the centuries has ex- 
pended great care and energy in its sacrificial services. Yet after calm 
reflection it must admit that all its offerings and sacrifices do not suffice, 
and can neither efface nor compensate for the soul's guilt. But then a 
voice from heaven resounds: Behold, I come and achieve an offering of 
limitless efficacy, which entirely satisfies the demands of God, a sacrifice 
which is all adoration, all atonement, all praise of God. Thy command, 
O my God, is my will and the desire of my Sacred Heart. And these glad 
tidings of the Heart of Jesus we realize again and again in the sacrifice 
of the Mass. As an Offertory song these words then have a special im- 
port and make a direct appeal to us. When Christ says: "I come," let 
lis answer: "I will go with Thee." When He says volui — "I have desired" 
— let us answer: "I also desire; may Thy law be deeply inscribed in my 
heart and pervade my life, my very being. Enkindle in my heart the fire 
-of Thy love for sacrifice." 



The Most Sacred Heart of Jesus 251 

COMMUNION (John 19: 34) 

1. Unus militum lancea latus 1. One of the soldiers with a spear 

eius aperuit, et continuo exivit opened his side, and immediately 
sanguis et aqua. there came out hlood and water. 

Like the Offertory, the Communion emphasizes the thought of 
Christ's sufferings. The soldier who opened the side of Christ certainly 
had no premonition of the blessings his action presaged. The Heart of 
Jesus is opened and will remain open forevermore, "a rest for the pious 
and a refuge of salvation for the penitent" (Preface). The water and 
blood which flowed from His side are symbols of the graces bestowed in 
Baptism and in the Holy Eucharist. 

The melody resembles that of the feast of St. Boniface (June 5). 
The adaptation of the text on that feast is more happy and more fluent. 
The melody over militum lancea la- corresponds to that over sanguis et 
a-(qua). 

COMMUNION for Votive Masses during Paschal 
Time (John 7: 37) 

1. Si quis sitit, venial ad me et 1. If any man thirst, let him come 

bibat, alleluia, alleluia. to me and drink, alleluia, alleluia. 

There are many voices to entice the one who is seeking happiness, 
but these voices, as a rule, lead only to disillusionment and bitter dis- 
appointment. One alone has the right to call us who at the same time 
has the power to satisfy our desires, and that one is our divine Saviour, 
whose Sacred Heart embodies within itself the plenitude of all happi- 
ness. He gives us a foretaste of this happiness in Holy Communion, 
which in turn prepares us for an eternal happiness where in unending 
joy and gratefulness we shall sing: Alleluia, alleluia. 

The strikingly simple and concise melody models itself on the Com- 
munion of Low Sunday, as comparison of the following will show: quis 
sitis and Mitte . . . tuam, veniat ad me and et (cla)-maverunt, et hibit all. 
all. and sed fidelis all. all. The word me is emphasized to good advantage 
and has the effect of a leitmotif. It recalls to mind the goodness and love 
with which the Sacred Heart received the doubting Thomas, who was 
permitted to lay his hand in the side of the Saviour and feel the pulsing 
of His Sacred Heart. Filled with faith and happiness let us exclaim with 
him: "My Lord and my God!" Would that we might sing the praises of 
the Sacred Heart with that feeling, yes, if possible with that perfection, 
with which the Saviour sang the praises of God while on earth. 



252 Third Sunday after Pentecost 

THIRD SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST 
INTROIT (Ps. 24: 16, 18) 

1. Respice in me, et miserere mei, 1. Look thou upon me and have 

Domine: 2. quoniam unicus et mercy on me, Lord: 2. for I am 

pauper sum ego: 3. Vide humili- alone and poor. 3. See my abjection 

tatem meam, et lahorem meum, 4. et and my labor. 4. and forgive me all 

dimitte omnia peccata mea, Deus my sins, O my God. Ps. To thee, O 

meus. Ps. Ad te Domine lezavi Lord, have I lifted up my soul: * in 

animam meam: * Deus meus, in thee, my God, I put my trust; let 

te confido, non erubescam. me not be put to shame. 

**At that time the publicans and sinners drew near unto Jesus to 
hear Him" — thus the Sunday's Gospel. And they heard from Him that 
word for which their souls were famishing: the call of the Good Shepherd, 
who opened His compassionate and forgiving heart even to them; who 
would not rest till He had found the lost sheep and pressed it to His 
bosom. Where such love is shown, confiding prayer again becomes easy. 
Not by chance has the sixth mode been selected for the sweet melody of 
today's Introit, which runs entirely in this vein. The text, it is true, 
speaks of loneliness and distress of heart, of misery and suffering, and 
requests forgiveness of all sins. But over all this the melody spreads a 
warm, invigorating light, issuing from the very heart of the Good Shep- 
herd. Assurance of being heard pervades all, in accordance with the psalm- 
verse: "In Thee I trust, let me not be put to shame." 

In the first half of the first phrase occur the petitions Respice and 
the ascending miserere, both words supporting themselves on the tone 
/. Besides placing special stress upon the petitions by the fifth above 
the tonic, the second half of the phrase gives their reason: "I am alone 
and poor." Unicus repeats the motive of Respice a fifth higher, and the 
striking pauper sum ego stands in the same relation to it as the more 
modest miserere to Respice. Its execution must do full justice to the me- 
lodic ascent. It is very expressive of thanks. The concluding notes re- 
mind us of the first announcement of Easter in the Introit Laetdre at 
the words et conventum fdcite, and of salutdri tuo, with which we laud 
God's blessedness on the first Sunday after Pentecost. As a smile among 
tears, so is this melody to the text. At first the second phrase adheres to 
c with some pertinacity, which is to be expressed by a crescendo, es- 
pecially since the fourths c-g and g-c impel toward it. But the down- 
ward movement, at first only alluded to, is carried into effect by aaa 
(vide humi-), ggg (-litatem), ff (meam) as far as fddc, as a contrast to the 
upward tendency of the first phrase. Et labor em, by its emphasis on the 



Third Sunday after Pentecost 253 

tonic, re-establishes the equilibrium. The third phrase has not only the 
same range as the second, but also some melodic resemblance: witness 
the descent to c, which is answered by a melodic reversal over peccdta. 
Quiet now steals over the heart of the singer. Thirds are the greatest 
intervals in the melody. From the Requiem Mass we are already ac- 
quainted with the seconds that occur in the closing formula, which also 
are sung in the above-mentioned Introit Laetdre with the words diligitis 
earn. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 54: 23, 17, 19) 

1. J acta cogitatum tuum in Do- 1. Cast thy care upon the Lord, 

mino: et ipse te enutriet. i^ 1. Dum and he will sustain thee, j^ 1. Whilst 

clamarem ad Dominum, 2. exaudi- I cried to the Lord, 2. he heard my 

Vit vocem meam ab Ms, qui appro- voice from them that draw near 

pinquant mihi. unto me. 

In the Epistle we heard St. Peter: ''Cast all your care upon Him 
[the Lord], for He hath care of you" (1 Pet. 5: 7). Almost the same 
words are employed in the corpus of the Gradual. Leading us away 
from the affairs of our workaday existence, the melody rapidly brings 
lis to Him "who shall sustain us." According to the indications of the 
manuscripts, we are to interpret the four notes over Dö-(mino) broadly, 
thus showing our unshakable trust in God. This first part, ending on the 
dominant, bears all the markings of an arsis. From et ipse on, the thesis 
begins with the employment of the conventional formulas. The first 
part is terse — a bold, confident shaft (jacta) — while the second sings 
with great freedom and evident joy of the divine Sustainer. In the verse, 
Dum clamarem and exaudivit receive the same melodic treatment. The 
Saviour's words come to mind here: "As thou hast believed, so be it 
done to thee." From the Graduals for Laetare Sunday and for the feast 
of St. Cecilia we are acquainted with the formula over Dominum. We 
should prefer to hear it over exaudivit ("He has heard me"). Twice more 
the closing formula of clamarem recurs over exaudivit and his, which 
seems to mar the construction somewhat. The ornate groups of neums 
over mihi beautifully enlarge upon the close of the corpus which we 
heard over enutriet. 

With but few changes, the melody of this Gradual has been bor- 
rowed from that for the feast of St. John Damascene (March 27). 

ALLELUIA VERSE ( Ps. 7: 12) 

1. Deus judex Justus, fortis et 1. God is a just judge, strong and 

patiens: 2. numquid irascitur per patient: 2. is he angry every dayl 
singulos diesl 



254 Third Sunday after Pentecost 

To judge from the pauses indicated, allehiia with its juhilus has 
five parts. A rising motive is repeated thrice almost in the same style, 
but each time takes a different development and a different thesis. The 
half pause between the third and fourth members produces a disturbing 
effect, hampering the musical development of a melody which beyond 
doubt belongs to the finest to be found in the Graduale. Care must be 
taken not to rush too precipitately to the higher notes. Not without 
reason does Codex 121 of Einsiedeln assign a broad construction to the 
rising notes. Nevertheless, the rendition must not drag; the exultation 
which pervades this chant must be clearly indicated. The two first mem- 
bers of alleluia are characterized by the ascending fourth and fifth and 
the descending fourth and by a strong emphasis on g, the tonic of the 
mode. In the second part of the juhilus c predominates. A similar rela- 
tion exists between the two parts of the following verse. In the first part 
the two first members of alleluia are twice repeated over Deus judex 
Justus and fortis et. In the latter case, the descending fourth is replaced 
by a full note. But after the rising fifth, the development is different 
each time, and the climax is reached over pdtiens. The fact that this word, 
speaking of God's longanimity, receives prominence, tempers to some 
extent the text of an Alleluia-verse which is unusually serious, and in- 
troduces us to the consoling Gospel in which the Good Shepherd, full of 
tenderness and long-suffering, pursues the erring lamb and does not rest 
until He has placed it upon His loving shoulders. If then the verse, con- 
tinuing in two closely corresponding parts, voices the question "Is he 
angry everyday?" we must recall the beginning of the Epistle of the 
Sunday: "Be you humbled, therefore, under the mighty hand of God; 
that He may exalt you in the time of visitation." But the whole again 
ends with alleluia. 

While plainsong in general is very adept in joining individual 
phrases and parts of phrases, we here find, less happily all the beginnings 
of the melody on the tonic. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 9, 11-12, 13) 

1. Sperent in te omnes, qui no- 1. Let them trust in thee who 

verunt nomen tuum, Domine: 2. know thy name, Lord: 2. for thou 

quoniam non derelinquis quaerentes hast not forsaken them that seek 

te'. 3. psallite Domino qui habitat in thee: 3. sing ye to the Lord, who 

Sion: 4. quoniam non est ohlitus dwelleth in Sion: 4. for he hath not 

orationem pauperum. forgotten the cry of the poor. 

A fifth marks the range for the first three phrases: the first going 
from g-d, the second and third from f-c. Hence, the song produces no 



Third Sunday after Pentecost 255- 

great tension. One is almost tempted to say that the lamb on the shoul- 
ders of the Good Shepherd is singing its song of thanksgiving in a re- 
served and unostentatious manner, and is urging us to trust in God. It 
has understood what today's parable wishes to teach; it has come to 
know the Saviour in His most winsome, most appealing character. The 
triple repetition of the cheerful motive with which the piece began — 
over nomen, quaerentes, and psallite — fits very well to the modest style 
of the whole, although it is each time developed in a different manner. 
Both neums over tuum are marked broadly in manuscript 121 of Ein- 
siedeln and thus help to call particular attention to the word. Truly, he 
who has come to the full knowledge of Christ can do nothing else than 
place his entire trust in Him; for "God does not forsake those who trust 
in Him." This conviction is shown especially by the restful seconds 
which bring the second phrase to a close. Yea, He pursues His sheep 
even though they do not seek Him, for He wishes to bring them peace 
and happiness. The calm recurring seconds over habitat in Sion breathe 
the same spirit of peaceful indwelling in God. Still the final / of this pas- 
sage is a surprise, one to make us meditate, suggesting perhaps the 
thought: Do you fully realize what this means: God dwells in Sion, 
dwells in you, dwells in His Church, and is prepared to offer Himself 
again for you in the holy Sacrifice of the Mass? The closing phrase has 
a character all its own. Possessing a range of an octave, it effects a cer- 
tain elaboration of the motive : over quoniam non, ed ga hah; over ohlitus, 
fe fg aga; over orationem, cdf eg aa, and with this word seems to try to 
picture how our prayer rises from the depth of misery directly to God. 
Pduperum presents the same melody, though a fifth lower, with which 
the first phrase over Domine closed. 

COMMUNION (Luke 15: 10) 

Dico vohis: gaudium est Angelis I say to you: There is joy hefore 

Dei super uno peccatore paeni- the angels of God upon one sinner 
tentiam agente. doing penance. 

Significantly this piece begins immediately on the dominant of the 
mode. For Jesus is speaking, and He speaks a new word, a word full of 
consolation. Who would think that when a sinner does penance there is 
an increase in the joy of the angels in heaven, and that this joy is re- 
newed as often as a human heart is brought to look into itself and is 
converted (super uno)l 

The first part is developed about the note c; the second, about a. 

Codex 121 of Einsiedeln has a broad virga and "t" over est, where- 
by a ritardando is indicated, with evident good effect. 



256 Fourth Sunday after Pentecost 

At St. Gall's, at Einsiedeln, and in some other places this Sunday's 
Communion was sung on the twenty-second Sunday after Pentecost, 
today's being replaced by Ego clamavi. This Communion, however, fits 
well to the Gospel of the Sunday, and at the same time acts as an ad- 
monition to those faithful to whom the liturgy of the Mass has not yet 
brought reconciliation with God and true interior peace. 

If the text is clearly enunciated, it will be seen how well the simple 
melody brings the word gdudium into prominence. 

There is joy in heaven, and peace in the heart of him who has again 
found his way back to God. The Father of the prodigal son crowns His 
kindness by preparing the most sumptuous banquet for him in Holy 
Communion. 



FOURTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST 

INTROIT (Ps. 26: 1, 2) 

1. Dominus illuminatio mea et 1. The Lord is my light and my 

salus mea, quem timehol 2. Do- salvation: whom shall I f earl 2. The 

minus defensor vitae meae, a quo Lord is the protector of my life: of 

trepidahol 3. qui tribulant me in- whom shall I he afraidl 3. My 

imici mei, ipsi infirmati sunt, et enemies that trouble me have them- 

ceciderunt. Ps. Si consistant ad- selves been weakened and have 

versum me castra: * non timebit cor fallen. Ps. If armies in camp should 

meum. stand together against me, * my 

heart shall not fear. 

Few selections in the entire Graduale have a melody so easily un- 
derstood, so lucid in structure, and of such regular development as this 
Introit. From the introduction to the Preface we are familiar with the 
opening motive, which recurs throughout the entire piece. It begins the 
second phrase a fourth higher, and comes to a climax in the third, being 
heard also over a quo. Thus all three phrases are closely knit together. 
No lengthy pause must be made between them; they must follow one 
another in a lively, almost impetuous sequence, as an expression of most 
complete confidence in victory. Perhaps the early Christians sang this 
song in the dim, wan atmosphere of the catacombs. But the hearts of 
those who sang were full of light: for Christ had enlightened them. And 
even if their brothers and sisters above were led to martyrdom and 
thrown before the beasts, inwardly they possessed the courage and 
strength of lions: the victorious Lion of the tribe of Juda had imparted 
His fearlessness to them. Self-possessed and unafraid they entered the 



Fourth Sunday after Pentecost 257 

lists against the entire world, contemning death. For they were invested 
with the firm conviction that all these attacks would be repelled by the 
Church and that all their enemies, though they now appeared as mighty 
hosts strongly encamped (castra), would finally collapse utterly. 

The manner in which the interrogative pronouns quern and a quo 
are melodically treated has given rise to special theoretical explanations 
on the handling of interrogatives in chant compositions (Gregoriusblatt 
1920, 33 fif.; N. Sch. 248 j. It remains to be seen if this procedure is jus- 
tified. Let it be noted, however, that the entire passage et salus mea, 
quern timebo with its descending close agrees with qui bona tribuit mihi 
in the Communion for the second Sunday after Pentecost, in which 
there is not the slightest idea of interrogation. Similar instances, for ex- 
ample the Offertory Inveni David servum meum, could be quoted. On 
the other hand, the interrogation in trepidabo produces a very marked 
effect. It sounds like a challenge. And though foes may summon (tribu- 
lant) all their forces, naught shall come of it. How telling is the compari- 
son between the stormy tribulant and the simple infirmdti sunt with its 
delicate irony! All the mighty fortresses which are built to hinder the 
advance of the Church tumble down like houses of cards. One is re- 
minded of the verse, "The arrows of children are their wounds" (Ps. 63: 
8). Ceciderunt closely resembles the closing word timebo of the first phrase. 
Over illumindtio and infirmdti the principal as well as the preceding 
secondary accent is short, whereas the following syllable always has 
more than one note. In the first nocturne of this Sunday's Office the 
story of David and Goliath is related. There stood the giant, a terror to 
the entire Jewish host (si consistant adver sum me castra). David alone 
showed no fear. The Lord was his light and his salvation! And how miser- 
ably did that colossus come to grief (infirmdti sunt)l A stone from Da- 
vid's sling sufficed to lay him low. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 78:9, 10) 

1. Propitius esto, Domine, pecca- 1. Forgive us our sins, Lord, 2. 

tis nostris: 2. nequando dicant lest the gentiles should at any time 

gentes: 3. Ubi est Deus eorumi say: 3. Where is their Godl ^ 1. 

^ 1. Adjuva nos, Deus salutaris Help us, O God our Saviour: 2. 

noster 2. et propter honorem nom- and for the honor of thy name, 

inis tui, Domine, libera nos. Lord, deliver us. 

The fourth, fifth, and sixth Sundays after Pentecost have the three 
Graduals in the same succession as they occur in the liturgy of the 
Ember Saturdays of Lent and of September. At St. Gall's and other 
places these seem to have been sung also at a second Mass on the Ember 



258 Fourth Sunday after Pentecost 

Saturday in Whitsunweek. They belong to the fifth mode. The structure 
of the text is brought out plastically by the melody. A quieter, simpler 
style distinguishes the corpus of the Gradual from the more extended and 
ornate melismas of the verse. Compare the close of the first phrase of 
the verse (nosier) in the Gradual for the fourth Sunday. The verses of 
all three Graduals have the same closing melisma; in fact, from cca ha 
they are identical and only minor variations occur before that. This 
melisma forms the final phrase in about thirty Graduals. Abstracting 
from this, however, one must admire the richness of form, the variety, 
and the harmony of these verses. As we know, the ornate melismas after 
the first words of the verse are a part of its peculiar style. Here a wonder- 
ful opportunity is offered the singer to put forth the best that is in him. 
Perhaps here as in many other places, it should be made clear that the 
praise of God occupies the first place, and that the petitions fin the pres- 
ent selection exdudi and libera) ought to be subordinated to this primary 
purpose. Rendered in this spirit they will, humanly speaking, produce 
the greatest impression on the heart of God. Melodically, the thoughts 
salutdris noster (God is our Saviour), Deus virtutum (God of hosts), and 
Domine refugium (the Lord is our refuge) stand forth in the most bril- 
liant light. 

All three Graduals have the first word accented on the second syll- 
able. It is clearly shown here that the accent tends to raise the tone. 
The first syllable is a minor third lower in every case. And the bistropha 
or the pes quassus over the accented syllable would seem to indicate 
that the accent, besides prolonging the tone, also strengthens it. 

This Gradual (Propitius esto) is also sung on the Thursday after 
the second Sunday in Lent. Its theme is as follows: Because of our sins 
we deserved punishment and castigation. But should this misfortune 
fall upon us who are Thy people, O Lord, then the Gentiles would say 
that our God is too weak and powerless to shield us. Thus, Lord, it 
is in reality a question of Thy honor. In order to preserve and increase 
this, do Thou save us, O Lord! 

Domine forms the answer to esto. We meet a textual turn in the 
Offertory for the fourth Sunday after Pentecost similar to that here 
employed with ne quando dicant gentes. Naturally, we should expect a 
tenser conclusion here. The question uhi est Deus eorum? seems to have 
been worked into the rising movements of uhi and eorum. It is almost 
impossible to decide whether the composer intended this as such, or 
whether an established formula was employed. Then one might still ask 
why such a suitable formula was selected. Adjuva nos harks back to the 
beginning of the verse in the Gradual for St. Stephen. Toward the end 
of that verse one finds the same recitation on the tonic, which is here 



Fourth Sunday after Pentecost 259 

replaced by the extended recitation on the dominant note at the be- 
ginning of the verse. Special care must be taken that these passages be 
not hurried. Correctly woven into the rhythmic whole, they produce a 
marvelous effect. But there is nothing restful about the inner melismas 
over honorem. Here the singer must let himself be captivated by the 
urge of the melody, which only begins to subside gradually after the 
tor cuius, in which high f occurs, is reached. Many will not be able to 
sing these florid groups in one breath; they may make a short pause 
after the fifth note over (ho)-n6-(rem). 

GRADUAL for the fifth Sunday after Pentecost 
(Ps. 83:10, 9) 

1. Protector noster aspice Deus: 1. Behold, God our protector: 

2. et respice super servos tuos. f 1. 2. and look on thy servants, jl 1. 

Domine Deus virtutum, 2. exaudi Lord God of hosts, 2. give ear to 

preces servorum tuorum. the prayers of thy servants. 

This same Gradual is sung on the Monday after the first Sunday 
in Lent. Between noster and aspice an interval of a sixth occurs — a 
somewhat rare occurrence in chant. This song is a longing prayer for a 
gracious glance from the eye of God. The corpus as well as the verse 
have the same closing melisma. One may find the entire passage exaudi 
preces servorum tuorum, text and melody, repeated in the Gradual for 
the feast of the Dedication of a Church. According to Codex 121 of 
Einsiedeln, all eight notes over preces are to be sung broadly. 

GRADUAL for the sixth Sunday after Pentecost 
(Ps. 89: 13, 1) 

1. Converter e, Domine, aliquan- 1. Return, Lord, a little; 2. and 
tulum, 2. et deprecare super servos he entreated in favor of thy servants, 
tuos. Ill 1. Domine, refugium f actus jll 1. Lord, thou hast been our 
es nobis, 2. a generatione et pro- refuge, 2. from generation to genera- 
genie, tion. 

Only the syllable -ver- comes into prominence in the Gradual Con- 
vertere Domine; in other respects it resembles the beginning of the Grad- 
ual for the fourth Sunday after Pentecost in the two opening words. 
The text prays very modestly: "Lord, turn to us, only a little." Never- 
theless, the heart of the singer beats somewhat faster, and he sings 
these words with marked impressiveness. Super servos tuos has been taken 
from the preceding Gradual. On the feast of SS. Peter and Paul, Trinity 



260 Fourth Sunday after Pentecost 

Sunday, Immaculate Conception, and on certain other days, the entire 
verse is sung. The burden of today's prayer is this: May God, who 
throughout the centuries has seen all human beings in their trials and 
their pain, in their struggles and their suffering, and who has through- 
out assisted them with His grace — how many in heaven could tell of 
His powerful help! — be merciful also to us. His servants! 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 9: 5, 10) 

1. Deus, qui sedes super thronum 1. God, who sittest upon the 

et judicas aequitatem: 2. esto re- throne and judgest justice: 2. he 
fugium pauperum in trihulatione. thou the refuge of the poor in tribu- 
lation. 

Few alleluiatic verses are so well developed as this one. It belongs 
to the very essence of such verses to distribute the ornate melismatic 
groups over several words. The rich melody over thronum seems to fit 
the text extremely well, and portrays fittingly the grandeur of the throne 
of the Almighty. But borrowing of a Gradual melody is very apparent 
here: viz., from a verse on the Sunday within the Octave of Epiphany 
over pacem, and from the verse in the Mass Salus autem, of the Com- 
mune Sanctorum, over the word corde. The most ancient manuscripts 
do not give this Alleluia for the Sunday's Mass, and it cannot be traced 
back farther than the eleventh century. One point, however, deserves 
attention. The verse ends on the petition: esto refugium ("be Thou the 
refuge of the poor in tribulation"). But here there is no cry for deliver- 
ance: it is exclusively a glorification of God's might. This is the prayer 
of petition in its noblest form, in accordance with the Psalmist's behest: 
"Cast thy care upon the Lord and He will sustain thee." 

The motive after the first pause in the jubilus of alleluia repeats 
itself a step lower after the second pause. A second time we have the 
formula h c a g, with a conclusion much resembling a coda. Alleluia is 
therefore composed in the form a b b^. The verse begins with the first 
motive of alleluia. 

The text can be linked up with the preceding Epistle. In the pas- 
sage read, the Apostle speaks of the deep longing that runs through all 
creation, the yearning for the liberty and the glory of the children of 
God. This same longing and sighing pervades the Alleluia- verse with its 
petition. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 12: 4, 5) 

1. Illumina oculos meos, ne un- 1. Enlighten my eyes, that I may 
quam ohdormiam in morte: 2. ne- never sleep in death: 2. lest at any 



Fourth Sunday after Pentecost 261 

quando dicat inimicus mens: prae- time my enemy say: I have pre- 
valui adversus eum. vailed against Mm. 

Two voices are discernible in this Offertory. One proceeds from a 
soul in the most dire need, abandoned and persecuted. Its prayer is as 
fervent and as urgent as can be. In the oldest manuscripts this Offertory 
is assigned to the Saturday before the third Sunday in Lent, and still is 
sung on that day. The Gospel story of the Prodigal Son immediately 
precedes it. Hence the prayer seems to proceed from the soul of the 
Prodigal. Surely moments and hours were not lacking when in his soul 
almost all the light was extinguished, when the frightful darkness of the 
night, of despondency even, seemed to overpower him, when the mocking 
laugh of his enemies already rang in his ears: Praevdlui — "Now I have 
Thee in my power. All attempt to escape is futile." But far greater than 
the strength of the enemy was the omnipotence of divine love and of 
divine mercy. We may also think of those who are walking along the 
edge of a precipice and who, when the light fails, are dashed down the 
abyss, beyond all hope of salvation; of those who, caught in a complex- 
ity of temptations, do not even realize their situation. For them also 
the Offertory prays: Illumina. A note of melancholy is apparent in the 
melody. The singer is conscious of his condition and it makes his prayer 
ever more intense. Over me-(os) we have g b\? a h\} g f, proceeding from 
} a g äf d over Illü-(mina); ne-(qudndo) is then added as a development. 
Now the melody recedes as if exhausted. But with morte it receives new 
strength. Their very importance causes the three c's to be heard. Hence 
the rhythmic markings of the manuscripts emphasize the fact that the 
four succeeding low tones be given a broad rendition. This makes the 
passage very effective. After the / over me-(os) breath may be taken, 
and a new start made with the second /. 

The second phrase corresponds almost exactly to the first, with 
the twofold division and subdivision of each member into two parts, 
and has practically the same length. Because of its position at the be- 
ginning of the second phrase, the second nequdndo is given a different 
melodic treatment. The repetition of the same motive over dicat and 
inimicus, with the heavy accent upon the high c, is evidence of the 
keen feeling in the heart of the singer. As often as the following phrase 
begins with d, a concluding / as over me-(us), is the general rule. 

But now, in the stirring praevdlui, a second voice is heard. It comes 
as a call from hell, as a precipitate dash upon the victim, a horrible en- 
twining in the tentacles of some frightful monster, a descent into the 
eternal night of death. Here a g c c c g e over morte in the first phrase 
occurs a fifth lower with the notes d e c f fff d e c. A cold shiver seizes us. 
Here drama and realism are portrayed as one would scarcely expect to 



262 Fourth Sunday after Pentecost 

find them in plainsong. The passage might have a paralyzing effect upon 
us, did we not know that in the holy Sacrifice God's power will be made 
evident, mightily overcoming every enemy of our soul, and bringing us 
every needed grace. Of this divine strength we become partakers in 
Holy Communion. In the ancient manuscripts this Offertory has the 
following conclusion: "Look upon me and hear me. I will praise the 
Lord, who has bestowed His graces (bona) upon me." Praevdlui seems 
in a certain sense an allusion to yesterday's Magnificat antiphon: Prae- 
vdluit David in Philistaeum. David conquered the Philistine with a sling 
and a pebble from the brook. But it also mentions the source of this 
heroic strength when it adds: in nomine Dömine—"'m the name of the 
Lord." 

The similarity of ending over morte and eum is still more accentu- 
ated in the old manuscripts, since morte as well as eum has a virga and 
a climacus (not a pes suhhipunctis in the one case). Over eum in the 
motive of meus, (e g f ef f f) expands into g a g d f f f. 

A better effect will be obtained if the piece is sung a tone higher. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 17: 3) 

1. Dominus firmamentum meum, 1. The Lord is my firmament, and 

et refugium meum, et liberator my refuge and my deliverer: 2. my 
meus: 2. Deus meus adjutor meus. God is my helper. 

In content, in feeling, and in mode this Communion is much like 
the Introit. We now go out into everyday life with its demands upon our 
energies — but God is our strength. Soon we are again threatened by 
dangers and death-dealing arrows — but God is our refuge. If we meet 
opposition interiorly — God is our helper. Just now He has again become 
my God (Deus meus) in Holy Communion. Hence I have every reason 

to be consoled. "May the Sacrament we have received_ be our sure 

defense" (Postcommunion). 

Quickening and strengthening confidence pervades this melody. 
This is already indicated by beginning on the dominant of the mode; 
also by the accumulation of the pressus of which there are no fewer than 
seven in this short chant. One is immediately struck by the similar end- 
ings over firmamentum meum and adjutor meus. But the opening f ef df c 
over Dominus, repeated a third higher over Deus as a g a f e d, has a 
very definite appeal. To this must be added the sober descent and con- 
fident ascent over refugium meum and the victorious, well-prepared 
accent over liberator. It is a song of joyful and unshakable confidence 
in God. In this manner the Apostles might have sung after the miracu- 
lous catch of fishes related in today's Gospel. Fired with this confidence, 



Fifth Sunday after Pentecost 263 

they went forth into the wide world to become fishers of men. At the 
behest of God they cast out their nets, and never was their work done 
in vain. Their trust in God was without any if or hut; it was solid as 
granite and bright as the rays of the sun (Oberhammer, III, 106). 



FIFTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST 

INTROIT (Ps. 26:7, 9) 

1 . Exaudi, Domine, vocem meam, 1 . Hear, O Lord, my voice with 

qua clamavi ad te: 2. adjutor mens which I have cried to thee: 2. he 

esto, ne derelinquas me, neque de- thou my helper, forsake me not, nor 

spicias me, Deus salutaris mens. do thou despise me, God, my 

jll. Dominus illuminatio mea et Saviour. S^. The Lord is my light, 

salus mea: * quem timehol and my salvation, * whom shall I 

fearl 

The first half of the first phrase moves in the lower range in simple 
seconds. Are they the expression of reverence before the majesty of God? 
Or of that quiet confidence which places all things in the hands of God? 
Has the singer, perhaps, quieted down only after much difficulty, so 
that now, during his singing of the Introit, the consciousness of his bur- 
den breaks upon him afresh? In the second half of the first phrase a 
certain agitation makes itself felt, not so much in the descending as in 
the ascending thirds. The annotated manuscripts, moreover, indicate a 
broad rendition of all the neums over qua clamavi, as an expression of 
grievous affliction. Still the singer rouses himself to confidence in the 
almost brilliant adjutor meus esto with its swelling melody. No such 
marked pause, however, may be made after derelinquas me as after esto. 
Both petitions— "forsake me not, do not despise me" — must follow 
rapidly one upon another. The similar passages qua clamavi: ga fd dc e, 
despicias : ga fd eg e and salutaris meus : ga fg eg f, however simple they 
may be, still contribute their share toward making the whole more 
unified. Deus is the direct antithesis to esto. The closing formtion ad te 
bends the otherwise expected clivis (compare the close of the antiphon 
with meus) to a podatus, an almost universal rule in chants of the fourth 
mode when the following phrase begins with low d, or still lower. P. 
Wagner (III, 338) thinks indeed that in the treatment of the respon- 
sories of the Office, the ascending fourth (or fifth) after d is the deter- 
mining factor. The present case, as well as the passages non credis, quia, 
and est, alleluia, in the Communion Tanto tempore (May 1), perhaps 



264 Fifth Sunday after Pentecost 

permit of a broader interpretation of the above rule. In any case, Wag- 
ner is correct when he observes {ihid. 339): "The highly developed sense 
of the early singers for an effective and natural concatenation of melodic 
members reveals itself to the observer again and again" (cf. above p. 6). 

The somewhat oppressive mood of the antiphon is lightened in the 
psalm-verse with its high dominant and cheerful h. By this contrast the 
otherwise typical melody adds a hearty "Yea" and "Amen" to the text: 
"The Lord is my light and my salvation." 

How often has not that call for assistance, Exdudi, winged its way 
to heaven! And each time it had its own ring, and each heart gave it 
its own coloring, and every sorrow gave it its own accent of confidence 
— from the radiant hopefulness of a child's prayer to the poignant cry 
of some stricken heart tempted to despair. Choral chant has some 
knowledge of this also. It would be worth our while to compare, for in- 
stance, the treatment of exdudi in the Introits of the Tuesday after the 
fourth Sunday in Lent and of the Sunday after Ascension, in the Gradual 
for the feast of the Dedication of a Church, and in the Ofifertory of the 
Monday after the third Sunday in Lent. 

For the Gradual see p. 259. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 20: 2) 

1. Domine, in virtute tua laeta- 1. In thy strength, Lord, the 

bitur rex; 2, et super salutare king shall joy; 2. and in thy salva- 
tuum exsultahit vehementer. tion he shall rejoice exceedingly. 

The upward tendency of Alleluia is cut short by the lively down- 
ward movement in the first member of the juhilus, only to appear so 
much the more firmly and powerfully afterwards. It is not difficult to 
distinguish the two motives, which gracefully complement each other: 
the first tends upward, while the second is characterized by its vigor- 
ous accent. 

a) 



I gf 


h\? a g 


b) 


hb g f 


da f 


f 9 f 


bb g f 




f d c 


1 ' 


d f e 


9 f d 




c c d 


7c a 


f ci 9 


c c c 




a g a 


99 f 



In the verse, Domine borrows its melody from Alleluia, and virtute 
from the third member of the juhilus. Here the verse reaches its zenith; 
it mentions the source of all life, of all purposeful activity, the fountain 
inexhaustible. In the first phrase the singer is filled with jubilation. But 
that which follows is quite unexpected. What does the ornate melody 
over the insignificant et mean? One is tempted to assume that we here 



Fifth Sunday after Pentecost 265- 

have a borrowed melody, one which originally belonged to some other 
text. In contrast, how fitting is the use of this melody on the feast of 
the Most Pure Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary (in some places this 
feast is celebrated on the third Sunday after Pentecost) with the words: 
Magnificat dnima mea Dominuml This is the first phrase; in the second 
we meet the rich melody in question over the words et exsultdvit. If we 
now sing these rich melismas with the word et, we treat them as a juhi- 
lus of alleluia and sing them in the spirit of exsultahit which occurs only 
later on. In any case, the presentation must be very flexible. We must 
consider this phrase as the expression of unbounded joy, which does not 
confine itself to individual words. After the climacus c h\? a g, high c is 
to be sung straight on both times without any lengthening. In this 
manner, exsultahit vehementer gives expression to the melody of alleluia 
and the juhilus with genuine rejoicing. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 15: 7, 8) 

1. Benedicam Dominum, qui tri- 1. / will hless the Lord, who hath 

huit mihi intellectum: 2. provide- given me understanding: 2. / set 

ham Deum in conspectu meo sem.- God always in my sight: 3. for he is 

per: 3. quoniam a dextris est mihi, at my right hand, that I he not 

ne commovear. moved. 

This melody offers an opportunity to observe how plainsong can 
give new and refreshing variations to the same motive. Beginning with 
/, it works its way up to c, now in steps of seconds, now in major and 
minor thirds, and then descends again to the lower tones. Compare qui 
mihi — intellectum — provideham Deum — in conspectu meo — quoniam — a 
dextris. One might readily consider these passages a simplification of the 
solemn motive with which the piece began — 6 ddahagaccca. Let 
there be no pause after henedicam, but add Dominum immediately with 
a good crescendo. In general, the whole chant demands a lively presen- 
tation. It is a song of thanksgiving for divine illumination, for insight 
into God's economy, into the mysterious workings of grace in the in- 
dividual soul and in the entire Church. It is the joyful song of the pil- 
grim who sings of his resting place in God; also a song of victory over 
the enemies of the soul. For since God is with us and in us, how can 
there be any faltering? Hence we hear nothing of fear or pusillanimity^ 
of sadness or weariness. Our God-given insight into the riddle of life 
helps us in every emergency; it makes us joyful, courageous, and con- 
fident of salvation. In this spirit the melody must be sung. Neverthe- 
less, certain portions should be given broader interpretation in accord- 
ance with the rhythmic indications in the manuscripts; (intel)-lectumy 



266 Fifth Sunday after Pentecost 

meo, and semper are to be treated in this manner. Strange to say, the 
clivis is marked with "c" (celeriter — rapidlyj, where a slower rendition 
might be expected. Mihi again descends to low c, thus giving the third 
phrase the same range as the first. It is characteristic of the authentic 
modes that the tonic of the mode, which was used twice in the beginning 
of the piece and avoided after that, here makes its reappearance. The 
melisma over commovear gains in perspective when we compare the 
group g f g f f d of the first member with the group g f g f f e in the sec- 
ond, the former being a preparation for the latter. A crescendo is to 
mark g f a g f. The following group, with its sober seconds, then leads 
over to the conclusion. 

Some singers may find it necessary to pause for breath after con- 
spectu meo, as well as after dextris est. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 26:4) 

1. Unam petii a Domino, hanc 1. One thing I have asked of the 

requiram: 2. ut inhdbitem in domo Lord, this will I seek after; 2. that 
Domini omnibus diehus vitae meae. I may dwell in the house of the 

Lord all the days of my life. 

If we wish to sing this text according to its sense, we shall empha- 
size the very first word Unam, and still more hanc. Later, when we 
come to speak of the goal whither all our longing tends, special stress 
should be laid upon inhdhitem and domo Domini. The melody develops 
exactly according to these ideas. It seems only natural that the piece 
should begin on the dominant. At hanc the suppliant soul with all its 
ardor cries out: "O Lord, grant me but this one thing!" Then peace en- 
velopes it, reflected by seconds progressing in the style of a sequence 
according to the common formula. The next phrase, beginning a fourth 
higher, introduces a new arsis based on the dominant. The thesis takes 
its inception with omnibus; vitae meae forms a grateful response to re- 
quiram. The melody over Domino is repeated note for note in the In- 
troit for the third Sunday in Lent over the word Dominum. Similarly, 
the adjacent half-phrase in both songs has the same movement; in our 
present selection, however, the highest note receives particular em- 
phasis. 

Even if we are obliged to leave the church after the Sacrifice today, 
we nevertheless remain in union with our Lord and with the Church. 
For the Master of the house has united Himself to us in Holy Com- 
munion. And just this one desire is His, that He may dwell in our hearts 
by His grace and remain there all the days of our lives, until He may ofifer 



Sixth Sunday after Pentecost 267 

us a lodging in His heavenly mansion where we shall no longer lack any- 
thing, where our every longing will be perfectly satisfied in the con- 
templation and possession of Himself. 



SIXTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST 

INTROIT (Ps. 27: 8, 9) 

1. Dominus, fortitudo plebis 1. The Lord is the strength of his 

suae, et protector salutarium Chris- people, and the protector of the sal- 

ti sui est: 2. salvum fac populum vation of his Anointed: 2. save, O 

tuum, Domine, et benedic hereditati Lord, thy people, and bless thine 

tuae, et rege eos usque in saeculum. inheritance, and rule them forever 

Ps. Ad te Domine, clamabo, Deus Ps. Unto thee will I cry, O Lord: * 

meus, ne sileas a me: * ne quando my God, be not thou silent to me, 

taceas a me, et assimilabor descen- lest if thou be silent to me, I become 

dentibus in lacum. like them that go down into the pit. 

Today's Introit begins in the same manner as that for the fourth 
Sunday after Pentecost, and is also cast in the same mode. The usque 
in saeculum and the preceding (fortitü)-do plebis suae resemble ceciderunt 
in the former. The present Introit, however, differs greatly in develop- 
ment and in sentiment. The range of the former is from low a to high 
b\?; here it is only from a to g, beyond which it never goes. In the former 
there is but slight difference between the individual phrases, and one 
experiences something almost oppressive— as if the psalm-verse, which 
speaks of those who descend into the pit, supplied the leading thoughts 
for the singer. Still, the fourths over (fortitudo) plebis and especially 
over (pro)-tector, as well as the vigorous accents of suae and rege follow- 
ing the frequent stress of the dominant and the return to the tonic, pro- 
duce an enlivening effect. They energetically express the thought: We 
are Thine inheritance, Lord, and Thou shalt be our King! 

Two musical phrases are distinguishable, each beginning with low 
a and again returning to it after having reached their peak with g. Here, 
even more than elsewhere, we must be guided by the text, which is most 
thought-provoking. In the first part David praises the Lord as the 
"strength of His people" and gratefully recalls the armor of divine 
grace which has been bestowed upon him, the Lord's anointed. It is 
also a prayer of thanksgiving. The second part is a prayer of petition. 
But the king's petition is not for himself; it is for his people, or, more 
correctly, for the people of God. He says to Him: It is Thy people. Thy 



268 Sixth Sunday after Pentecost 

inheritance, which Thou hast acquired for Thyself. Thus he adduces 
for it the most forcible recommendation possible. These words of the 
second part have been incorporated in the Te Deum, except that in 
saeculum is replaced by in aeternum. 

This Introit exhorts us who are assembled for divine service not 
to think only of ourselves and our own personal needs, but rather of the 
entire people of God, of that corporate whole to which we are privileged 
to belong. The solemn annointings at Baptism and Confirmation im- 
press upon us that we are the elect of God, the inheritance which He so 
dearly purchased at the cost of His own blood. With these sentiments 
we should sing salvum fac, henedic, and rege. 

The petition made in the psalm receives wonderful fulfillment in 
the Gospel. It is impossible for the Saviour to remain mute; He cannot 
look upon the sufferings of His people in silence. Hence He speaks the 
consoling word: "I have compassion on the multitude." He does not wish 
His people to resemble those shepherdless ones who go to destruction. 
He is ever providing the necessary nourishment, lest they faint on the 
way. The blessing which He pronounces over the seven loaves and the 
few fishes really refers to His people. He leads them to rich pastures, so 
rich that even after the four thousand are sated, an abundance still re- 
mains. All that was there enacted materially is only a symbol of His 
wondrously compassionate work in the Holy Eucharist. 

This Introit is to be sung at least a fourth higher and in a lively 
tempo. 

For the GRADUAL see p.. 259. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 30: 2, 3) 

1. In te, Domine, speravi, non 1. In thee, Lord, have I hoped, ^ 

confundar in aeternum: 2. in tua let me never he confounded: 2. de- 

justitia libera me, et eripe me: 3. liver me in thy justice, and release 

inclina ad me aurem tuam, 4. ac- me; 3. how down thine ear to me, 

cetera, ut eripias me. 4. make haste to deliver me. 

The beginning of this verse forms the conclusion of the Te Deum; 
the second part of the Introit of the Sunday made a similar allusion. It 
is not necessary to add that the Te Deum was not the source of these 
texts, but that they were taken from the twenty-seventh and thirtieth 
psalms. Melodically, the words in te Domine sperdvi and inclina ad me 
aurem tuam are the same; similarly non confundar and eripe me, as well 
as accele-(ra) and eripi-(as). At aeternum there is an evident caesura, 
fully justified by the text, for a new part begins with in tua. Then fol- 
low petitions based on the invincible confidence in God which was ex- 



Sixtk Sunday after Pentecost 269 

pressed in the first part. Hence the pause after eripe me must not be too 
prolonged; the melody does not come to a final close here any more than 
at confundar, which has the same melody and which is followed merely 
by a short pause. The same is true with the large pause after tuam, 
which corresponds to the half pause after sperdvi above. Both parts 
have the range of a sixth. By way of exception, the verse bears no as- 
sonant relation to alleluia or its juhilus. At confundar and the correspond- 
ing eripe, the six notes before the quilisma are to be sung broadly ac- 
cording to Codex 339 of St. Gall's; this adds weight to the words. In 
alleluia also, the first three notes over -le- and -M- are to be sung broad- 
ly. Thus a modest ascent is achieved — ascensiones pudicae, as the an- 
clients put it. Of special beauty is the simple yet harmonious recitation 
over libera me; centrally placed, it produces the effect of a mellow solo 
in the midst of a powerful male chorus. This also tends to make the 
petition so much the more striking. 

For the OFFERTORY see Sexagesima Sunday, p. 104. 

Today we might combine this prayer with the Epistle of the Sunday. 
The Apostle tells us that Christ was awakened from the dead through 
the glory of the Father; he exhorts us for this reason to walk in newness 
of life and to look upon ourselves as men who, having died to sin, now 
lead a life unto God. We are indeed conscious of human frailty, but we 
know also the desire of the Christian soul to live in newness of life and 
for God alone. Hence the soul prays in deep humility, but at the same 
time with full confidence in the might of divine grace: "Make perfect 
my steps in Thy paths." The Offertory is a processional: we carry our 
"gifts" to the altar; this procession is the symbol of the course of our 
lives. 

In the holy sacrifice of the Mass the Lord continually repeats the 
marvel of His benevolence and renews the sacrifice of the cross. He be- 
stows graces upon us, that through our concelebration of the Mass, we 
may effectually die to sin and grow together with Christ both in the like- 
ness of His death and also in the likeness of His resurrection, as today's 
Epistle has it. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 26:6) 

1. Circuibo, et immolabo in ta- 1. / will go round, and offer up 

bernaculo ejus hostiam jubilationis: in his tabernacle a sacrifice of jubi- 

2. cantabo, et psalmum dicam Do- lation: 2. / will sing, and recite a 

mino. psalm to the Lord. 

The beginning is filled with awe, and reminds one of a reverential 
bow. But then the singer is impelled to pour forth his jubilation vigor- 



270 Seventh Sunday after Pentecost 

ously and enthusiastically. The holy Sacrifice with all the honor it gives 
the Holy Trinity, with all the blessings it brings to souls, especially in 
the sacrificial Banquet, has become a sacrifice of jubilation. Filled with 
these sentiments, the pious soul prepares to return again to the life that 
awaits its outside. There also it will not forget to sing and play before 
the Lord and to remain a cheerful giver. 

The melody rises in a well-graduated ascent, its highest points 
forming the ascending line c d e f g a. How clearly hostiam juhilationis, 
with its recitative on high g and the graceful conclusion, rings out! The 
second phrase returns more to the spirit of the introductory Circuibo. 
But in dicam the song reasserts the tone of jubilation. Both phrases 
close with the same formula. The reason for the transposition to c is 
found in the beginning of this chant. Usually we should have f c e\?. We 
are here dealing with a formula which begins many pieces, especially 
antiphons of the eighth mode. Thus the Magnificat antiphon for the first 
Vespers of Christmas, set a whole step lower, begins as follows: 

f c e\, f g f f g f f 

Cum ortus fuerit 

The same holds true of the beginning of the Introit for the first Sun- 
day of Advent. 



SEVENTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST 

In comparison with the preceding Sundays, a change of feeling now 
becomes apparent in the antiphonal chants. The former were serious, 
entreating, imploring confidence. Now they have a tone of joyous exul- 
tation. 

INTROIT (Ps. 46:2) 

1. Omnes gentes, plaudite mani- 1. clap your hands, all ye na- 

hus: 2. jubilate Deo in voce juMla- tions: 2. shout unto God with the 

tionis. Ps. Quoniam Dominus ex- voice of joy. Fs. For the Lord is most 

celsus, terrihilis: * Rex magnus high, he is terrible: * he is a great 

super omnem terram. King over all the earth. 

The exhortation to be glad, to shout aloud for sheer joy, could 
hardly be expressed better than in these words of the Introit. It is the 
triumphal shout of Easter. The melody, however, is not correspondingly 
impetuous, and can scarcely be regarded as a substantial enhancement 
of the text. The sixth mode, the one used here, is mild and limpid in 
character. Besides, in its plagal form, it usually has very narrow limits 



Seventh Sunday after Pentecost 271 

in the higher range, and here is especially unpretentious. Only once 
does it go beyond the dominant a in the brilliant jubilate which, with its 
a ch c a, can be regarded as a development oi f a g a f over Omnes and 
(exsultati)-ö-(nis) . Otherwise it rests upon the tonic /, and several times 
descends below it. Only well-known formulas come into play. Omnes 
resembles Stetit Angelus in the Offertory of September 29, while plaudite 
mdnibus employs the common formula of the Alleluia-verse of Christ- 
mastide: for example, that of the third Christmas Mass over adordte 
Dominum or that of the Introit of the preceding Sunday over plehis 
suae. Just as an actual clapping of hands, in accordance with the sum- 
mons of the Introit, is entirely out of question in the Roman liturgy, sa 
also is the indicated joyfulness quite restrained and subdued. 

Perhaps the psalm-verse, which speaks of the "terrible" God, re- 
moved some of the rich coloring of the antiphon. Although this text 
must be considered a most serious one, and although it may be true that 
reverence and joy constitute the extremes of all true church music, still 
it must be noted here that all the other verses of the psalm in question 
glorify the Lord with great jubilation as the victorious God who pro- 
cured our salvation. 

Each Sunday recalls to mind the marvelous victory which Christ 
achieved on Easter morning, that victory which He also intends should 
be ours. That is the reason why the most high God makes such intimate 
contact with us in the Eucharistie mysteries; that accounts for the fact 
that almighty God treats with our souls so respectfully: that He may 
fully realize the marvels of His resurrection and glorification in us. 

Manuscripts 339 of St. Gall's and 121 of Einsiedeln omit this psalm- 
verse and substitute the fourth verse, Suhjecit — "He hath made the 
peoples subject to us." 

GRADUAL (Ps. 33: 12, 6) 

1. Venite, filii, audite me: 2. 1. Come, children, hearken to 

timorem Domini docebo vos. ^. 1. me: 2. / will teach you the fear of 

Accedite ad cum et illuminamini: the Lord. Si. 1. Come ye to him and 

2. et fades vestrae non confunden- he enlightened; 2. and your faces 

tur. shall not he confounded. 

Only when the soul is permeated with the fear of God will the ex- 
hortation of the Apostle in today's Epistle: "Now yield your members 
to serve justice, unto sanctification" (Rom. 6: 21), and that of the Lord 
in the Gospel, to do the will of the Father who is in heaven and to bring 
forth good fruits, be carried into effect. This lesson is brought home 
forcibly in the corpus of the Gradual. The first phrase shows an upward 



"272 Seventh Sunday after Pentecost 

tendency, while the second is, in the main, a descent of thirds: b c a f 

g a f — e f d — e c, and exhibits a very common coda. The verse calls at- 
tention to our good fortune in being permitted to approach so closely to 
our God in the mysterium of the Mass, to be enlightened by Him, to 
be radiant with His own blessedness. This melody is explained on June 
29. Let us only note here how spiritedly the important words eum and 
illumindmini sing out their full joy in the topmost notes of the melody. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 46: 2) 

1. Omnes gentes plaudite mani- 1. clap your hands all ye na- 

hus: 2. jubilate Deo in voce exulta- tions: 2. shout unto God with the 
tionis. voice of joy. 

It seems as if this ornate melody were a recompense for the re- 
straint of the Introit which has the same text as above. Alleluia rises in 
thirds: d-f, f-a, a-c. In the jubilus, the second member resembles the 
first, except that the beginning and the end differ somewhat. The verse 
is composed of two parts. In the first 6 b dominates, while the second is 
marked by a sharply contrasted b. But the difference is still more sharply 
defined. Omnes already introduces the third mode, which changes only 
with mdnibus, from whence a sort of modulation leads back to the first 
mode. The second part, on the contrary, stresses the Doric b. After the 

pause, b\? c g g f over gen-(tes) is raised to c d b\? b\} g. We may divide the 
melismas over plaudite into three groups, of which the second is a repe- 
tition of the first. Why is the quilisma with a missing in the first group? 
Perhaps because the third g-b}? has a brighter effect than the simple 
seconds, and hence is better suited to the first summons, plaudite. The 
melody tends upward, but only to sink back again. After the second / 
aca, it emphasizes c and then soars above it. These notes must come 
prominently to the fore. A clear understanding of the melodic grada- 
tion is evidenced in manuscript 121 of Einsiedeln by the broad torculus 
and the pressus in this passage. This is the summit that was to be at- 
tained: it must therefore be brought out strongly. We hear the entire 
strain repeated in the jubilus of the Alleluia Amdvit eum Dominus in 
the Mass for Doctors of the Church. There also the melody, after a 
twofold repetition, soars above its highest note. The Alleluia, however, 
is assigned to the fourth mode. As for the strange manipulation of the 
text, which assigns rich melismas to the unaccented syllable (pldu)-di-(te), 
it must be remarked that the popular Latin, no doubt, exerted its in- 
fluence by stressing the unaccented "i" in the second last syllable; other 
examples of this may be found in the words spiritum, vidimus, and 
muneribus. 



Seventh Sunday after Pentecost 273 

We are introduced into another world by the second phrase with 
its stressed tritone, marked with a lengthened virga and a pressus with 
"t" (teuere, to holdj in manuscript 121 of Einsiedeln. Keen mountain 
air seems to surround us; these impetuous seconds are surcharged with 
energy. It is like the exultation of men who are returning from the 
bitter strife and perils of war. Only when the melody again enters upon 
the juhilus does the tender &b reappear. Into this verse put all your joy 
at having been redeemed. (K.L.) 

OFFERTORY (Dan. 3: 40) 

1. Sicut in holocaustis arietum et 1. As in holocausts of rams and 

taurorum, et sicut in millibus ag- bullocks, and as in thousands of fat 

norum pinguium: 2. sic fiat sacri- lambs; 2. so let our sacrifice be 

ficium nostrum in conspectu tuo made in thy sight this day, that it 

hodie, ut placeat tibi, 3. quia non may please thee: 3. for there is no 

est confusio confidentibus in te, confusion to them that trust in 

Domine. thee, O Lord. 

It is surprisingly rare to find Offertory and Secret mutually com- 
plementary in thought. Today, however, the relation between the two 
is unmistakable. Hence we shall immediately subjoin the Secret: "O 
God, who hast ratified the divers victims of the Law by one perfect sac- 
rifice: receive the oblation of thy devoted servants, and hallow it with 
a blessing like to that wherewith thou didst hallow the gifts of Abel; so 
that what each has offered in honor of thy majesty may avail for the 
salvation of all." Both Offertory and Secret speak of the numerous sac- 
rifices that were offered in the Old Dispensation. But it was precisely 
this variety in the kinds of sacrifice that showed the insufficiency of all 
of them. It was only the unique Eucharistie Sacrifice that finally brought 
perfection and infinite value. Sacrifice is offered to the glory of the di- 
vine majesty; hence the Offertory prays that God may find it accept- 
able. It should, however, also redound to our salvation, and for this 
reason the Offertory continues: "There is no confusion to them that 
trust in Thee." Naturally, our motives in offering the oblation must be 
pure. It does not suffice to cry "Lord, Lord" (cf. the Gospel); we must 
immolate our will to the will of God, and formulate this resolve in our- 
selves: "May all things be done that God wills and in the manner in which 
He wills them" {Katholische Kirchenzeitung, Salzburg, 1927, p. 265). 

This Offertory is an excerpt from the prayer which Azarias and 
the three youths recited in the fiery furnace. The entire prayer, as well 
as the subjoined canticle Benedicite, which is said in Lauds for Sunday, 
does not occur in the original Hebrew text. St. Jerome incorporated it 



274 Seventh Sunday after Pentecost 

into the Vulgate from Theodotion's Greek translation. The young men 
in the furnace are no longer able to offer sacrifice in order to obtain God's 
mercy. Hence they tender Him their contrite and humble spirit. Their 
inner disposition is to compensate for the sacrificial gifts. May their 
sacrifice today be in the sight of God as if they came with rams and 
bullocks, with thousands of fat lambs, that He may find pleasure in it. 
{Theologie und Glaube, 19, 409 ff.) 

The melody is pleasingly restful, preferring intervals of seconds. 
In the passages Sicut in holocdusto arietum and (si)-cut in millihus agno- 
rum pinguium there are seconds only; they also predominate in the last 
phrase. Considering the length of the piece, the range is quite limited. 
Some resemblance to this Offertory, both in melody and text, is seen in 
that of the eighteenth Sunday after Pentecost, but the latter has a more 
extended range. Both avoid high /, which is wont to occur rather fre- 
quently in the fifth mode, especially in Graduals. It is heard in only one 
Offertory- — in that of the fifteenth Sunday after Pentecost in the expres- 
sive passage: "With expectation have I waited for the Lord." This 
Sunday's Offertory is more subdued. It almost appears as if the words 
which immediately precede our present text occupied the mind of the 
composer: *'In a contrite and humbe spirit may we be accepted" — ^words 
which find their full significance in the Offertory prayers of the Mass. 
They also help us here in evoking the proper disposition for singing this 
piece. 

To the first Sicut with f g a hi? a, the second with a c d e d corre- 
sponds. Similarly, the cadence at the end of pinguium is repeated over 
sacrificium nostrum. The only large interval occurs in this second phrase, 
over in con-(spectu). The text reminds us of that passage in the Canon 
of the Mass which the priest, bowing profoundly, recites after the con- 
secration: "We most humbly beseech Thee, almighty God, command 
these things to be carried up by the hands of Thy holy Angel to Thine 
altar on high, in the sight of Thy divine majesty (in conspectu divinae 
majestdtis tuae)." This petition is effectively answered. The Eucharistie 
Sacrifice ascends straight to heaven, and God finds pleasure in it. For 
it is the Sacrifice of His well-beloved Son. God graciously accepted the 
oblation of the three youths in the fiery furnace. But what of our sac- 
rifice? Sic fiat sacrificium nostrum — "May our sacrifice be offered up in 

Thy sight that it may be pleasing to Thee." We mean not only the 

sacrifice which we offer up as singers at divine service; but the sacrifice 
of our lives as well. We must be permeated with the spirit of Christ. 
How earnestly therefore, we should voice this petition! Once it has been 
granted, we can have no more reason to be afraid, for the Lord provides 
for us. We hear the same motive repeated over pldceat tibi, non est con- 



Eighth Sunday after Pentecost 275 

füsio, confidentihus in te, and somewhat simplified over Domine, the first 
and last time with a slight variation. Its ascending line symbolizes the 
confident lifting of our eyes to God. The smooth descent c a g a f seems 
to indicate a trustful placing of ourselves in the fatherly arms of God. 

With the similar closing neums over (DomiJ-ne with their repetition, 
compare the twofold f a c a in the Alleluia-verse over plaudite and the 
passage over (sanctificdvi) te in the Gradual for the feast of St. John the 
Baptist. Everything breathes of rest and blissful happiness. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 30:3) 

1. Inclina aurem tuam, 2. ac- 1. Bow down thine ear, 2. make 

celera, ut eripias me. haste to deliver me. 

Special impressiveness is added to this simple prayer by the five- 
fold repetition of one single motive, although with a little variation each 
time. The passage g a g f g a a over tuam becomes g a gf eff over (acce)- 
lera, g a g f g over eru-(as), over (eru)-as first simply g a g f, and then 
g a g f e. "Bow down Thine ear!" For now Thou art so near to me in 
Holy Communion. Better than myself dost Thou know all my diffi- 
culties and perplexities, all the dark recesses of my spirit, all that remains 
since the time when I was yet "a servant of sin" (Epistle). Thou know- 
est all the perils that threaten me from false prophets and their wiles, 
all that hampers me in fulfilling the will of Thy Father faithfully and per- 
severingly (Gospel). I know that without Thy grace I can do nothing; 
hence I cry now, as in the prayer Deus in adjutorium which begins the 
canonical hours: accelera — make haste to deliver me from all evil and 
confirm me in all good. 



EIGHTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST 
INTROIT 

See February 2 for the explanation. Proceeding from a jubilant 
heart, this Introit is a song of thanksgiving for God's merciful love, for 
all the graces which have become our portion in the midst of His Temple, 
in the Church which He founded. Who can comprehend the greatness 
of His gifts; who can number them, from that first great grace of divine 
adoption in Baptism, to that of the present day, when the Eucharistie 
Saviour again imlores mercy upon us and makes us more intimate par- 
takers of the sonship of God! Never shall we be able to praise and glorify 
this great God as He deserves. 

Revue gr., 9, 136 ff. 



276 Eighth Sunday after Pentecost 

GRADUAL (Ps. 30:3) 

1. Esto mihi in Deum protec- 1. Be thou unto me a God, a pro- 

torem, et in locum refugii, 2. ut tector, and a place of refuge, 2. to 

salvum me facias. Si. 1. Deus, in save me. S^. 1. In thee, God, have 

te speravi, Domine, 2. non con- I hoped, O Lord, 2. let me nsver he 

fundar in aeternum. confounded. 

The corpus of the Gradual shows the influence of melismatic punc- 
tuation in the grouping of the neums at the end of (protect6)-rem, in 
(refügi)-i with its similar conclusion, and in the close of (fdci)-as. The 
melodic development is gradual but constant. While the first half has a 
range of a ninth, the second phrase has a range of a tenth. A refreshing 
effect is produced by the very unusual turns over refügi-(i) and salvum 
me. The authentic form is strongly emphasized in the verse; it never de- 
scends lower than the tonic and vigorously stresses the dominant c. Al- 
though, melodically speaking, Domine opens the second phrase of the 
psalm-verse, it is actually drawn to the first phrase by the incomplete 
cadence. 

We are not allowed to live according to the flesh. That is the ad- 
monition of the Epistle. Consequently, we stand in need of the pro- 
tecting grace of God and a place of refuge in His holy Church in all our 
difficulties, be they interior or exterior. We are to place all our trust in 
God, that firm trust which emanates from the spirit of sonship of which 
the Epistle speaks. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 47: 2) 

1. Magnus Dominus, et lauda- 1. Great is the Lord, and exceed- 

hilis valde, 2. in civitate Dei nostri ingly to he praised; 2. in the city of 
in monte sancto ejus. our God, in his holy mountain. 

These selfsame words have been heard in the psalm-verse of the 
Introit. Here, however, nimis is replaced by valde, and the word nostri 
is entirely omitted. Several translations of the Scriptures prior to St. 
Jerome give this valde. In the Introit the contemplation of God's essence 
raised the singer to brilliant heights (secundum nomen tuum). In the 
same manner the melody here seems to attempt to soar to the regions 
where God dwells (magnus Dominus). It is seldom that the seventh mode 
essays such flights. We should expect a close on the tonic with valde. In- 
stead of this, however, the motive which opened the verse, and which 
has already been heard over Alleluia, is repeated. In the second phrase 
of the verse we have a repetition of the juhilus of Alleluia. Since no con- 



Eighth Sunday after Pentecost 277 

elusion follows as yet, Dei has a quite simple melody. Strikingly simple 
is also the syllabic chant over in monte sancto ejus. 

Alleluia with its juhilus has the form a h b c c^; the climacus resu- 
pinus forms the nucleus of the entire group. Care must be taken that 
the third member be more than a mere echo of the second, although the 
conclusion cd cdd is to be sung more quietly both times, somewhat in 
echo fashion. In place of the minor third of c, the member c^ has a fifth, 
which brings the whole to a vigorous close. The h members predominate 
over the c members. Some resemblance to this Alleluia is found in that 
of the fourth Sunday after Pentecost. The most ancient manuscripts do 
not contain this melody. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 17: 28, 32) 

1. Populum humilem salvum fa- 1. Thou wilt save the humble 

cies, Domine, 2. et oculos super- people, O Lord, 2. and wilt bring 

borum humiliabis: 3. quoniam quis down the eyes of the proud; 3. for 

Deus praeter te, Dominel who is God, but thou, O Lordi 

The rite of oblation at Mass, with its washing of the hands, is well 
calculated to arouse and deepen true humility in us. Only "in the spirit 
of humility and with a contrite heart" is it possible for us and our sac- 
rifice to find acceptance with the Lord. Humility alone leads to prudence, 
to the prudence which, according to today's Gospel, is characteristic of 
the children of light. Thus endowed, however, we may confidently hope 
for deliverance. 

From the very beginning of the first phrase the melody grows with 
each succeeding word, until it soars to jubilant heights with salvum 
fades. Thus we sang in the Introit Laetdre at the words conventum fdcite 
(cf. p. 137) as well as in the Introit In virtute tua at the word laetabitur, 
in both of which joy is the predominant note. Here, too, we are filled 
with hope while awaiting salvation from the Lord. A similar cadence 
with a fifth over Domine occurs twice in the Offertory Gloriabuntur of 
June 26, which is sung several times in the course of the year. 

Superborum in the second phrase accords somewhat with humilem 
of the first. As salvum fades is brought into prominence there, so humi- 
liabis is stressed here. A feeling of victory, confidently overcoming all 
obstacles, pervades the melody. This impression is strengthened by the 
rhythmic four-note groups. 

The third phrase, imitating the first two, begins on /. The half 
tone over Deus tends to accentuate the question, "Who is God?" Prae- 



278 Eighth Sunday after Pentecost 

ter te, which follows, makes the phrase sound like the battle cry immor- 
talized in the name of St. Michael. "Thou alone art the Lord:" that is 
the meaning of the passage over Domine. The motive over the first eight 
notes expands in the following group and again contracts in the two neums 
immediately preceding -mine. We find the same concluding cadence in 
the Mass for Rogation Days. In this phrase, the somewhat harsh end- 
ing of the first Domine of the Offertory is tempered by the intercalated 
a. Just as the Lord is terrible in His dealings with the proud, so is He 
gracious and affable to the humble of heart. 

Humilem may, however, also be understood of an entire people 
that is lowly. Thus the Offertory points out the antithesis between the 
Epistle and the Gospel: the spiritual man versus the earthly man; the 
children of light versus the children of this world. ( K. L.) What is more 
elevating than the divine grace which is infused in those who participate 
in the sacrificial Mystery! 

COMMUNION (Ps. 33: 9) 

1. Gustate et videte, quoniam 1. Taste and see that the Lord is 

suavis est Dominus: 2. beatus vir, sweet: 2. blessed is the man that 
qui sperat in eo. hopeth in him. 

This antiphon is composed of only two phrases. Both have a marked 
rise in their first parts, with a pause on a. Their second parts are identical: 
sperat in eo corresponds with (su)-dvis est Dominus. Still each little 
phrase has its peculiarities. The first is a lively exhortation; hence the 
rise to high c and the tarrying there with a double tristropha, a neum 
rarely used in the Communion. The exhortation is to resound and to 
penetrate into all hearts. The second phrase is a simple assertion and 
never rises above a. 

This is the oldest Communion song to be found with its psalm in all 
the liturgies, oriental as well as occidental. How heartfelt it must have 
sounded, coming from the lips of those who were returning from the 
altar with the sweetest and most savory of foods in their hearts! What 
longing it must have awakened in the souls of the faithful who were 
still on the way to receive Holy Communion! 

Whoever loves the Eucharistie Saviour will not only gladly and 
frequently carry this exhortation into effect, but will also, as far as he is 
able, make others partakers of this same great joy. 

The Greek equivalent for sweet is chrestos; hence the play on words: 
Taste and see that it is Christ fChrestos) the Lord. {K. L.) 



Ninth Sunday after Pentecost 279 

NINTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST 

INTROIT (Ps. 53:6-7) 

1. Ecce Deus adjuvat me, et Do- 1. Behold, God is my helper, and 

minus susceptor est animae meae : the Lord is the protector of my soul 

2. averte mala inimicis meis, S. in 2. turn hack the evils upon mine 

veritate tua disperde illos, protec- enemies, 3. and cut them off in thy 

tor meus, Domine. Ps. Deus, in truth, O Lord my protector. Ps. Save 

nomine tuo salvum me fac: * et in me, God, by thy name, * and de- 

virtute tua libera me. liver me in thy strength. 

Man's weakness is great, and many a sad experience confirms the 
fact that the admonition in today's Epistle, "He that thinketh himself 
to stand, let him take heed lest he fall," is not sufficiently taken to heart. 
Clever and tireless enemies seek out the weaknesses of man in order to 
destroy the life of his soul. Nevertheless, we must not grow despondent, 
iorEcce Deus adjuvat me — "God is my helper;" such is the clear and as- 
suring theme of the Introit. Ecce, with its start on the dominant {N. 
Sch., 51) of the mode, wishes to say: "Do not consider only the enemies 
of your soul, but look especially, or better, look exclusively to God. He 
will be your Helper." Therefore it is not without reason that the c over 
Deus is doubled and that Dominus in the second part of the first phrase 
is made emphatic by a fourth. If the Lord God is for us, who can op- 
pose us? The manuscripts indicate with special markings that the notes 
over Deus adjuvat me should be given a broad interpretation. Hence 
they rightly demand a solemn rendering of this passage to express our 
deeply-rooted confidence. From the second phrase on (averte), a certain 
restlessness and apprehension becomes evident. Perhaps it is holy anger, 
calling for vengeance. Some relationship exists between the passages 
over mala and illos. But the manuscripts wish above all to emphasize 
the pressus over illos. Hence the bistropha with its succeeding clivis are 
here marked with "c" {celeriter, rapidly); or "st" (statim, immediately) 
is interpolated between the bistropha and the clivis, while in the corre- 
sponding passage over mala "t" (tenere, to prolong j and an episema are 
placed over the clivis. The called-for acceleration of the neums which 
precede the pressus makes the latter stand forth prominently. Only with 
protector meus, which may be considered a prolongation of est animae 
meae, does the confidential feeling of the beginning return to the text 
and still more to the melody, which closes with well-known and pleas- 
ing seconds. 

More than once the effect of the melody is heightened by what we 
may call the "resolved" F-major scale. 



280 Ninth Sunday after Pentecost 

Here the question is very pertinent: Is a Christian allowed to pray 
thus: averte mala — "turn back the evils upon mine enemies"? If these 
words proceeded from personal hate, then indeed they would be un- 
christian, and such a prayer would never find acceptance in the sight 
of God. Even David refrained from laying hands upon Saul when the 
latter was powerless before him. But since God desires the salvation of 
our souls, the enemies of our souls are also the enemies of God, and for 
that reason are we allowed to beseech God to render His and our ene- 
mies harmless, and to let their efforts toward the destruction of souls 
and the kingdom of God come to naught. Has not God promised His help 
to those who approach Him with confidence? Hence we call upon His 
fidelity (veritate), on His goodness and love, and leave it entirely to His 
wisdom how He will supply us with help against our foes. If, however, 
there is question of the interior enemies of salvation, such as self-deceit, 
concupiscence, lust, and so forth, then these words lose their question- 
able character, and we are allowed to use them in serious and earnest 
prayer. When we have to deal with exterior dangers, such as ignorance 
and seduction, then we give averte mala its proper meaning by adding 
et in veritate tua disperde illos: subdue Thy foes through Thy truth, gain 
them over to Thy truth, destroy ignorance, save the wayward! (Reck, 
II, 150.) 

GRADUAL (Ps. 8:2) 

1. Domine Dominus noster, 2. 1.0 Lord, our Lord, 2. how ad- 

quam admirabile est nomen tuum mirable is thy name in the whole 

in universa terral 111. Quoniam ele- earthl jll. For thy magnificence is 

vata est magnificentia tua super elevated above the heavens. 
caelos. 

One can hardly claim that this melody exhibits any melodic turns 
which do not occur also in other similar selections; nevertheless, melody 
and text are happily matched. Deep reverence marks the beginning of 
the piece. With quam admirabile joy is added to amazement. Reverence 
seems to predominate with nomen tuum, while in universa terra again 
has a lighter coloring. Thus there is a delightful interplay of reverence 
and joy. In the Gradual for the feast of the Dedication of a Church we 
sing the same melody over inaestimdbile as we do here over admirabile. 
Est disturbs the even flow somewhat. We find that the melody over 
(univer)-sa also closes the corpus of the Gradual in the third Christmas 
Mass. In both cases the same idea is enunciated. The verse begins with 
an evident ascent, which one might wish to see extended in magnificen- 
tia to high /, as in other Graduals, but the short text does not allow it 



Ninth Sunday after Pentecost 281 

here. The composer was more intent on giving a satisfactory conclusion. 
With (elevdta) est- — most likely the composer did not intend tone-paint- 
ing- — the torculus is to be taken broadly in every instance. A unified im- 
pression is given the whole by the repetition of the form ä g g c c over 
admirdbile, in universa, elevata, and magnificen-(tia) . 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 58, 2) 

1. Eripe me de inimicis meis, 1. Deliver me from mine enemies, 

Deus mens: 2. et ah insurgentibus my God: 2. and defend me from 
in me libera me. them that rise up againt me. 

There was mention of the enemies of the soul in the Introit. Here 
we meet them again, and they induce the singer to beseech God fervent- 
ly for deliverance and salvation. The same text is set to music in the 
Offertory for Wednesday after Passion Sunday. An ornate melisma oc- 
curs over insurgentibus in both instances. That of the Alleluia- verse^ 
however, cannot compare with the dramatic effect produced by the Offer- 
tory. In the latter we see clearly how the foes go forth in battle array, 
how their number ever grows, how things come to such a pass that God 
alone is able to help. The word receives a quieter construction in the 
Alleluia- verse. Its first two members are identical. The coda-like close 
with its seconds in both parts strives to still all excitement. In spite of 
this, however, unrest is again felt to some extent in the third member 
with its fourth and the descent to low a. In the annotated manuscripts 
the neums over Eripe and Deus meus in the first phrase are given the 
broad form. Sorrow oppresses the singer. His prayer flows from a heavy 
heart; at least that is what the rhythmic marks indicate. But the Revue 
Gregorienne (9, 112) remarks: "At the thought of God, the soul forgets 
its incipient fear. It is so conscious of the divine presence that when it 
sings Deus meus it no longer thinks of the enemies it spoke of just before. 
It lets itself be rapt into pure contemplation." In all this praying and 
beseeching it must not be forgotten that the petition is framed by Alle- 
luia. In the melodic turn over inimicis meis we are reminded of the 
effective passage de ore leonis in the Offertory of the Mass for the Dead 
— effective because it enhances the earnestness of the phrase. Until the 
repetition of the juhilus is reached with libera, all pauses close on the 
tonic. Though this is somewhat inartistic, it fits quite well into the quiet 
mood of the entire phrase. The Alleluia has the form a b h^. 

The melody is of very ancient provenance. As early as the eleventh 
century it was fitted to the words Ave Maria in the Advent votive Mass 
of the Blessed Virgin. 



282 Ninth Sunday after Pentecost 

Today's OFFERTORY was explained on the third Sunday of Lent. 
On the present Sunday, however, after the threatened destruction of the 
city of Jerusalem in the Gospel, we shall sing it in a somewhat more sub- 
dued fashion and more fervently ask for the grace of fidelity. 

COMMUNION (John 6: 57) 

1. Qui manducat carnem meam, 1. He that eateth my flesh, and 

et hibit sanguinem meum, in me drinketh my blood, dbideth in me 

manet, 2. et ego in eo, dicit Domi- 2. and I in him, saith the Lord, 
nus. 

Today's Epistle was "written for our correction," that the same 
fate may not befall us which was visited in a horrible manner upon the 
many Israelites who fell victims to the temptations of idolatry, of for- 
nication, of murmuring against God. A like effect is produced by the 
Sunday's Gospel, in which Jerusalem is made to hear the announcement 
of its annihilation because it did not recognize the things that were unto 
its peace. For this reason we ought to pray with special fervor before 
Holy Communion: "Make me always cleave to thy commandments, 
and never suffer me to be separated from thee." But hark! In Holy Com- 
munion Christ will be to you a word of solace, a word that will take from 
you all fear, and will make you feel perfectly safe: "He that eateth My 
flesh, and drinketh My blood, abideth in Me." Be not afraid; His love, 
His grace. His help will always be at hand. The melody begins with an 
almost supernal simplicity. In the second half-phrase the first half- 
phrase is given a more elaborate form. The endings of the parts of the 
phrase (meam and meum) are characterized by corresponding formulas. 
No doubt this is the technical reason why the more important words 
carnem and sanguinem do not stand out so prominently. Now follows the 
expressive in me manet with a descending fourth, which must be given 
special warmth. It is answered by a rising fourth in ego in eo. Thus both 
thoughts are placed in strong relief: Thou in me and I in Thee. The 
prolonged &b at the beginning of dicit, which has been avoided thus far, 
wishes to impress upon us the "Thus saith the Lord." His word is of 
unfailing efficacy and harbors in itself the fullness of consolation. 

This song is sung also on the Thursday after the second Sunday of 
Lent. In olden times it was used on the fifteenth Sunday after Pente- 
cost, and in place of it was sung Primum quaerite, which is now em- 
ployed on the fourteenth Sunday. 

* * * * 



Tenth Sunday after Pentecost 283 

TENTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST 

INTROIT (Ps. 54: 17, 18, 20, 23) 

1. Cum clamarem ad Dominum, 1. When I cried to the Lord, he 

exaudivit vocem meam, ah his qui heard my voice, against them that 

appropinquant mihi: 2. et humi- draw near to me; 2. and he who is 

liavit eos qui est ante saecula, et before all ages, and remains for 

manet in aeternum: 3. jacta cogi- ever, humbled them: 3. cast thy 

tatum tuum in Domino, et ipse te care upon the Lord and he shall 

enutriet. Ps. Exaudi, Deus, ora- sustain thee. Ps. Hear, O God, my 

tionem meam, et ne despexeris de- prayer, and despise not my suppli- 

precationem meam: * intende mihi, cation: * be attentive to me and 

et exaudi me. hear me. 

Each of the three phrases closes with the same melodic formula. 
Besides, the first and second phrase also have the preceding neums in 
common over (appropin)-quant mihi and aeternum. In general, a close 
relation exists between these two phrases, even exteriorly, since both 
are made up of three members, while the third phrase has only two; 
and their interior relation is still more intimate. The first phrase speaks 
of the fruits of prayer; the second of the manner in which prayer is heard. 
Hence, these two preliminary statements may serve as two premises, 
from which the third follows as a conclusion; therefore "cast thy care 
upon the Lord!" 

The first phrase with its upward striving expresses both an earnest 
petition and the tension of soul which accompanies it. Then comes a 
thankful, brilliant exaudivit: I have been heard. The second phrase 
several times extends beyond the highest note of the first. In the small 
phrase qui est ante saecula we twice hear the fourth g-c, and once the 
fourth a-d. We get some inkling of the eternity of God, which is without 
beginning, from the large intervals. Some purely syllabic passages occur 
in the third phrase. Its melodic line is the symbol and expression of a 
certain effort, a conquering of the difficulties which present themselves 
to wavering, doubting, short-sighted human beings who ought to live 
entirely by faith and throw all their care upon the Lord. If this is done 
— how quiet and sure is the tone of the seconds over et ipse te\ — then 
He will nourish and sustain us with paternal affection and will royally 
reward all our hopes and expectations. Even today we shall see the ful- 
fillment of these words in the sacrificial Banquet. 

We may sing the words of the psalm- verse in the spirit of the pub- 
lican of whom the Gospel makes mention. He does not confide in himself; 
he does not look upon himself as just. He realizes, moreover, that God 



284 Tenth Sunday after Pentecost 

would have enough reason to despise his prayer. But it is just this 
humble consciousness of his own sinfulness that guarantees the granting 
of his petition. He went to his house justified. 

This Introit is also sung on the Thursday after Ash Wednesday. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 16:8, 2) 

1. Custodi me, Domine, ut pu- 1. Keep me, O Lord, as the apple 

pillam oculi: 2. suh umbra alarum of thine eye: 2. protect me under the 
tuarum protege me. Sf. 1. De vultu shadow of thy wings, jl. 1. Let my 
tuo judicium meum prodeat: 2. judgment come forth from thy 
oculi tui videant aequitates. countenance: 2. let thine eyes he- 

hold the things that are equitable. 

In the liturgical evening prayer called Compline we each day hear 
the words used in the corpus of the Gradual. Whoever can pray thus 
knows that he is dear to the heart of God. How careful we are that not 
even a speck of dust enters our eye! We may expect the same and even 
greater anxiety and love on the part of God toward our soul, for its wel- 
fare and salvation. The present melody proceeds from such a disposi- 
tion. A pleasing repose hovers over its beginning. One seems to hear 
melodies of the low plagal mode with the dominant /. The same holds 
true of the quiet sequences of seconds over oculi. But through it all a 
flash of light, which proceeds from pupillam, is discernible. 

In the second phrase we gaze at a new picture — a picture of wings, 
of mighty pinions, under which we seek protection. Here the melody is 
broadly delineated, becoming the outburst of a heart that knows what 
a hidden life in God means and that prays for this boon with full con- 
fidence. 

A new mood appears in the verse; it is a resolute prayer, such as 
can come only from a heart that rests securely in God and is conscious 
of no grave offense. Are we sinful men allowed to address God thus, the 
Omniscient who never judges from appearances, to whom the inner- 
most secrets of the heart are open? Strictly speaking, Christ alone with 
His most pure and immaculate heart can pray in this manner. But 
Christ makes our concerns His own and makes supplication for us to 
the Father. With a courageous upward swing the melody at the very 
beginning ascends to the dominant a and beyond it, with a strong accent 
on high c. The corpus had a similar treatment, but here it is more lavish- 
ly employed, so that the verse series as an enhancement of the corpus, 
although both have the same range. The first phrase is well divided and 
has a cadence o^er prodeat corresponding admirably to the text. It must 



Tenth Sunday after Pentecost 285 

be admitted that the well-marked cadence on the tonic over tui is not 
so happy. The text here allows no marked pause. After the first pause 
over tui a sort of sequence of thirds begins, which was still more em- 
phasized in earlier times, since after the pause not a doubled c of the 
same pitch was sung, but a lower note, most likely h c, as the graphic 
representation of the neums seems to demand. Thus the original se- 
quence of notes would he h c a g, a hi? g f, g a f d. The conclusion of ae- 
quitaiem also occurs on the seventeenth Sunday after Pentecost, on Fri- 
day of the Ember Week in Lent, on Sexagesima Sunday, and in the Gra- 
dual Sacerdotes. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 64: 2) 

1. Te decet hymnus, Deus, in 1. A hymn, O God, becometh thee 

Sion: 2. et tibi reddetur votum in in Sion: 2. and a vow shall be paid 
Jerusalem. to thee in Jerusalem. 

We are well acquainted with these words from the psalm-verse of 
the Introit Requiem; here in the Alleluia- verse, however, they must re- 
ceive a more brilliant and livelier interpretation than in the funeral 
Mass. But even there no gloomy rendition should disfigure them. Here 
we have a song of praise, a grateful paying of vows, witnesses of just so 
many favors granted. The choice of the lively seventh mode and what 
has the effect of a bright major chord in alleluia is most happy. A cor- 
respondence exists between the endings of the second and third mem- 
bers of the jubilus. Te decet hymnus is chanted with emphasis on the 
accented syllables. From the standpoint of melody, we have two phrases, 
of which the first extends as far as votum, building on the psalm-melody 
of the seventh mode to the middle cadence inclusive. This appears again, 
more richly developed, over Sion and is repeated over votum. The in- 
cisions, over Deus and reddetur resemble a flexa. Over Jerusalem the 
closing melisma is particularly ornate. Here not only the jubilus of alle- 
luia is repeated, but we find numerous neums interpolated before it, 
which usually prolong the upper note of the fourths c-f into a tristropha 
or a pressus. It is not easy for the singer to live himself into these me- 
lismas. They are foreign to our feelings and cannot readily be developed 
and for this reason they demand a limpid, fluent presentation. Perhaps 
this ornate melody already foreshadows the idea which was formulated 
in the later Middle Ages by Bishop Sicard of Cremona {•h 1215) in his 
work entitled Mitrale (Migne, P. L., 213, 394): "Almost in every in- 
stance when the word 'Jerusalem' occurs in a song, long neums are at- 
tached to it, in order to give a picture of the exultation of the heavenly 
Jerusalem." 



286 Tenth Sunday after Pentecost 

In the most ancient manuscripts this Alleluia has yet a second 
verse, whose melody was used with the Alleluia on the feast of St. 
Alexius (July 17), but without the extraordinarily ornate closing me- 
lisma. In its second half the juhilus of the verse resembles that of the 
fourteenth Sunday after Pentecost. 

For the OFFERTORY see the first Sunday of Advent. 

The publican did not even dare to lift his eyes to heaven. But he 
had elevated his heart to God (dnimam meam levdvi), and God deigned 
to look upon the sinner. On account of his sins, the publican felt him- 
self forever estranged from God, but in His loving-kindness God was 
near to him. His prayer was inspired with great confidence, and he was 
not confounded. He went to his house justified, his heart filled with di- 
vince grace and peace. Whoever prays as this publican did will not be 
put to shame. 

"In the holy Sacrifice the parable of the Gospel renews itself. You 
entered the church as a humble publican; in the Kyrie and the Gradual 
you struck your breast: that was your pilgrimage to Sion (Alleluia- 
verse); now gracious words of pardon fall from the mouth of the Lord" 
(K.L.). 

COMMUNION (Ps. 50:21) 

1. Acceptahis sacrificium justi- 1. Thou wilt accept the sacrifice 

tiae, 2. oUationes et holocausta, of justice, 2. oblations and holo- 
super altare tuum, Domine. causts, upon thine altar, Lord. 

Soon the priest will pronounce these words in the Placeat: ''May 
the homage of my bounden duty be pleasing to Thee, Holy Trinity; 
and grant that the sacrifice which I, though unworthy, have offered in 
the sight of Thy majesty, may be acceptable (acceptdhile) to Thee." 
Such must be the prayer of the sacrificing priest. But the sacrifice which 
Christ has just offered finds gracious acceptance in heaven, as the 
Church well knows. Hence the determined and joyful beginning of the 
melody. It is the sacrifice of justice, the fitting sacrifice, which Jesus 
Christ "the Just" has offered; the sacrifice which has again reconciled 
the offended justice of God. It is in truth a burnt offering in which the 
love of Christ to the Father consumed itself; a holocaust, since Christ 
Himself was unable to give more. To this sublime sacrifice, which was 
now offered on the altar (how pensive the melody becomes here!), are 
added our sacrificial gifts (oUationes): all the renunciations, all the suf- 
ferings courageously borne, the persevering performance of our duty we 
have placed on the paten and in the chalice. Taken up into Christ's 



Eleventh Sunday after Pentecost 287 

oblation, as the drop of water into the wine at the Offertory, and united 
with Christ's sacrifice, these gifts find acceptance before the Lord. 

The cadence over justitiae is typical in responsories of the fourth 
mode. No doubt its close on e-f and not f-e (as in Domine) is employed 
to effect an easier and more flexible union of the first and second phrases. 
This cadence has also appeared over Acceptabis in a shortened form. 
Here the concluding e-f is found for the same reason as above. The 
member which immediately follows begins with d and an interval of a 
fourth, just as the second period is always introduced in the responsories 
of the fourth mode. In this Communion, therefore, as in many others, 
the structure of the responsories is imitated. The second phrase is more 
quiet, with a strong accent on /. Only with the expressive altdre is any 
prolongation noticeable. We sing this same song on the Thursday after 
Ash Wednesday. 

The presentation should be lively and joyful. 

"In the sacrificial banquet the publican receives a pledge of his 
justification. Ite, missa est — he goes to his house justified" (K.L.). 

* * * * 

ELEVENTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST 

INTROIT (Ps. 67: 6, 7, 36) 

1. Deus in loco sancto suo: 2. 1. God in his holy place: 2. God 

Deus qui inhabitare facit unanimes who maketh men of one mind to 

in domo: 3. ipse dabit virtutem, et dwell in his house: 3. he shall give 

fortitudinem plebi suae. Ps. Ex- power and strength to his people, 

surgat Deus, et dissipentur inimici Ps. Let God arise, and let his ene- 

ejus: * etfugiant, qui oderunt eum, mies be scattered: * and let them 

a facie ejus. that hate him flee from before his 

face. 

The text of the antiphon is divided into three phrases, which divi- 
sion the melody faithfully observes. An upward tendency is apparent in 
the first and third phrase, while the contrary is true of the second; the 
latter is melodically more significant. Hence we have here the form 
ABA. The need for contrast is based on purely musical grounds, since 
the text offers no reason for it. 

Three thoughts are presented: (1) God abides in His holy places: 
in heaven, in the Church, in the heart of him who has the life of grace. 
We owe Him reverence and adoration. (2) God wishes to unite all those 
who enter His house into one family, into one heart. This phrase breathes 



288 Eleventh Sunday after Pentecost 

of love. (3) If the mystery of strength already abides in this unity, then 
God provides special power (Exsurgat) for the struggle against His foes, 
who are at the same time ours. 

First phrase: Like the Introit of the ninth Sunday after Pentecost, 
this one also begins immediately on the dominant,^ with a descending 
line to the tonic. A vigorous emphasis marks the word Deus. Care must 
be taken that the doubled notes be not too prolonged. The rest of the 
phrase is solemn and reverential. Each of the disyllabic words has the 
accented syllable lengthened, so that the whole sounds like a succes- 
sion of solemn spondees — Deus, loco, sancto suo. The final clivis over 
(lo)-co corresponds to that over (sanc)-to. They must not be made too 
short. 

Second phrase: Here, as in the preceding phrase, the word Deus 
is marked by its accent and melodic independence; and just as the for- 
mer properly begins only with in loco, so does the latter with inhahitäre. 
After Deus a short pause or prolongation is not at all out of place. This 
second Deus is more tender and quiet than the first, a fitting introduction 
to this phrase, which no longer speaks of the majesty of God, but of 
His goodness. Both word-accents in each of the two members, inhahi- 
täre and undnimes, have a correspondingly important musical accent. 
The second porrectus must be sung more lightly than the first; then must 
follow a steady crescendo to the musical climax, which speaks of the 
workings of divine mercy with the word facit. Let only a slight prolonga- 
tion be made on the clivis of (fa)-cit. A still better effect is obtained if 
the two members— facit and undnimes — are joined without a pause. In 
case of need, breath might be taken, imperceptibly, before facit. If a 
full pause is given after domo and only a half pause after suo, this must 
not cause confusion. We are not dealing here with mathematical values. 
The cadence on domo permits of no long pause; it urges forward to com- 
pletion. 

Melodically speaking, the third phrase has two members, of which 
the second comprises the words plehi suae. The first bears some resemb- 
blance to the first phrase of the antiphon and has, moreover, the same 
spirit of solemn affirmation. Happy trustfulness is suggested by the 
accented dominant and the fourth. A sharp, clear pronunciation of the 
consonant "t" before the "v" will contribute much to bring out the 
symmetry between dabit and virtutem. This part moves in the four-note 
range a-d, emphasizing the c, while the following et fortitudinem, employ- 
ing a similar range (f-hb), stresses a and for the first time strikes &b. 
The cadence closes a part of a phrase, but not the entire piece, and 



1 N. Sch., 52. 



Eleventh Sunday after Pentecost 289 

therefore no considerable pause is allowed after it. In its upward move- 
ment, plehi suae reminds us of qui inhabitdre in the first phrase. The 
principal accent on ple-(hi) occurs with its highest neum, h\?c. A broad 
construction should be given to the cadence-like torculus over su-(ae). 
Revue, 24, 170 ff.; Analyses, 5, I, 3 ff. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 27: 7, 1) 

1. In Deo speravit cor meum, et 1. In God hath my heart confided, 

adjutus sum: et refloruit caro mea, and I have been helped: and my 

2. et ex voluntate mea confitebor Uli. flesh hath flourished again, 2. and 

j[. 1. Ad te, Domine, clamavi: 2. with my will I will give praise to 

Deus meus, ne sileas: ne discedas a him. ^. 1. Unto thee have I cried, 

me. O Lord: 2. my God, be not thou 

silent: depart not from me. 

A marvelous effect is produced here in the steady development of 
the melody and the comparatively rapid close after the climax has been 
reached. The first phrase is quiet, confined to a fifth; it is only the low 
c at the very end that brings an expansion with a modulation in the pla- 
gal form of which the F mode is so fond. It is like a quiet retrospect on 
the working of God. But now thanksgiving and jubilation come to the 
fore: "With my will I will give praise to Him." This phrase begins a 
sixth higher — a rare occurrence in plainsong — and extends far above a, 
the peak of the first phrase. And yet the thanksgiving here expressed is 
not so joyous and ringing as that of many other pieces. The note &b, 
which dominates the phrase, has a tendency to hold back the exultation, 
and the close over Uli is more like an indecisive faltering than a song of 
joy. 

After an introductory formula, the verse has the same ornate me- 
lismas as are heard on Maundy Thursday and on other days. The first 
part of the Gradual modulates to low c; by way of contrast the verse 
goes up to high c. Thus far there is no difficulty in following the melodic 
development. But the following petitions, ne sileas, and ne discedas (the 
latter has a common closing formula) have no intrinsic relation with 
one another or with that which precedes. Ne sileas, moreover, loses 
much of its effectiveness simply because the preceding melody is already 
developed in so splendid a manner. 

Who is to sing this song? If it is true that every Sunday is a minia- 
ture Easter, then it is true especially of this Sunday. The Epistle which 
precedes our present Gradual again impresses upon us the fact that 
Christ died for our sins, that He arose from the dead on the third day 
according to the Scriptures, that He appeared to Peter, to the eleven, 



290 Eleventh Sunday after Pentecost 

and to more than five hundred brethren. We may, therefore, place this 
song in the mouth of the Risen One. Its first phrase resembles the spirit 
of the Easter Introit. "My flesh hath flourished again." How radiant is 
Christ in His springtime beauty and splendor, after His body has under- 
gone the most horrible sufferings! How sweet is this song of thanksgiving 
when it comes from the heart of Jesus! In the verse, the risen Christ 
seems to look back on His sufferings and His abandonment, when the 
Father seemed to turn a deaf ear to His Deus mens and to be immeasur- 
ably distant. But in ancient times the present Gradual did not close with 
these petitions. To round out the piece the corpus of the Gradual was 
repeated in the spirit of reconciliation, thus making it more like a song 
of thanksgiving. 

With these same words St. Paul might have given thanks that by 
the grace of God he is what he is, and that this grace has not remained 
inoperative in him — thoughts which close today's Epistle. We all have 
good reason to give thanks from the bottom of our hearts, because we 
have been saved by the same good tidings. In like manner does the 
deaf-and-dumb man of today's Gospel thank the Lord, for He did not 
remain silent, but pronounced His almighty Ephpheta — *'Be thou 
opened!" 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 80: 2, 3) 

1. Exsultate Deo adjutori nostro 1. Rejoice to God our helper, 2. 

2. jubilate Deo Jacob: 3. sumite Sing aloud to the God of Jacob: 3. 
psalmum jucundum cum cithara. take a joyful psalm with the harp. 

Alleluia has the form a b c. Similarly, a begins the first and third 
phrases of the verse. In each case, however, the treatment of the word- 
accent is different, with corresponding differences in the dynamics. Ex- 
sultate and sumite are admittedly nothing more than introductions to 
the words which follow them. The imperative which begins the second 
phrase also rises a fourth above the opening note. Principal and second- 
ary accents are treated in the same way as in exsultate (=jubiläte). In 
the b-member, e d e f d and b a b c d c correspond. The passage over 
Deo is heard again over nostro and (Ja)-cob, while (adjut6)-ri occurs in 
an extended form over psalmum and jucundum. Were it left to us we 
should most likely in all three cases have distributed the neums as with 
psalmum, instead of placing a single note on the accented syllable and 
an ornate melisma over the closing syllable. In the votive Mass of the 
Most Pure Heart of Mary during Paschal time, the melody is sung in 
the same fashion; the alleluia for the twenty-third Sunday after Pente- 
cost also bears a slight resemblance to it. 



Eleventh Sunday after Pentecost 291 

If we sang the Gradual in the spirit of Easter as coming from the 
heart of the risen Lord, then this Alleluia ought to be the expression of 
our joy at having received the help of God's grace in holy Baptism. In 
that Sacrament He freed us from sin, made us to speak and understand 
spiritually, and in the Holy Eucharist He makes us sharers in His divine 
life. When we hear the words of this verse and of the whole psalm, the 
strains of the Introit Cihavit eos for Monday in Whitsun week and for 
Corpus Christi seem to resound again in our hearts, for they sing of the 
Saviour's Eucharistie love for us, and urge us to teach the whole world 
how to share in our joy. 

OFFERTORY 

This Offertory was explained on Ash Wednesday. We continue to 
offer thanks for the grace of Baptism. The "Ephpheta" of today's Gos- 
pel, together with the ceremonies that attended it, has been incorporated 
into the rite of Baptism, and has produced its effect in us in the most 
sublime sense. "Be thou opened!" the priest cried, and our ear opened 
itself to the word of God, our tongue loosed itself for the praise of God, 
and our eye looked upon the marvels of grace which God had worked 
in our soul. We were made children of God and heirs of heaven, partakers 
of Christ unto life eternal. If a prayer of thanksgiving forced itself to 
the lips of him who had been deaf and dumb, then surely we must pray 
and sing: I will extol Thee, Lord, for Thou hast protected me; Thou 
hast received me into Thy Church, hast broken the power of my mortal 
enemy and hast begun to heal the wounds of original sin. Mayest Thou 
remain with me, that my enemies may no longer rejoice over me. 

COMMUNION (Prov. 3: 9, 10) 

1. Honora Domino de tua sub- 1. Honor the Lord with thy sub- 
stantia, 2. et de primitiis frugum stance, 2. and with the first of all 
tuarum: 3. et implebuntur horrea thy fruits: 3. and thy barns shall be 
tua saturitate, 4. et vino torcularia filled with abundance, 4. and thy 
redundabunt. presses shall run over with wine. 

These four phrases are like so many strophes of an intimate and 
appealing song, one over which the good odor of the earth, the fragrance 
of gardens and of fresh wine seems to hover. According to the text there 
are two pairs of phrases: the first two mention what we are to do; the 
other two speak of the generosity with which God will repay us. While 
the third phrase expresses astonishment over God's bountiful goodness, 
the second soars upward in the spirit of self-sacrifice. The first and 



292 Twelfth Sunday after Pentecost 

fourth phrases have the same range, both descend to c and have the 
same extended finale. 

The first phrase has the same beginning as today's Gradual. Over 
tua and substantia the first / ought to be prolonged. You are not to offer 
any kind of gift, but the noblest, the best, the first fruits. This grada- 
tion of thought is paralleled by that of the melody in the second phrase, 
while the warm-toned cadence over primitiis, which also exerts some in- 
fluence on that which follows, speaks with the tender, cordial voice of 
love. The ending of tudrum corresponds with that of the first and fourth 
phrases. In the third phrase the melody becomes even more luminous 
than in the second. We are struck by the sudden beginning of horrea 
with an interval of a fourth, as if it were a cry of wonder at the im- 
mensity of God's goodness! Vino in the fourth phrase closes on a pes 
and the following word begins a fifth lower, a frequent occurrence in 
pieces of the first and eighth mode (cf. the Introit Gaudete, p. 27, and 
the Introit Dum medium silentium, p. 69.). The Revue Gregorienne calls 
this musical turn a "smiling interrogation mark." Torculdria, reminding 
us of impledntur, brings the joyous answer. Here again the secondary 
as well as the principal accent receive very curt treatment. 

Clearness and joy characterize the melody, rather than solemnity. 
Holy Communion is the life-giving bread, the never-failing wine which 
gives strength to the soul. 

Would that we choir directors ever derived new energy from the 
celebration of the sacred Mysteries, in order to glorify the Lord with 
all our strength (substantia) and to offer Him the noblest and the best! 

Revue, 24, 174 ff.; Analyses, 5, 7 ff. 



TWELFTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST 

INTROIT (Ps. 69:2, 3) 

1. Deus, in adjutorium meum 1. Incline unto mine aid, God: 

intende: 2. Domine, ad adjuvandum 2. O Lord, make haste to help me: 3. 

me festina: 3. confundantur et let mine enemies be confounded and 

revereantur inimici mei, qui quaer- ashamed, who seek my soul. Ps. 

unt animam meam. Ps. Avertantur Let them be turned backward, and 

retrorsum, et eruhescant: * qui co- blush for shame, * who devise evils 

gitant mihi mala. against me. 

All the canonical hours of the daily Office open with the first two 
phrases of the Introit and are generally sung in a rather simple style. 



Twelfth Sunday after Pentecost 293 

In the present instance the melody climbs to unusual heights, which is 
already indicated by the use of the C clef on the second line. The first 
two phrases are impelled onward by great anxiety of soul; they voice 
the most abject misery. We can imagine how the man in today's Gospel 
cried for assistance after the robbers had beaten him almost to death. 
He had seen the priest approach and confidently looked forward to being 
rescued. But the priest passed by, indifferent. Similarly had he seen the 
Levite coming toward him, but he also kept aloof. How he must have 
cried then to God for help: Intende, imploring Him to send relief at 
once, for he was bleeding to death: festinal 

By means of the pressus over Deus and the strengthening of the 
note over (adju)-t6-(rium), special emphasis is placed on the first phrase, 
while the whole step below the c gives it unusual force. We shall better 
understand the melody if we picture it written a fourth lower: its es- 
sential notes then would hegcägdfgacdc and ä f ä g g at the end. 
These are tone-sequences with which the eighth mode has made us well 
acquainted. The second phrase, which ought to be compared with the 
rich Offertory on the Thursday after the fourth Sunday in Lent, could 
be transposed in the same manner. We should then have an /^ over mei. 

To judge merely from the melodic structures, the third phrase is the 
most calm. But in the development of the motive of confunddntur over 
reveredntur, and in the prominent syllabic chant, a tension is evident 
which is readily felt by the singer, a tension which calls for release in 
the second half of the phrase and especially stresses the important 
words dnimam meam. A host of evil spirits go about the world, seeking 
the ruin of souls (cf. the prayers after Mass). Evil men assist them in 
their task. Many hardly realize the dangers by which they are surrounded, 
or with what terrifying speed they are rushing to perdition. For them 
the Church prays with motherly solicitude and cries to heaven: Deus 
in adjutoriuml May the strength of the enemies be broken and their 
influence come to naught! 

In the Epistle we hear the Apostle admonishing us: "Not that we 
are sufficient to think anything of ourselves, as of ourselves; but our 
sufficiency is from God." And the Collect remarks that it is only by 
virtue of God's grace that His faithful serve Him loyally and worthily. 
All this urges us to pray the more fervently: Deus in adjutorium meum 
intendel 

GRADUAL (Ps. 33:2, 3) 

1. Benedicam Dominum in omni 1. / will hless the Lord at all 

tempore: 2. semper laus ejus in ore times: 2. his praise shall he ever in 
meo. jl. 1. In Domino laudabitur my mouth. ^. In the Lord shall my 



294 Twelfth Sunday after Pentecost 

anima mea: 2. audiant mansueti, et soul he praised: 2. let the meek hear, 
laetentur. and rejoice. 

This melody is marked with irregularities. It has not that lucid 
construction so evident in Graduals of the fifth and sixth modes, which 
places the principal melodic ascent in the verse. Here the ascent is found 
in the corpus, which several times goes up to / and even to g, whereas 
the verse reaches / only once. Surprising, too, is the closing of the corpus 
on c ah a, the usual ending of the transposed Doric mode. Not only is 
the ending Doric; the entire extended phrase in ore meo with the pre- 
ceding ten notes is sung in the Gradual of the tenth Sunday after Pente- 
cost, which belongs to the first mode, over the words protege me. This is 
no doubt one of the longest accommodations in a strange mode. Not 
quite so extended is the appropriating of the second group of notes over 
mansueti, which is taken from the third mode. Here one may also com- 
pare the second and third groups over the word meus in the Gradual 
for Passion Sunday. The close of mea and mansueti recurs in the Grad- 
ual Justus ut palma, which is ascribed to the second mode, over the word 
multiplicdhitur and before per noctem. The melody over lauddhitur dnima 
mea bears a great resemblance to that over lauddhimur tota die on the 
twenty-third Sunday after Pentecost, which latter is, however, set a 
fourth higher. In both cases there is question of the seventh mode. 

The importance of the melismatic punctuation again comes promi- 
nently to the fore. Compare (D6mi)-num, (tempo )-re, (e)-jus, (me)-o; in 
the verse, (D6mi)-no, (me)-a, (mansue)-ti, (laeten)-tur. Over Domino 
the verse has the same melody as the first part of the Gradual over 
Dominum. 

Mode, style, and text of this Gradual find their continuation in the 
Gradual Clamaverunt of the Mass Salus autem. Both are taken from the 
thirty-third psalm. Compare the remarks on the Gradual for Septua- 
gesima Sunday. 

The Graduals Domine, praevenisti on March 19 and Benedicta on 
July 2 are assigned to the fourth mode, no doubt because the first part 
of the Gradual, which is to be repeated, closes on e. The verse belongs 
undoubtedly to the first mode. One would expect to find the determining 
factor after the close of the corpus. Since, however, in ancient times the 
first part of the Gradual was not repeated after the verse, but the verse 
Clamaverunt — clearly belonging to the seventh mode, as is also indicated 
in our Graduale — followed, the entire piece was assigned to the seventh 
mode with good show of reason. 

The Psalmist stresses the point that we are to praise God at all 
times. For in Himself God already is lauddhilis nimis. He can never be 
praised sufficiently. If we then consider His love for us and His bene- 



Twelfth Sunday after Pentecost 295 

ficence, the obligation of thanking Him must weigh heavily upon our 
souls and ever inspire us with new love. What immense riches we pos- 
sess in Christ! Of this today's Epistle reminds us when it shows that the 
New Dispensation is far superior to and more glorious than the old, 
and that God's grace has called us and qualified us for this New Law. 
But especially in the house of God ought our singing and praising so to 
resound, that it "may arouse joy in the hearts of the faithful." St. Bene- 
dict in his Rule (Chapter 47) stipulates that only he should be allowed to 
sing or read in choir who can fulfill this task to the edification of those 
present. He should do it with humility, dignity, holy fear, and in obe- 
dience. In the same manner we ought to perform our sacred service for 
the honor of God and the joy and edification of the faithful. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 87: 2) 

1. Domine Deus salutis meae: 2. 1. OLord the God of my salvation: 

in die clamavi et node coram te. 2. / have cried in the day, and in 

the night before thee. 

Alleluia has the form a b c c^ The frequent pressus are introduced 
in various ways. Over (Al)-le-(lüia) a group of four notes precedes the 

pressus; the same is true of the close of the juhilus: e f e d ee — g a g a gg. 

In the b-member, groups of three notes precede: c h a cc — g a h aa; in 

c and c\ groups of two notes: g a cc — h g aa. The effectiveness of the 
melodic line will be increased if the pressus be not accented too strongly; 
in fact, the preceding notes should be stressed a little more. The address 
to God composes the first phrase of the verse. Here there is melodic 
tenseness, ascending until it closes on the old dominant of the third 
mode. "Thou art the God of my salvation." This grateful avowal is the 
best recommendation for the petition which follows. The pressus helps 
to make the plea more impressive. The extreme limits of this descending 
curve give the melodic line c h a g f e, which is, however, enlivened by 
thirds. Domine Deus must be sung solemnly. The annotated manuscripts 
here have broad markings almost exclusively. 

In connection with the Gospel which follows, this song sounds like 
a cry for the redemption of a world sick unto death. 

On the feast of the Precious Blood and of St. Benedict Joseph 
Labre (April 16) the same melody is sung. 

We here have poignant sorrow transfigured by the Paschal Alleluia. 
Our thoughts revert to Mother Church, sorrowfully awaiting the day of 
her resurrection. Perhaps your own soul will have to sing a similar 
Alleluia chant. (K.L.) 



296 Twelfth Sunday after Pentecost 

OFFERTORY (Ex. 32: 11, 13, 14) 

1. Precatus est Moyses in con- 1. Moses prayed in the sight of 

spectu Domini Dei sui, et dixit: 2. the Lord his God, and said: 2. 

precatus est Moyses in conspectu Moses prayed in the sight of the 

Domini Dei sui, et dixit: II. 3. Lord his God and said: II. S. Why, 

Quare, Domine, irasceris in po- O Lord, is thine indignation en- 

pulo tuol 4. Parce irae animae tuae: kindled against thy people'! 4. Let 

5. memento Abraham, Isaac et the anger of thy mind cease: 5. re- 

Jacoh, quihus jurasti dare terram member Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, 

fluentem lac et mel. III. 6. Et to whom thou didst swear to give a 

placatus est Dominus de maligni- land flowing with milk and honey, 

täte, quam dixit facere populo suo. III. 6. And the Lord was appeased 

from doing the evil, which he had 
spoken of doing against his people. 

Here everything — the content, the construction, the expression — 
is on a grand scale. One can almost see the palpitations of the singer's 
breast, as it rises and sinks under the excessive emotions that rush in 
upon his soul. Everything is at stake: the salvation of an entire people. 
God has threatened it with destruction because it adored the golden 
calf. He had promised Moses, however, that He would make him the 
father of a new and better people. Hence Moses threw everything into 
the balance to save his people, the very nation which had so frequently 
embittered his life. That was spirit of the spirit of God! Here was shown 
a mercy akin to that of the Good Samaritan of the Gospel. 

The three divisions of the piece are indicated in the above transla- 
tion: I. Introduction; II. Supplication of Moses; III. Response. 

I. We can divine the meaning of this prayer at the very outset. 
The beginning of In con-(spectu), with its low fifth, lets the prayer as- 
cend from the very depths of the soul. The form over Dei sui with its 
tritone occurs in a varied shape over (i)-rasceris, in populo, and tuae, 
besides coming in the repetition. Over the first dixit we meet the closing 
neums frequently used in the eighth mode. Compare the passage over 
surrexit in the Offertory for Easter Monday. We find the same first 
phrase repeated in the Ambrosian Antiphonary (Paleographie musicale, 
VII, 197J. The words Precatus and Moyses are slightly amplified by the 
addition of a clivis; the close of dixit, on the contrary, has been con- 
siderably shortened. 

II. Violent agitation is expressed by the cumulation of fourths, 
bistrophas, tristrophas, pressus, and tritones. Ever more vehement be- 
comes the beating of the singer's heart. As if to storm the gates of heaven 
itself, he now cries: Memento] Lord, Thou hast pledged Thy word. Thou 



Twelfth Sunday after Pentecost 297 

canst not destroy us. The fourth over Quäre becomes a fifth, then a sixth, 
and the agitation grows apace, until some relaxation is afforded with 
the descending fifth over (Ja)-coh. Nevertheless, the tension is still 
evident in terram. In the presentation, a short pause must be made after 
lac. The heaping of neums over the twice-sung et strikes us rather oddly. 

III. The third part begins with the tone of assurance. We regard 
this passage as a resolved major chord. Malignitä-(te) is placed between 
two motives of like sound. The rich melody over populo with the de- 
velopment 6 a ch g, ä c a 6 af assures us that Israel is again God's people. 
Quiet seconds form the close. The avoidance of tritones is no doubt 
intended. 

Moses is but a weak type of Christ and His redemptive work. 
Christ not only prayed for us: He gave Himself completely for us. He 
can, therefore, not only point to the promises of God; He can show His 
wounds and the blood which was shed "unto the remission of sins," as 
the priest prays at the consecration. He is the "High Priest who came 
to effect a reconciliation in the time of God's wrath." Hence He also 
expects of us that we assist at the holy Sacrifice in the spirit of reconci- 
liation and with a love which is not self-centered, but is prepared to 
immolate itself for others. 

COMMUNION (JPs. 103: 13, 14, 15) 

1. De fructu operum tuorum, Do- 1. The earth shall he filled with 

mine, satiabitur terra: 2. ut educas the fruit of thy works, Lord: 2. 
panem de terra, et vinum laetificet that thou mayest bring bread out of 
cor hominis; 3. ut exhilaret faciem the earth, and that vjine may cheer 
in oleo, 4. et panis cor hominis con- the heart of man: 3. that he may 
firmet. make the face cheerful with oil: 4 

and that bread may strengthen man's 

heart. 

As last Sunday, so today again we have a harvest song, a song of 
thanksgiving for the blessings of grain, wine, and oil which God has 
bestowed upon man. His paternal goodness not only supplies the neces- 
saries of life; it aims also at bringing joy to our heart: twice this thought 
is expressed here. It is precisely in these passages that the melodic cli- 
maxes occur. Joy wants to pour itself out, communicate itself, and in- 
flame the hearts of others. It receives special emphasis not only through 
its high position, but also through the pressus, the only one used in this 
Communion, in contrast to that of last Sunday. Besides this contrast, 
in spite of the fact that it employs the same sixth mode, this Commun- 



298 Thirteenth Sunday after Pentecost 

ion has a quieter melody, a more limited range, and smaller intervals, 
for even fourths are excluded. All is more unassuming here; but at the 
same time more intimate and cordial. The entire first phrase confines 
itself to seconds, and the chant is almost purely syllabic. The second 
phrase has / for its recitative, with emphasis of the accented syllables. 
It is the word-accent, in fact, which usually determines the melodic de- 
velopment: f g a f over educas, f g h\? ah\} a over vinum, a c aa g a over 
laetificet. The third phrase retains the joyous spirit of the second and, 
in spite of its brevity, has individual charm in the consonant passages 
€ah\?gagfggf over (ex)-hilaret and f d e f ded c d dc over in oleo. 
With et panis we should like to see a new phrase begin on account of 
the text and the melodic arrangement. Here we have the rare case of a 
phrase ending wit a half tone (e f). Although the e before the final note 
accords with our ideas of harmony, still the ancients considered a close 
with a half tone an imperfection. 

The Eucharistie allusion of these verses becomes most evident when 
they are used in a Communion song. For how many has the Eucharist 
stilled the longings of the heart, satisfied the craving for heavenly food! 
For how many has it been the source of joy and inspiration. The fruit 
of Thy works Lord, the Eucharistie Sacrifice, has satisfied the long- 
ings of our soul. There we see Christ as the Good Samaritan. Wine and 
oil He pours into our wounds, and a love that knows no limits. When 
we read at the end "that bread may strengthen man's heart," then let 
us pray: O my Saviour, now I must again go forth into life with its 
struggles, its trials, its many temptations. Take Thou my troubled 
heart into Thy hand and impart to it strength, constancy, and fidelity. 



THIRTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST 

INTROIT (Ps. 73: 20, 19, 23) 

1. Respice, Domine, in testamen- 1. Have regard unto thy covenant 

turn tuum, et animas pauperum and forsake not to the end the souls 

tuorum ne derelinquas in finem: 2. of thy poor: 2. arise, O Lord, and 

exsurge Domine, et judica causam judge thy cause, and forget not the 

tuam: 3. et ne ohlivscaris voces voices of them that seek thee. Ps. 

quaerentium te. Ps. Ut quid Deus Why, O God, hast thou cast us off 

reppulisti in finem: * iratus est furor unto the end: * why is thy wrath 

tuus super oves pascuae tuael kindled against the sheep of thy 



Thirteenth Sunday after Pentecost 299 

Violent emotions stir the heart of the singer today. Apprehension 
that God may turn away forever His face from His wayward people 
seizes it; fear that He may break the covenant, mankind's only hope, 
because so many have become unfaithful to it. Hence this violent, al- 
most passionate, clamoring, especially in the second part over exsurge 
Domine. "Perhaps it was the dire distress, caused by the migration of 
Nations, that forced this lamentation from the Church; we might now 
substitute as her reason the sinfulness of so many of her children" 
{K. L.). The singer knows, however, that he can pray in the name of 
the whole Church: we are Thy people. Thy poor, the lambs of Thy pas- 
ture, this matter is Thy concern. And that consoles him for God will 
not abandon His Church to any hostile power, and no malice or evil 
scheming can ever prevail against her. 

Today's Gospel tells the story of the lepers' cleansing. With what 
loud voices did they not cry: "Jesus, Master, have mercy on us!" But 
even more urgent than this will be the plea of him who has experienced 
what is the leprosy of the soul, what a shameful thing sin is, how it im- 
poverishes man utterly, and what a terrible thing it is to desert one's 
'Creator and to break the covenant so solemnly ratified. Our present 
song is born out of this bitter realization. But there is confidence in it 
also: The divine Shepherd of souls does not forget us. He does not for- 
sake us, for behold, in the holy Sacrifice He comes down upon the altar 
and gives Himself as food to His poor sheep! 

The melody will gain in lucidity if we consider the pause after 
causam tuam the same as that after testamentum tuum. Thus are formed 
two parts; the first half dramatically enlivened by the imperatives Re- 
spice, exsurge, and judica; while the second half with ne derelinquas, ne 
oUiviscdris, and the emphasis on the dominant c, is considerably more 
quiet. Toward the end the chant again becomes more insistent by rea- 
son of the pressus over derelinquas and quaerentium. 

The first half of the phrase forcefully presents the three most im- 
portant words; the second half avoids all larger intervals. It is the suppli- 
ant petition of the "poor." The final cadence is borrowed from the 
fourth mode. After the turbulent exsurge Domine, et jüdica sets in on 
the dominant, just as in testamentum after Domine above; tuam is an 
abridgment of tuum; ne ohliviscdris harks back to et jüdica; voces closes 
•on c, like tuorum above. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 73: 20, 19, 22) 

1. Respice, Domine, in testa- 1. Have regard, Lord, to thy 

Tnentum tuum: 2. et animas pau- covenant, and forsake not to the 



300 Thirteenth Sunday after Pentecost 

perum tuorum 3. ne ohliviscaris end the souls of thy poor, jl. 1. 

in finem. ^. 1. Exsurge Domine, 2. Arise, O Lord, 2. and judge thy 

et judica causam tuam: 3. memor cause: 3. remember the reproach of 

esto opprohrii servorum tuorum. thy servants. 

With the exception of the last phrase, the Introit and Gradual have 
the same wording. But how different is the mood the latter expresses! 
Here Respice and the entire first phrase have a quieter tone, although 
the second phrase is more lively than et dnimas pauperum in the Introit. 
In the Gradual the prayer of the "poor" becomes more perceptible by 
means of the &b after the h, which immediately precedes, through the 
stressing of the minor third, but especially by the urgent fourths and 
the emphasis on &!? and c. Then the melody presents a regular cadence, 
quite uncalled for by the text. The pause should be very short. Songs 
adorned with many neums, such as Graduals and Alleluias, naturally 
have more divisions than other pieces. Thus what was one phrase in the 
Introit is here divided into three melodic phrases. The third phrase be- 
gins like in testamentum above, but imparts a special fervor to the pe- 
tition. There are but few fifth-mode Graduals which are so animated 
in their first part as this one. 

The verse, however, is typical throughout. The final neums of Do- 
mine come to a climax with increasing power. Few singers will be able 
to chant the whole on one breath. In case of necessity, breath might be 

taken after d e ddh. Causam in the second phrase repeats the final neums 
of Domine and those over et jü-(dica); tuam presents the same motive 
thrice, and then adds a cadence. Opprohrii reiterates the cadence of 
(tu6)-rum from the first part of the Gradual. We Thy servants have be- 
come a laughing stock, an object of contempt to Thy enemies. Forget 
us not, desert us not; judge Thou Thy cause! This is not sung in the 
vigorous style of the Introit, however, but with a typical Gradual- 
melody which is predominantly joyful in character. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 89: 1) 

1. Domine, refugium f actus es 1. Lord, thou hast been our refuge: 

nobis: 2. a generatione et progenie. 2. from generation to generation. 

This Alleluia comes like a song of thanksgiving for the granting of 
the petitions mentioned in the Gradual. Would that we might hear the 
prayers of all the nations of the Christian centuries thanking God that 
He has provided a place of refuge in His Church, a shelter against the 
darts and arrows of the evil one, an asylum of rest after the sorrows and 
hardships of life, a haven where the soul, hungering for truth and grace, 



Thirteenth Sunday after Pentecost 301 

may find sustenance! If we could hear all these songs of thanksgiving, 
from those which were sung in the catacombs to those we now hear in 
all the churches of Christendom, how our hearts would be aflame with 
gratitude for all that God means to us in His Church. 

Alleluia has four members, each of which ascends to high e. That 
is also the upper limit of the first phrase. The second phrase, however, 
soars above it to /. In the first and third members of Alleluia a slight 
pause occurs on the note h. We meet the second neum of the second 
member again over es and no-(his). Domine rises in majestic seconds. 
In refugium a concatenation of motives is apparent: d e d h and c d 6 a 
are joined to one another by c d c h. The cadence over refugium, which 
recurs in a shortened form at the end of ( generali )-6ne, seems almost too 
final for a word in the middle of a sentence. The ornate neums over 
( generali )-6ne sound as if they were borrowed from the words Juxta est 
Dominus of the Gradual Clamaverunt. The melodic line, here crowned 
by a tor cuius, is more graceful than that of the Gradual with its pressus. 
Et harks back to a. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 30: 15, 16) 

l.Inte speravi, Domine; 2. dixi: 1. In thee, O Lord, have I hoped: 

Tu es Deus meus, 3. in manihus 2. / said: Thou art my God, 3. my 
tuis tempora mea. times are in thy hands. 

In content and melody this Offertory strongly resembles that of 
the first Sunday of Advent. Like the latter it ascends from the depths, 
from the acknowledgment of human indigence and helplessness. In both 
pieces Domine receives similar treatment. The close over tempora mea 
can also be regarded as a variant of that over dnimam in the other Offer- 
tory. But the singer will soon discover the difference between the two. 
In the first place, today's Offertory is more serene. Similar or identical 
tone-sequences are found in the ending of speravi, over (Dö)-mi-(ne), 
over Deus and meus. Our present melody avoids large intervals — the 
greatest is a third — as well as modulation to c, so much favored by the 
second mode. This melody is also brighter in character. The develop- 
ment with dixi and in manihus may not be very apparent, but still one 
readily senses the freedom that underlies it. It is the song of carefree 
confidence. In spite of its length, the melody of the first Sunday of Ad- 
vent never reaches high a, as today's does. 

There is great similarity in the compass of the three phrases. In 
the first phrase the first note, lengthened by a quilisma, is extremely 
effective, especially in this text. In the second phrase the podatus after 
the tristropha should receive a good accent; the same over Tu. The cli- 



302 Thirteenth Sunday after Pentecost 

max over Deus mens is obvious enough. This is really the sense of the 
melody: O God, Thou art my God. After mens a short pause is allow- 
able. Everything strains toward further development with in mdnibus. 
It seems but natural that f g d g a f (manibus) should follow d e f e d 
(Deus) and d e f g f e (mens). A slight secondary accent may be placed 
on the fifth note over md-(nihus). Quiet yet effective two-note groups 
thus make up this half of the phrase. 

Included in the gifts which we bring to the altar is the oblation of 
ourselves to God; we confide entirely in Him, and place in His hands 
both life and death, both time and eternity. There we shall be safe 
(W.K.). At a nuptial Mass the spouses similarly place their entire lives 
in God's hands, for this Offertory is also sung in the Mass Pro Sponso et 
Sponsa. And even if we are conscious of the leprosy of sin with which 
we are afflicted, we know for certain that to our suppliant cry, "Jesus, 
Master, have mercy on us," He will reply with His almighty word: 
"Arise, go thy way: for thy faith hath made thee whole." 

Special beauty attaches to the verses which formerly were sung in 
connection with this Offertory: (1) "Make Thy face to shine upon Thy 
servant; save me in Thy mercy. Let me not be confounded, O Lord, for 
I have called upon Thee." (2) "O how great is the multitude of Thy 
sweetness, O Lord? Which Thou hast hidden for them that fear Thee! 
Which Thou hast wrought for them that hope in Thee, in the sight of 
the sons of men." And each verse closed with the joyfully confiding re- 
frain: In mdnihus tuis tempora mea. 

COMMUNION (Wisd. 16: 20) 

1. Panem de caelo dedisti nobis, 1. Thou hast given us, Lord, 

Domine, habentem omne delecta- bread from heaven, having in it all 

mentum, 2. et omnem sapor em that is delicious, 2. and the sweet- 

suavitatis. ness of every taste. 

It is the Lord who has given us the Holy Eucharist. That is the 
first thought suggested by the melody, which progresses almost step- 
wise, emphasizing /-/, g-g, a~a, c-c, until the word Domine surmounts 
it all. Pronounce the words of this phrase distinctly and see how well 
the chant follows the natural development of the text. The Bread of 
heaven hast Thou given us, O Lord! Only Thou wast able to give it. 
Thy wisdom alone could conceive such a gift; Thy love alone could be- 
stow it upon us. In very truth, "Thy sustenance showeth forth Thy 
sweetness to Thy children," as the subsequent verse of the Book of 
Wisdom puts it. 



Fourteenth Sunday after Pentecost 303 

The second thought is: This Bread is full of sweetness. The text 
alone rings with the joy of it, but the melody strives to make it still 
more prominent. Omne in the second half of the first phrase is sung on 
the dominant. (According to a stylistic requirement which is generally 
observed in florid songs such as Graduals, a new melodic phrase is here 
formed for the same thought.) Its first half is characterized by the pre- 
dominating d; the second is introduced by a surprising fifth and closes 
with the cadence customary with the fifth and sixth modes. 

We have again been made partakers of this precious food from 
heaven. That is the Lord's answer to our supplication and lamentation 
in the Introit. He does not forget or forsake us. He comes into our 
hearts, bringing His peace, which contains all sweetness in itself. Would 
that we might thank Him as we ought! This heavenly food is to prepare 
us for heaven, for a heavenly life even on this earth. Its sweetness will 
detach us from all earthly joy. 



FOURTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST 

INTROIT (Ps. 83: 10, 11) 

1. Protector nosier aspice, Deus, 1. Behold, God, our protector, 

et respice in faciem Christi tui: 2. and look on the face of thy Christ: 2. 

quia melior est dies una in atriis for better is one day in thy courts 

tuis super millia. Ps. Quam di- above thousands. Ps. How lovely are 

lecta tabernacula tua, Domine vir- thy tabernacles, O Lord of hostsl * 

tutuml * concupiscit, et deficit ani- my soul longeth and fainteth for 

ma mea in atria Domini. the courts of the Lord. 

The first phrase has a middle cadence on the finale and a final 
cadence on the dominant after an emphatic b. It is dominated by the 
petitions aspice and respice. Aspice is not an outcry, as it is in the In- 
troit for Palm Sunday; nevertheless the fourth and the accented c make 
it quite insistent. Without God the weakness of man is indeed wont to 
fall, as today's Collect tells us. It is extremely difficult constantly to 
comply with the admonitions of today's Epistle and to crucify our 
flesh with its vices and concupiscences. Assistance from above is ab- 
solutely necessary if we would folllow the dictates of the spirit always 
and in all things. Hence this aspice and respice. But Christi tui receives 
still greater stress. When we have congregated in the house of God 
(atriis tuis), we may pray to Him: We are Thy anointed. Thy Christ; 
we belong to the mystic body of Christ, having become conformable 



304 Fourteenth Sunday after Pentecost 

to the image of Christ through sanctifying grace. Hence we may expect 
Thy special protection. The love which Thou bearest to Thy Son Christ 
overflows upon Thy chidren, the Christians, Thy anointed ones. 

In singing this piece care must be had that the low d over (Pro)- 
te-(ctor) be not slighted. It is the beginning of a crescendo which must 
increase till it reaches c. Perhaps this d e f g a served as a model for the 
f g a c d c over (fdci)-em Christi; it is heard again over super mil-ilia). 

The beginning of the second phrase on &b tends to make the closing 
melisma of the preceding tui mellow and tender (cf. N. Sch., 249). For 
here we are speaking of the consolation that our soul so eagerly receives 
in church, in the house of God. Here we ever become more conformable 
to the image of Christ; here our soul finds its true home in the heart of 
God. Were it to taste all the joy of the world for a thousand days or a 
thousand years, it would still be homesick and would long for its true 
happiness — union with God. The 5b over quia and over the similar 
melior is influenced by the following/, just as later c over una calls for h. 
Una is emphasized, but millia has the richest melisma of the entire 
composition. But however grateful we may feel for the treasures of grace 
which are available in God's holy place, still a yearning fills our hearts 
for that great day which shall know no evening, for the contemplation 
of Christ (in fdciem Christi). 

GRADUAL (Ps. 117: 8, 9) 

1. Bonum est confidere in Do- 1. It is good to confide in the 

w,ino, quam confidere in homine. ^ Lord, rather than to have confidence 
1. Bonum est sperare in Domino, 2. in man. ^. 1. It is good to trust in 
quam sperare in principihus. the Lord, 2. rather than to trust in 

princes. 

An antithesis exists between God and the world; that was the theme 
of the Introit. In the Epistle flesh and spirit, in the Gospel God and 
Mammon are placed in opposition. The Gradual loudly proclaims the 
same thought. And were worldlings endowed with all power and wealth, 
they would yet remain mere men, mortal men, incapable of bestowing 
upon us lasting happiness. David, the composer of Psalm 117, knew 
this from his own experience as well as from the history of his nation. 
God alone is the source of true happiness of heart: His fidelity is never 
wanting; His riches are boundless; His love is eternal. 

Hardly a single musical turn is found in the corpus which does not 
occur also in other Graduals of the fifth mode. Thus the beginning of 
the first phrase bears great resemblance to that of the fourth and sixth 
Sundays after Pentecost. The first phrase of the* verse is also much like 



Fourteenth Sunday after Pentecost 305 

the second phrase of the Gradual for the second Sunday in Lent (q.v.). 
Its second phrase echoes the second phrase on the fourth Sunday after 
Pentecost. The melodic development is not influenced by the meaning 
of the individual words; it is purely harmonic, or, better perhaps, it 
portrays but one sentiment: that of joyous confidence in God. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 94: 1) 

1. Venite, exsultemus Domino: 1. Come, let us praise the Lord 

2. juhilemus Deo salutari nostro. with joy: 2. let us joyfully sing to 

God our Saviour. 

Alleluia has the form a b c; in the same manner the verse opens 
with a and closes on c. Melodically, two sentences can be distinguished, 
each with an intonation (Venite, salutari), middle cadence (Domino, 
nostro), and final cadence (Deo, and the closing neums over nostro). The 
melody has therefore different divisions than the text. Over exsultemus 
we meet the accented / for the first time, preceded and followed by a 
minor third, which is again sung over Deo and several times over nostro. 
On the tenth Sunday after Pentecost the second half of this extremely 
ornate melisma also occurs at the close of the Alleluia- verse. There, 
however, the crowning notes are only f g f d, while here they are g a f d. 
Formerly this Alleluia had yet another verse (Wagner, III, 402 f.). 

In the early Christian centuries this song was sung during the pro- 
cession which led the newly baptized to the baptismal font each day 
during Easter Week. For was it not the fountain of supernatural life and 
bliss? Was it not there that the Lord had shown Himself as the Saviour? 
This salvation and happiness flowed from Christ's death and resurrec- 
tion. The verse is indeed an appropriate song for Sunday. In connection 
with the Mass formulary of today, it reveals the choice made between 
God and the world: "Venite, exsultemus Dominol" (Cf. Kirche und 
Kanzel, 1927, 289 f.) 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 33: 8, 9) 

1. Immittet Angelus Domini in 1. The angel of the Lord shall en- 

circuitu timentium eum, 2. et camp round about them that fear 

eripiet eos: 3. gustate et videte, quo- Mm, 2. and shall deliver them: 3. 

niam suavis est Dominus. taste and see that the Lord is sweet. 

The three phrases composing this song have a very modest range: 
the first and third confine themselves to a sixth; the second to a fifth. 
There is here no dramatic scene, no vehement cry for help; it is rather 
a song of consolation and confidence. Even though the world surges 



306 Fourteenth Sunday after Pentecost 

about us, enticing or threatening, we have nothing to fear, for God is 
our Helper. We must take care not to make any considerable pause be- 
tween the first two phrases, which compose the first part of the Offertory. 
In content and spirit the second part resembles the Introit. There we 
sang: "Better is one day in thy courts above thousands"; now we re- 
affirm the same thought with: "O taste and see that the Lord is sweet." 

We are reminded of the Vidi aquam, which we sing at the sprinkling 
of the holy water during the Easter season, in the introductory formula 
over Immittet, which occurs also at the beginning of the Communion 
Hoc corpus of Passion Sunday. The passages over Angelus and (^i)- 
menti-(um) are almost identical. Each syllable of the word Domini be- 
gins with the same motive, which is, however, continued in a different 
manner on the final syllable. (E)-ripiet and est have a similar melody. 
Following the analogy of like passages, the Benedictines of Solesmes 
indicate the rhythmic division cd he da f over (eir)-cüitu, (vi)-de-(te), and 
D6-(minus). In the final alleluia of the Offertory for the Rogation Mass, 
the same formula is employed. According to the monks of Solesmes the 
grouping of the neums has a melodic, rather than a musical, signification. 
From gusidte on, the second part is more lively, as well as richer melo- 
dically. As a result of their fourths, d-a, c-g, the imperative forms gus- 
idte and videte effect a similar impression. 

Holy angels form a protecting wall about us. But Christ Himself is 
the Angel of the Lord, the Angel of the great counsel, as He is called in 
the Introit for the third Mass of Christmas. He comes in the mystery of 
the Mass, descending upon the assembled congregation. He comes with 
all His love, all His power, and frees us from all that may harm soul or 
body. But it is not only His presence that is to delight us: the angels 
of the Lord invite us: gusidte et videie. In Holy Communion He becomes 
our very food. These are the words which form the oldest and most 
cherished Communion-song of the early Church (cf. the Communion 
for the eighth Sunday after Pentecost). 

COMMUNION (Matt. 6:33) 

1. Primum quaerite regnum Dei, 1. Seek first the kingdom of God, 

2. et omnia adjicientur vohis, dicit 2. and all things shall he added unto 
Dominum. you, saith the Lord. 

The Communion wishes to impress firmly upon our minds the final 
thought of today's Gospel. In our whole mode of life, in our inner soul 
as well as in our external dealings with others, the kingdom of God, of 
Christ the King, is to be formed and realized. That alone is the guarantee 



Fifteenth Sunday after Pentecost 307 

of true peace and welfare and happiness. Then all things else will be 
added. Thus saith the Lord. 

The melody is not so much a fervent exhortation as an expression 
of trust in the fulfillment of these words, or even of hearty thanks for 
all that divine Providence has in store for us. Regnum Dei is made im- 
pressive by means of a chord resembling a tritone. For everything de- 
pends upon this, that God, God exclusively, be acknowledged and 
obeyed as the true King. 

We may sing the last two words somewhat softly, thus placing the 
preceding more prominently in relief. 

Plainsong delights in using the turn g b a g which occurs over Dei. 
The school of Palestrina, however, avoids it on account of the leap made 
from the accented first note of the group of four. 

There is some resemblance to this melody in the Communion for 
the feast of St. Andrew the Apostle. 



FIFTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST 

INTROIT (Ps. 85: 1, 2, 3) 

1. Inclina, Domine, aurem tuam l.Bow down thine ear, Lord, to 

ad me, et exaudi me: 2. salvum fac me, and hear me: 2. save thy servant, 

servum tuum, Deus mens, speran- O my God, that trusteth in thee: 3. 

tern in te: 3. miserere mihi. Do- have mercy on me, O Lord, for I 

mine, quoniam at te clamavi tola have cried to thee all the day. Ps. 

die. Ps. Laetifica animam servi Give joy to the soul of thy servant: * 

tui: * quia ad te, Domine, animam for to thee, O Lord, have I lifted up 

meam levavi. my soul. 

Deus meus, sperantem in te forms the melodic nucleus of this Introit. 
Confidence in God is its theme. From this the many petitions, the many 
imperatives, receive their character: Thou art my God; in Thee I trust. 
Calmly, and with a wealth of assurance, the seconds ascend to high c. 
At the end of each word, however, a slight bending back of the melody 
occurs: g-f, h-a, c-a; in this manner the thesis that follows is prepared 
for and introduced. It is quite impossible to sing this passage too fer- 
vently or too ardently. Confidence is sustained by reverence, and here 
we pray: Deus meus. In the first and third phrases, as well as in the 
psalm-verse, Domine must be well delineated. 

The first phrase supports itself on a, the second on g, the third on /. 
The first half of the first phrase is made forceful by a; while the second 



308 Fifteenth Sunday after Pentecost 

half surprises us by its descent into the lower range. We have met the 
same intonation in various other chants. After the accent with the 
pressus, the remaining notes over Domine are modest and tender in char- 
acter. 

In the second phrase the three notes over salvum are to be stressed. 
The concatenation of the thirds a-f, g-e, f-d characterizes the third 
phrase, as do also the low notes in its second half. It almost sounds like 
a De profündis, a call from the depths of human helplessness. Clamdvi 
is a suppliant cry and resounds throughout the day. Over miserere, as 
frequently happens, principal and secondary accent have only one note, 
while each of the following syllables has three. 

Whoever examines his conscience according to the admonitions of 
today's Epistle will feel himself impelled to pray as this chant does. For 
we find it extremely difficult to persevere, to do good untiringly, to take 
care that we be not tempted. It is hard for us to bear the burdens of 
others; each of us finds his own burden^ — the responsibility for all his 
acts of commission and omission — heavy enough. Surely we have every 
reason to cry to God: "Bow down Thine ear, hear me, heal me, save me, 
have mercy on me!" But we ought also to pray with confidence. There 
should be no gloomy coloring to our song, not even in the third phrase. 
In the verse the Psalmist himself dares to pray: "Give joy to the soul 
of Thy servant." 

Let us consider the final words of the psalm- verse: "To Thee, O 
Lord, have I lifted up my soul." Is it true? Is my prayer and song an 
elevation of my being, of my whole personality, to God? Is it truly a 
Gloria Patril 

Revue, 9, 111 f. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 91: 2, 3) 

1. Bonum est confitere Domino 1. It is good to give praise to the 

2. et psallere nomino tuo, AUissime. Lord: 2. and to sing to thy name, 

jif. 1. Ad annuntiandum mane, 2. most High. '^. 1. To show forth in 

misericordiam tuam, 3. et veritatem the morning 2. thy mercy, 3. and 

tuam per noctem. in the night thy truth. 

Both parts of the Gradual have the same prolonged close: AUissime 
= per noctem, except that the unaccented syllable -si- in the first word 
has a clivis of its own. The beginning of the corpus and the ascent over 
confiteri with the cheerful major scale have a pleasant ring. From then 
on, however, the melody moves within the tetrachord a-d, and several 
times repeats d c h c. Here a fluent presentation and a proper empha- 
sizing of the significant accents will avert the danger of monotony. 



Fifteenth Sunday after Pentecost 309 

In the verse we meet the melody with which we are acquainted from 
the verse for Maundy Thursday; it is marked by the vigorous final ca- 
dence over mane. Any considerable pause after mane is incompatible 
with the text. 

The beginning of this verse alone is proper; the rest, as far as miser i- 
cordiam inclusive, is sung on the fourth Sunday after Pentecost. Compare 
also the verse for Maundy Thursday. Mane has an energetic final ca- 
dence, which in other pieces agrees with the divisions of the text. No 
lengthy pause is allowable here — one of the few instances in which the 
divisions of melody and text do not coincide. Tuam is known to us from 
the passage over Dominus in the Gradual for Easter Sunday and from 
tuam in the Gradual for the feast of the Assumption. Et veritätem tuam 
has been taken over from the Gradual Justus ut palma, both text and 
melody; an appropriation, consequently, from the second mode. In both 
Graduals the verses have the same wording, but up to this point the 
melody differs. Per noctem again veers back, rather abruptly, it must be 
admitted, to the fifth mode. 

In the psalms the mercy and fidelity of God are frequently combined. 
Today's Gospel mentions an extraordinary instance of His mercy. 
"When the Lord had seen, being moved with mercy toward her [the 
widow]. He said to her: 'Weep not'." God does not exercise His mercy 
at particular moments; it accompanies us, as Psalm 22 says, all the days 
of our life. In Psalm 32 we read: "All his works are done with faithful- 
ness." God's fidelity, however firm and unshakable it may be, has noth- 
ing about it that is either difficult or irksome. It is the fidelity of a merci- 
ful God. For this great favor we can never thank Him sufficiently. The 
hour of dawn drives home this truth most forcibly. For at that time 
particularly is God's mercy made manifest in the liturgical Sacrifice 
with especial splendor. Throughout the entire day, and even during the 
night (per noctem), this song ought never to cease. Even when the 
night of bitter woe breaks in upon us we should hold fast to the mercy 
and fidelity of God, and thereby sublimate and transfigure all our sor- 
rows. This Gradual is like the prelude to the praise given by the as- 
sembled throng in today's Gospel: "There came a fear upon all of them, 
and they glorified God, saying: A great prophet is risen up among us, 
and God hath visited His people." 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 94: 3) 

1. Quoniam Deus magnus domi- 1. For the Lord is a great God, 2. 

nus, 2. et Rex magnus super om- and a great king over all the earth, 
nem terram. 



310 Fifteenth Sunday after Pentecost 

Quoniam — "for" — introduces the reasons for the glad Alleluia call. 
Because God is so great, so sublime, we are impelled to glorify His great- 
ness in new ways. There is nothing we are more in need of than an ever- 
expanding, ever-widening and deepening concept of the Deity. This is 
what we intend to impress upon the minds of the faithful by this song. 
Over the word magnus, in both instances, the melody seems to hover 
lovingly. In the Alleluia for the eighth Sunday after Pentecost we also 
laud God's immensity. On that day the melody wishes rather to extol 
His sublimity; today, however, the fullness and extent of His power. He 
is Lord and King over the entire world. His power reaches even where 
that of all men, be they the mightiest earthly rulers, is weak and in- 
effectual. Death itself is not exempt. When He says Surge — "arise," 
Death must give up his victims. Now God uses His regal power in order 
to render us happy; hence the joyful tone. 

This Alleluia was formerly sung in the Easter procession. It has 
the structure a b c ( = a^) d ( = b^) and the archaic form, which does not 
round off the close of the verse with the melody developed by the ju- 
hilus. 

The psalmodic construction of the seventh mode is still evident in 
the verse. The two phrases composing it have like introductions: Quo- 
niam Deus and et Rex; a similar middle cadence, which in the first phrase 
is on the fifth above the tonic (magnus), and in the second phrase, as 
in many other Alleluias of the seventh mode (e.g., that of the fourth 
Sunday after Pentecost), upon the third above the tonic (rex magnus); 
finally, very similar closing cadences, Dominus and omnem. Terram has 
a melody by itself, which in its beginning harks back to magnus of the 
first phrase, and in its cadences agrees with the close of the Alleluia- 
verse on the feast of the Dedication of a Church. In its beginning, om- 
nem employs a melodic turn which is proper to the Alleluias of the 
second mode (see, for example, that of the third Mass of Christmas). 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 39: 2, 3, 4) 

1. Expectans expectavi Dominum, 1. With expectation I have waited 

et respexit me: 2. et exaudivit de- for the Lord, and he had regard to 

precationem meam, 3. et immisit me: 2. and he heard my prayer, 3. 

in OS meum canticum novum, 4. and put a new canticle into my 

hymnum Deo nostro. mouth, 4. a song to our God, 

In the Gospel we heard the narrative of the miracle wrought at the 
city gate of Naim. We do not know if the youth's mother had a lively 
faith in the omnipotence of Jesus, and if she was, perhaps, expecting 
Him to come to her aid. But of this we are certain: the Lord looked upon 



Fifteenth Sunday after Pentecost 311 

her lovingly, and tenderly said: "Weep not!" And we know that she 
sang a new song to Him, such as had never before come from her heart, 
when she could again look into her son's animated eyes and when the 
Lord placed the warm hand of her child into her own. It was a song of 
praise to God. 

St. Augustine comments upon this Gospel: "That her son was called 
again to life was the joy of the widowed mother; that the souls of men 
are every day called to life is the joy of our Mother the Church." Fre- 
quently Mother Church has to wait a long time, has to pray much, be- 
fore the mercy of God reawakens the souls of her children to life. But 
daily she must also thank Him for such marks of kindness. Today's 
Offertory is a song of thanksgiving coming from the very depths of her 
maternal heart. God Himself has placed it upon her lips. Furthermore, 
in the Holy Eucharist He has given her the most perfect song of praise 
and thanksgiving that can ascend to heaven. 

The melody over the first three words vividly pictures the raising 
of the eyes to God, the begging for His grace; it is almost too noticeable, 
in fact. For the theme of today's Offertory is not expectation and long- 
ing, but rather thanksgiving: He has looked upon me, He has heard me, 
He has placed a new canticle into my mouth. 

The first phrase has a range of a seventh and two endings on c. 
Respexit me has a triumphant ring. Dominum receives the same treat- 
ment, for example, as ddipe in the Introit for Corpus Christi. The sec- 
ond phrase confines itself to a range of a fifth and never extends beyond 
d. It has its endings on a and repeats the same thought as the second 
part of the first phrase. The third phrase, with a range of a sixth (g-e), 
begins with the same sparkling motive as respexit in the first phrase 
and closes still more brilliantly than the former with a modulation to c. 
Its joy overflows into the fourth phrase. In this passage the tonic of the 
mode appears for the very first time. Over Deo g a and d ch g are to be 
sung broadly and solemnly. The whole chant must be delivered in a 
lively fashion. 

COMMUNION (John 6: 52) 

1. Panis, quern ego dedero, caro 1. The bread that I will give is 

mea est 2. pro saeculi vita. my flesh 2. for the life of the world. 

Vita — "life!" That is the last word of today's proper chants. Christ 
is our life. He showed Himself to be the Ruler of life by reawakening the 
youth of Naim. He is our life in the Holy Eucharist, the living and life- 
giving Bread. Only through Him can the world attain to life and only by 
His power can its life be increased and developed. 



312 Sixteenth Sunday after Pentecost 

Holy joy welled up from the heart of the Saviour when He spoke 
the prophetic words we sing here. This joy is reflected by the brilliant 
and exultant melody. It attains its summit and greatest expansion pre- 
cisely over the word vita. The thought, "life of the world," forms an in- 
dependent musical phrase, being, however, strongly influenced by the 
melody over mea est in the first phrase. Here we have a descending fourth, 
followed by a pes and a clivis, while in the former instance there was a 
descending fifth with a descending pes and cUmacus. These sequences 
of tones and the surprising beginning over Panis are well calculated to 
rouse in our souls reverent astonishment at the marvels spoken of. For 
this reason, too, the word ego is especially emphasized by the melody. 

The two phrasec «iiffer in this, that the first supports itself in the 
first half on a and reaches low a four times in its second half, while the 
second phrase in its first half stresses g and four times strikes high c. 

Some time— thus we hope and pray — the Risen One will also cry 
to us: "I say to thee, arise," and will lead us into the life of eternal 
blessedness. For this is His solemn promise: "He that eateth my 
flesh, and drinketh my blood_ I will raise him up in the last day." 



SIXTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST 

INTROIT (Ps. 85: 3, 5) 

1. Miserere mihi Domine, quo- 1. Have mercy on me, Lord, for 

niam ad te clamavi tota die: 2. quia I have cried to thee all the day: 2. 

tu Domine suavis ac mitis es, et for thou, O Lord, art sweet and 

copiosus in misericordia omnibus mild, and plenteous in mercy to all 

invocantihus te. Ps. Inclina Do- that call upon thee. Ps. Bow down 

mine aurem tuam et exaudi me: * thine ear to me, O Lord, and hear 

quoniam inops et pauper sum ego. me: * for I am needy and poor. 

This Introit begins like the Introit Laetdhitur Justus, now in the 
Common of a Martyr not a Bishop, which in the old manuscripts opens 
the Mass for the feast of St. Vincent. There it is a cry of joy; here a 
prayer for mercy. How can the two be reconciled? Perhaps we may ex- 
plain today's melody in the same manner as we did that for the third 
Sunday after Pentecost. The acknowledgment that God is good and 
mild and overflowing with mercy, and the mood produced by it is all 
contained in the first phrase. There is no misery portrayed in the melody, 
no inner strife. Assurance fills the singer's heart: my Redeemer lives 
and His heart is open to my incessant (tota die) prayer. How touching 
and how tender is the melody of the second phrase! With its minor thirds 



Sixteenth Sunday after Pentecost 313 

and semitones it seems to proceed from the heart of Jesus Himself. If 
major thirds and whole steps be substituted in their place, it will soon 
become apparent what the composer's intention in this passage was. 
We seem to hear the Saviour Himself singing: mitis sum — I Myself am 
goodness and mildness. And this goodness, this mildness, this mercy is 
infinitely boundless in width and depth; it is inexhaustible. To impress 
this upon the hearts of the faithful so well that it will never be forgotten, 
in any condition or state of life, not even when oppressed by sin, that is 
the aim of today's Introit. Someone has said of this melody that the cry 
for mercy continually grows more unrestrained. (Betende Kirche, p. 366). 
The melody, however, does not place any special stress upon this point. 
It wants to console, to encourage, to instill confidence. What a deep im- 
pression copiosus must have made when, in former times, it was repeated 
after every verse! 

On the Friday after Passion Sunday, the melody for the Introit be- 
gins like today's. At its very beginning, however, instead of an interval 
of a fourth it has a third; but that chant, it must be noted, belongs to 
the fifth mode. The spirit of the Introit Miserere is predominantly joy- 
ful. In the first half of the second phrase the presentation must obviously 
be more tender and cordial. According to the annotated manuscripts, 
(su)-ävis ac mitis is to be prolonged slightly. Copiosus must be sung with 
all possible brilliancy. One readily notes some resemblance to henigna est 
misericordia in the first antiphon for the blessing of the ashes on Ash 
Wednesday, which is filled with the same spirit; also the similarity be- 
tween (Dö)-mine and ( miser ic6r)-dia. The composer seemed almost too 
careful in his plan of giving the second syllable of a dactyllic word more 
than one note. The melody thus avoids all ungraceful angles. 

Whoever sings and prays in the spirit of this melody can never feel 
entirely poor or miserable. For in the holy Sacrifice of the Mass the 
fountains of eternal mercy are unceasingly operative. 

GRADUAL 

The explanation of the Gradual will be found under the third Sun- 
day after Epiphany. In the Epistle St. Paul depicts the richness of the 
glory of Christ, which He bestows upon us ''abundantly," so that we 
are filled "unto all the fullness of God." In return for such goodness we 
can only reverently thank God and with the Apostle "bend the knee to 
the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ." In the new Sion, which is His 
Church, we behold His glory and experience His gracious dealings with 
us. 

The Apostle speaks to us as a prisoner, as a symbol of the suffering 
Church in her earthly exile. Around her the darkness grows ever deeper^ 



■314 Sixteenth Sunday after Pentecost 

but in the same degree she gains in grace and glory. Affliction should 
purge the members of the Body, should cause their love and faith to in- 
crease, and thus lead them into the depths of Christ and into His glory. 
In this manner the Lord "builds" His new Sion, His glorified Church, 
of well-known stones; there He will dwell as Victor and King.(Bomm, 
Volksmessbuch). 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 97: 1) 

1. Cantate Domino canticum no- 1. Sing ye to the Lord a new can- 

vum: 2. quia mirahilia fecit Domi- tide: 2. for the Lord hath done 
nus. wonderful things. 

The reverent surprise with which the Gradual began, continually 
mounts in the course of the piece and finally develops into a song of joy. 
It continues in the Alleluia in a bright tone and with gentle persuasive- 
ness, striving to captivate hearts, urging them on to joy in the Lord. 
Were we to strive to contemplate the wonderful things of God, the mar- 
vels of His grace, of His mysteries, the prodigies of the Eucharistie Sac- 
rifice; were we to make an earnest effort to penetrate into this world, 
then this song would give new stimulus and energy every time we should 
assist at Mass. Then our whole soul would sing out this melody as a 
small recompense to God for the gift of His only-begotten Son. 

Over Cantate the melody swells as far as the pressus on c; then it 
relaxes somewhat, only to prepare for a greater climax with Domino, 
Our song is intended for the Lord, and for Him alone. The third sig- 
nificant word of this verse, mirabilia, is made prominent like the first 
two, but it may be sung with still greater warmth. The tempo must, of 
course, be quite lively. 

So far as the melody is concerned, this Sunday's Alleluia is much 
like that of the twenty-second Sunday after Pentecost. Both have the 
same twofold division, clearly indicated by the melody. It is difficult to 
determine which is the original composition. The probability seems to 
favor the twenty-second Sunday after Pentecost, for in the most an- 
cient manuscripts the Alleluia Cantate Domino is not mentioned, while 
in manuscript 121 of Einsiedeln the text is given, but without any 
neums, although a place was reserved for their insertion. Three small 
variants seem to be mere printing mistakes: 

Sixteenth Sunday Twenty-second Sunday 

(D6mi)-no gf Dominum ge 

(D6)-mi-(nus) fgaga (e6)-rum faga 



Sixteenth Sunday after Pentecost 315 

Over the second last word: 
bistropha tristropha 

preceded by low d. 

The preceding note was added, perhaps, because plainsong does not 
generally begin a new phrase with a tristropha, or because the longer 
text brought a change with it. Final gf sounds decidedly more pleasant 
and provides for a better sequence. For this reason we have after Domino 
a pause cutting the two middle lines, while that after Dominum cuts 
only the topmost line. 

Revue, 21, 97 ff. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 39: 14, 15) 

1. Domine, in auxilium meum 1. Look down, O Lord, to help me: 

respice: 2. confundantur et reverean- 2. let them he confounded and 

tur, qui quaerunt animam meam, ashamed that seek after my soul to 

ut auf er ant eam: 3. Domine, in take it away: S. look down, Lord, 

auxilium meum respice. to help me. 

Both text and melody of the first part are presented twice. The 
twenty-third Sunday after Pentecost offers the only similar case. It re- 
minds us of the early practice of repeating a part (usually the last) of the 
antiphon after every verse that was joined to the Offertory. It should be 
noted how beautifully this repetition is introduced by the tense, forward- 
urging cadence over eam. The melody has a narrow range, is tender and 
fervent. Its simplicity is surpassed only by that of the Offertory of the 
second Sunday after Pentecost. Numerous pressus, however, make it 
fairly eloquent. The text would allow of a quite different melodic treat- 
ment, and has in fact found such also in plainsong. Compare the turbu- 
lent Communion Erubescant et reveredntur on the Tuesday of Holy Week, 
or the indignant Communion Confundantur superhi from the Mass Lo- 
quebar in the Common of a Virgin and Martyr. But all such excitement 
is foreign to the Offertory for this Sunday. 

Who prays thus? Surely it is the soul that knows how its adversary 
the devil goes about, seeking (quaerens) whom he may devour; the soul 
that sees itself surrounded by foes whom it cannot overcome by its own 
strength. It looks to the Lord, to Him who loves it and can give it all 
things, and begs for a loving glance and assistance. When we think of 
the words addressed by our Saviour to Saul the persecutor: "Why per- 
secutest thou me?" and infer from this that He regards Himself one with 
the Church in all that threatens and harasses it, then we may place these 
words upon the lips of the Saviour Himself, who is now to offer Himself 



316 Sixteenth Sunday after Pentecost 

again upon the altar. Then we may be certain that Christ prays thus 
to the Father for us; and so we sink readily into the quiet atmosphere 
of the melody. We enter into its spirit even more when the repetition 
Domine in auxilium meum respice is sung tenderly and devoutly. Now 
we understand why all three phrases are given about equal importance: 
a strongly contrasting phrase in the middle would be somewhat dis- 
turbing. The same motive occurs over qui quaerunt and ut duferant. The 
word-accent is especially emphasized by the fourth and the prolonged 
note. Over in auxilium, however, no fourth occurs. Perhaps this is due 
to the fact that in this instance two syllables precede the word-accent, 
while in both other cases a single syllable precedes. 

The two verses which the ancient manuscripts add to this Ofifertory 
on the Friday after the second Sunday in Lent had an unusually ornate 
melody on their last word. So much the more impressive must have 
been the simple Domine, which is likewise repeated in the manuscripts. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 70: 16, 17, 18) 

1. Domine, memorahor justitiae 1. Lord, I will he mindful of 

tuae solius: 2. Dens, docuisti me a thy justice alone: 2. thou hast taught 

juventute mea, 3. et usque in senec- me, O God, from my youth, 3. and 

tam et senium, Deus, ne derelin- unto old age and grey hairs, O 

quas me. God, forsake me not. 

Let us first of all consider the middle phrase: Deus, docuisti me a 
juventute mea. It takes its inception a fourth higher than the preceding 
note, adheres to the dominant high c, has a group of two and of three 
notes over me-(a) and the preceding syllable, and a pleasing harmony. 
It is a soul's grateful expression for the loving care that God has taken 
of it from its youth to the present day, even until today's Communion, 
for this is a Communion song. Whoever considers all this sees the debt 
of gratitude become infinitely great. But he finds his consolation in Him 
who has come in Holy Communion, whose thanksgiving is infinite in 
value. 

The first and last phrases are not so cheerful; in fact, one must say 
that they are almost heavy, depressing. This results from the frequent 
descent of the melody to low d, the accentuation of the tonic g, and the 
repetition of the same formula: Memorahor =senectam, justitiae = senium, 
and the same motive a fourth higher over solius =( de )-re-(linquas). 
The thought of God's justice may become extremely oppressive, as 
well as the prospect of lonely old age here referred to. And the repetition 
of senectam and senium compels us to think of all the unwelcome con- 
comitants of old age. When loneliness creeps into my heart, when those 



Seventeenth Sunday after Pentecost 317 

desert me on whose love I had reckoned, or if they shall have left this 
life before me, when in the evening of my life the awful meaning of Thy 
justice, O God, flashes up in my mind, when the very thought of Thy 
loving kindness since the days of my childhood only tends to increase 
my responsibility, and when the night approaches, then, O God, be 
Thou at my side, desert me not. However great the similarity of the 
first and third phrases may be, still the latter shows an evident develop- 
ment, an increase of feeling, an intensely prayerful attitude. Usque must 
be sung slowly and impressively; so also Deus with the pressus, which 
corresponds to the single note in the first phrase over tuae; then the ex- 
pansion of fga over so-(lius), corresponding to the twofold f a c over ne 
de-(relinquas). Hence this third phrase must have a more tender ring 
than the first. Even though the thought of God's justice is appalling, 
still it is not entirely devoid of consolation. It would be a mistake to 
consider this melody an outgrowth of anguish or despondency. In His 
justice God places no greater burden on any man's shoulders than he is 
able to bear. Men often judge harshly, because frequently they overlook 
the circumstances which lessen the grievousness of the offense. God knows 
all things; He, and He alone, knows the true motives behind every act. 
His justice, moreover, is always tempered with mercy. 

"This Communion portrays an entire life's history: the Saviour of 
thy childhood, thy youth, thy manhood, thy old age" {K. L.). 



SEVENTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER 

PENTECOST 

INTROIT (Ps. 118: 137, 124) 

1. Justus es, Domine, et rectum 1. Just thou art, O Lord, and thy 

judicium tuum: 2. faccum servo tuo , judgment is right; 2. deal with thy 

secundum misericordiam tuam. Ps. servant according to thy mercy. Ps. 

Beati immaculati in via: * qui Blessed are the unde filed in the way: 

ambulant in lege Domini. * that walk in the law of the Lord. 

We begin today's Introit with an act of faith; "Thou art just, O 
Lord, and all that Thou commandest and orderest is just." With this 
declaration all questioning, all scrutiny, all doubt is silenced. And the 
ultimate decision which God will announce on Judgment Day is like- 
wise just. The closer we come to the end of the liturgical year, the more 
frequently does the Church hold this thought of the great judgment be- 
fore our eyes. Shall we be able to endure it, this manifestation of God's 



318 Seventeenth Sunday after Pentecost 

justice? If we consider this, then we shall think it a kindness on God's 
part that we are now allowed to appeal to His mercy: now we under- 
stand why the melody of the second phrase is so stirring, almost turbu- 
lent: we seem to stretch out to grasp the merciful hand of God. His 
justice alone can return to us the purity which we perhaps lost on the 
difficult and dangerous journey through life. It is His merciful love alone 
that can give us the requisite strength henceforth to remain true to His 
commandments, especially to that principal one mentioned in today's 
Gospel — love of God and of neighbor. 

The rapid ascent of the melody to high e is quite common in In- 
troits of the first mode; for example, Salus autem and Sapientiam from 
the Mass for several Martyrs, and especially the Introit Suscepimus 
Deus, which is sung on the eighth Sunday after Pentecost and on Feb- 
ruary 2. There we find a similar beginning with a fifth and the same 
melody over the words (mi)-seric6rdiam tuam as we have here over 
judicium tuum. In the former piece, however, the development is drawn 
on larger lines and is easier of comprehension, while in today's Introit 
tuo leads over to the conclusion somewhat too suddenly. The pause after 
iuo is justified only by the necessity for taking breath. The melodic con- 
tinuity—compare e c a c with the subsequent c af g f- — is thereby broken. 
Far better would be the effect if the whole could be sung without any 
interruption. In a large choir, the individuals might breathe at different 
places. Tuo is also the only word with melodic shifting, since the accented 
syllable is lower than the following syllable. The ending of the second 
phrase expands the closing motive of the first phrase a fifth lower. 

Revue gr., 11, 123 ff. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 32: 12, 6) 

1. Beata gens, cujus est Dominus 1. Blessed is the nation whose 

Deus eorum: 2. populus, quern God is the Lord: 2. the people whom 

elegit Dominus 3. in hereditatem he hath chosen for his inheritance, 

sihi. f. 1. Verho Domini caeli f. 1. By the word of the Lord the 

firmati sunt: 2. et spiritu oris ejus heavens were established, 2. and hy 

3. omnis virtus eorum. the spirit of his mouth 3. all their 

power. 

If the sevenfold unity of which the Epistle has just spoken binds us 
all together; if we walk worthy of the vocation to which we are called; 
if we support one another with all meekness, humility, patience, and 
charity; if v/e are careful to keep the unity of the spirit in the bond of 
peace, then are we a blessed nation, then God is our God^we are His 
inheritance and He, the Eternal, will one day be our inheritance and 
reward exceeding great. 



Seventeenth Sunday after Pentecost 319 

The first phrase of the verse corresponds to the second in the Introit 
for the second Sunday after Easter (cf. p. 191). God's almighty word 
has called into existence the heavens with their innumerable stars and 
thus created a world of light and order and harmony. If we bring our 
wills into perfect accord with that of God, then we call into being in our 
interior and around us a cosmos of marvelous light, order, and harmony. 

In the corpus each of the three phrases ascends to c. Emphasis is 
added in the third phrase by the h. The love of God which led Him to 
predestine us to glory is apparently alluded to here. Over sihi fg fd fa is 
interposed between two identical members. The first four notes are again 
used to bring the piece to a close. At the beginning of the verse, a pre- 
liminary / prolongs its effect in the subsequent h\>; then the accented c 
calls for h. The cadence over Domini is found in pieces of various modes. 
Here, as above with Dominus, the pressus before the final note effective- 
ly enhances the close. The words caeli firmäti sunt are brought well to 
the fore. Ejus has a cadence like Dominus above. Mention was made of 
the same closing melody in the Gradual for the tenth Sunday after Pen- 
tecost. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 101: 2) 

1. Domine, exaudi orationem 1. OLord, hear my prayer, 2. and 

meam, 2. et clamor meus ad te let my cry come unto thee, 
veniat. 

The Alleluia has the form a b b^. The first part of b is repeated on 
a reduced scale in b^, while the second part is expanded. Both phrases 
open on a, as well as the repetition with ad te. Exaudi bears the middle 
cadence in the first phrase; meus in the second. Meam and (veni)-at carry 
the final cadences. The psalmodic construction is unmistakable. Special 
vehemence issues from the cry exaudi. On the twenty-third Sunday after 
Pentecost we meet it in exactly the same form. 

When we hear the words of the Gospel: "Thou shalt love the Lord 
thy God with thy whole heart," then there is need to pray for love; and 
when we hear the passage concerning Christ's divinity, then there is 
great need to pray for faith. 

OFFERTORY (Dan. 9: 17, 18, 19) 

1. Oravi Deum meum ego Daniel 1. I, Daniel, prayed to my God, 

dicens; 2. Exaudi, Domine, preces saying: 2. Hear, O Lord, the 

servi tui: 3. illumina faciem tuam prayers of thy servant: 3. let thy 

super sanctuarium tuum: 4. et pro- face shine upon thy sanctuary: 4. 



320 Seventeenth Sunday after Pentecost 

pitius intende populum istum, su- and favorably look down upon this 
per quern invocatum est nomen people upon whom thy name is in- 
tuum, Deus. voked, God. 

In the first phrase the one who prays mentions his name — a rare 
occurrence. The introduction is quiet, never going beyond the tenor of 
the mode (a). Daniel prays to his Lord and God in the oppression and 
the hardships of the Babylonian captivity. His beloved people, once the 
elect of God, is pining away in a strange land, beaten and scattered. 
Hence that emphatic cry of the melody: Exdudi — "Hear, Lord, the 
prayers of thy servant!" After the large interval of a fourth follow quiet 
seconds, thus making Exdudi all the more impressive. Preces accords 
with Deum in the first and populum in the fourth phrase. At the end, 
tui is turned upward (e f) because the following phrase begins with dg. 
In the second phrase, only exdudi receives prominence; the third phrase 
initiates a greater development. For was not this the prophet's most 
bitter grievance, that the sanctuary in Jerusalem had become a heap of 
ruins? Oh, let Thy glorious countenance once more regard this spot, the 
the place which Thou Thyself hast chosen! The melodic turn c ga ef ga 
over super sanctud-(rium) is frequently employed in Graduals belonging 
to the third mode. Tuam, like tuum in the fourth phrase, is accentuated. 
The first part of the fourth phrase, however, is made still more impressive. 
The passage dg dg g at the beginning of the third phrase becomes gc dc c 
here. "Favorably look down upon this people," that is, the chosen people. 
It is Thy people, bearing Thy name. The tone-sequence fg cd combines 
istum and super, according to the rules which effect contrast in uniting 
phrases or parts of phrases in the first and eighth modes. Deus repeats 
its first member. An ornate closing melisma, such as the one here, is 
practically a stylistic necessity in Offertories. 

For these modern times Daniel's Offertory prayer is also most op- 
portune. We confidently hope to emerge from the present collapse of 
spiritual faith and Christian morals with the help of God's grace; we 
long for the religious renascence into the realm of the "King of Love," 
for that rebirth which must be effected, however much the foolish and 
malicious world may oppose it. Mankind must find the true answer to 
the two momentous questions which have been its greatest concern 
throughout history, the two points brought up in today's Gospel: the 
question of the greatest commandment and that of the person of Christ. 
(Oberhammer). 

In the Eucharistie Sacrifice, Christ, the Son of the Living God, 
does look favorably upon us. There He manifests His infinite love to the 
Father and to us. 



Eighteenth Sunday after Pentecost 321 

COMMUNION (Ps. 75: 12, 13) 

1. Vovete, et reddite Domino Deo 1. Vow ye, and pay to the Lord 

vestro, omnes qui in circuitu ejus your God, all you that round about 
affertis munera: 2. terrihili, et ei him bring presents: 2. to him that 
qui aufert spiritum principum: 3. is terrible, even to him who taketh 
terribili apud reges terrae. away the spirit of princes: 3. to 

the terrible with all the kings of the 

earth. 

Few Communions have such a serious text as this one. Generally 
they speak words of consolation and of the goodness of God, or present 
our humble yet confident petitions. Here, however, God is twice called 
"the Terrible," before whom all the kings of the earth tremble. He ap- 
pears here, as in the Introit, as the judge of the earth (to whom today's 
Gospel also makes reference) when the Lord says to His Lord — the Fa- 
ther to His Son — that He will subdue all His enemies and make them 
His footstool. He will crush all the obstinacy of earthly potentates, will 
take their courage from them — or, as others translate it, will rob them 
of their breath^ — all their pride and self-esteem will be as nothing in the 
sight of His glory and majesty. 

The first terribili sets in on the dominant, and with its major third 
is the most significant word of the entire melody, just as the phrase 
which it opens surpasses the other two. In the first phrase, the increase 
of the melody over the first three words seems to parallel the thought: 
you must not only make vows: rather you must keep and fulfill them. 
Over Dominus the word-accent has only a single note, while the follow- 
ing unaccented syllable supports a tristropha, a common occurrence. 
Over in circuitu ejus the melody describes a semicircle as if imitating 
the sense of the words. The second terribili likewise begins on the domi- 
nant and then reverently bows before the majesty of God. 

The fear of the Lord, of Him who will one day judge the whole 
world, must also underlie our activity in church music. In our worship 
we can never be too reverent. For, while we live, we can receive into our 
hearts Christ, our Saviour, our Redeemer and Consoler, whose greatness 
we adore, whose arrival for judgment we await. 



EIGHTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST 

Up to the seventeenth Sunday after Pentecost inclusive, the In- 
troits were taken from the psalms. Beginning with the present Sunday, 



322 Eighteenth Sunday after Pentecost 

the text will be taken from other books of Holy Writ, with the exception 
of the Introit for the twenty-second Sunday. Upon closer examination, 
all the texts sung today, the Alleluia-verse excepted, appear as parts of 
an ancient formulary for the Dedication of a Church:^ with the Introit 
and the psalm- verse Laetdtus sum. . . we enter the house of the Lord; 
the Gradual with the words of the same psalm and the Offertory treat 
of the altar and the sacrifice; the Communion urges us to bring our sac- 
rificial gifts and to offer our worship in God's house. Just when this for- 
mulary was transferred to the present Sunday is not known. In very 
early times this Sunday followed immediately upon the autumnal 
Ember Days; since the services of Ember Saturday were prolonged 
throughout the night till morning, the day did not have a Mass proper 
to it. 

INTROIT (Ecclus. 36: 18) 

1. Da pacem, Domine, susti- 1. Give peace, Lord, to them that 

nentihus te, 2. ut prophetae tui patiently wait for thee, 2. that thy 

fideles inveniantur: 3. exaudi preces prophets may he found faithful: 3. 

servi tui, et plehis tuae Israel. Ps. hear the prayers of thy servant, and 

Laetatus sum in his quae dicta of thy people Israel. Ps. / rejoiced 

sunt mihi; * in domum Domini at the things that were said to me: * 

ibimus. we shall go into the house of the 

Lord. 

To be a Christian, as Cardinal Newman remarks, is to keep on the 
lookout for Christ. Again holy Mother Church invites us to maintain 
this watchfulness. In fact, she considers it one of her most important 
and sublime duties. She is especially alive to this obligation during Ad- 
vent and toward the end of the liturgical year. We belong to those who 
await the Lord (sustinentihus te), who prepare for His coming and are 
predisposed by the action of divine grace. It is for this reason that we 
today pray for peace and all that comes in its train. As the palsied man 
in this Sunday's Gospel longed to be cured, and only attained full re- 
covery and true peace after the Lord said to him: "Thy sins are forgiven 
the»," so in the Introit we cry Da pacem and toward the end of Mass, 
Dona nobis pacem. Streams of peace will the Lord cause to flow into the 
hearts of men — so the prophets sang. Lord, show that they are Thy 
prophets (tui), the men whom Thou hast sent, and therefore fulfil what 
Thou hast promised by them. 



1 In the fifth century the dedication of a church in honor of St. Michael was celebrated 
at Rome on September 30 (later the twenty-ninth) and the Sunday occurring about this 
time was called the first post natale hasilicae s. Angeli or simply post sancti Angeli (G. Morin 
Les veritables origines du chant greg.). 



Eighteenth Sunday after Pentecost 323 

Lend an ear to the prayers of Thy servant. By the mouths of the 
prophets, the Messias had had Himself pictured as the servant of God. 
Therefore the Father was well pleased in Him. He still prays in the same 
way for us today and again becomes our Mediator in holy Mass, and this 
assures the acceptance of our prayers. Not in vain do we await Him: He 
will come. He who is our peace enters our heart in Holy Communion, 
bringing us peace and the pledge of life eternal. Hence the joy we ex- 
perience when we are told that we may enter into the Lord's house. 
What riches it lavishes upon us every day! 

The first phrase is reminiscent of the Introit Rordte caeli, with which 
it is also closely allied in spirit. Identical with it is the first phrase of the 
well-known Introit Stdtuit. The continual use of h\> in the first and sec- 
ond phrases tends to make the melody tender and devout, while the 
frequent repetition of the same motive or of a similar one makes it im- 
pressive. This motive is composed of the notes äh\? g ä g over (Dö)-mine, 
which remains the same in its first part, but changes slightly in its sec- 
ond over susti-(nentihus), tui, preces, tuae. It produces its greatest effect 
over tuae, because it sets in here with a major third, while in the other 
cases only a whole step precedes. The petition: "We are Thy people," 
gains in intensity thereby. 

GRADUAL 

For the explanation of this chant see the fourth Sunday of Lent. 
Today we thank God with the Apostle for the grace which is given us in 
Christ Jesus, for in Him we have become rich in all things. But our 
thoughts and our longings also extend beyond to the house of God in 
heaven, to His peace and blessedness. "The incense which curls upward 
at the Gospel and my uplifted hands are both symbols of my yearning 
for heaven" {K. L.). We may also be confident that God will make us 
steadfast to the end, that we may be "unto the end without crime, in 
the day of the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ." 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 101: 16) 

1. Timebunt gentes nomen tuum, 1. The gentiles shall fear Thy 
Domine: 2. et omnes reges terrae name, Lord: 2. and all the kings 
gloriam tuam. oj the earth Thy glory. 

Alleluia has the form a b b c c^. The b shows an upward tendency, 
c goes downward, while c^ is a union of arsis and thesis. Part a opens 
the verse; b, c and c^ are heard again over nomen tuum, and with slight 
variation over terrae. Thus Alleluia supplies the theme for the verse. 



324 Eighteenth Sunday after Pentecost 

The first phrase of the verse has a range of a seventh. One rarely 
sees a descent like that to h over Domine. The second phrase has the 
wide range of a tenth, and is dominated by the word reges. The singer 
wishes to say that not only all the nations will pay homage to the Lord, 
but also the kings: all the kings of the earth will worship God. What is 
their paltry glory, even if they be veritable sun gods, compared to that 
which Christ will reveal at His final coming? Before Him all things will 
crumble into dust. There will be no dallying about the ceremonial of 
reception. Only one thing will remain to be done: to bend the knee and 
adore, to tremble in reverence before Him who alone is the Lord, the 
King of glory. 

With a feeling of certainty that could scarce be greater, the melody 
proclaims this truth: Timebunt, "they shall fear." This faith is most 
deeply engraved in the consciousness of the Church. She looks forward 
with confidence to the coming of her King: already today she greets 
Him with the cry of Alleluia. 

OFFERTORY (Ex. 24, 4-5) 

1. Sanctificavit Moyses altare 1. Moses consecrated an altar to 

Domino, 2. offerens super illud the Lord, 2. offering upon it holo- 

holocausta, 3. et immolans victimas: causts, 3. and sacrificing victims: 

4. fecit sacrificium vespertinum in 4. he made an evening sacrifice to 

odorem suavitatis Domino Deo, 5. the Lord God for a savor of sweet- 

in conspectu filiorum Israel. ness, 5. in the sight of the children 

of Israel. 

According to the context, the participles offerens and immolans are 
closely akin. A great caesura, however, is introduced into the melody 
by the cadence over (holo)-cdusta, and further on prominence is given 
to et immolans which is hard for us to grasp. Similarly, in relation to 
the other phrases, the third receives undue amplification. Here we can- 
not apply as a measure of perfection the carefully planned and artistic 
development which we so admire, for instance, in Graduals of the fifth 
mode. In spite of this, however, the melody has beauties of its own. 

The first word is simply narrative, confines itself to a tetrachord 
(f-h). What we now feel to be a bright major chord, we hear over altare 
and odorem and in a descending line over (con)-spe-(ctu). The soothing 
close of (Dd)-mino echoes somewhat over (vi)-ctimas, (vesper )-tinum, 
and Deo. To the descending fourths at the beginning and end of the 
second phrase, the strongly accented ascending fourth over (ho)-lo- 
(cdusta) comes as an answer. Over illud two bistrophas are to be sung 
after the clivis, followed by an accented torculus. The third phrase is in- 



Eighteenth Sunday after Pentecost 325 

t reduced like Moyses above. (Suavi)-tdtis resembles (holo)-cäusta; D6- 
(mino) repeats the first four notes of the last-mentioned word. The 
fourth phrase abounds with groups of neums and in its lower part brings 
a delightful new movement. It is extremely rare in plainsong that a 

melody closes on the leading note f g e f gg f. 

Is this descent of the melody to signify the deep impression which 
the sacrifice of Moses made upon the Israelites? God had given His law 
upon Mount Sinai. The sacrifice was now to ratify the covenant which 
God had made with His people. The New Testament has been sealed 
in like manner by bloody sacrifice, by an evening (vespertinum) oblation, 
for it was about the ninth hour when Jesus bowed His head on the 
Cross and gave up the ghost. This sacrifice is renewed at Mass. What 
a high consecration (sanctificdvit) attaches to the altars of our churches! 
How sublime the Sacrifice that is offered upon them! With what pleas- 
ure does not our heavenly Father regard it! Then is fulfilled what the 
priest asks for at the offering of the chalice— it ascends with the savor 
of sweetness. And we are allowed to be witnesses (in conspectu) of this 
mystery. What is more, we ourselves are drawn into the mystery. We 
become, as today's Secret says, partakers of the one supreme Godhead. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 95: 8, 9) 

1. Tollite hostias, et introite in 1. Bring up sacrifices, and come 

atria ejus: 2. adorate Dominum in into his courts: 2. adore ye the Lord 
aula sancta ejus. in his holy court. 

The first phrase speaks of an action; the second of the spirit with 
which that action is to be performed. Tollite sets in on a high pitch: let 
there be no hesitation, no indifference in the offering of the sacrifice or 
in the sacrificial procession! The two imperatives Tollite and introite 
have the same note progression, d c h, and consequently they are also 
closely related melodically. Hostias towers above both these words. The 
third member of the phrase is quieter, never extending beyond c and the 
modest interval of a minor third. 

The solemnly descending line in the second phrase expresses the 
idea of adoration — a profound bow, a prostration before the majesty of 
God. In the annotated manuscripts each of the clives over the words 
(ado)-rdte Dominum is marked with a hold, thus enhancing the impres- 
sion of reverence. But the solemn spirit is made less formidable by the 
fact that each new clivis opens on the same note with which the pre- 
ceding closed. 

In the church our humble gifts of bread and wine are converted into 
the Losd Himself; under the sacred species we adore Him who offers 



326 Nineteenth Sunday after Pentecost 

Himself for us and gives Himself to us in Holy Communion. In aula is 
related to ejus of the first phrase. It closes on &b like the second ejus, 
while sancta closes on c. Instead of the quiet, solemn two-note groups 
of the preceding member, we here have three-note groups. The sus- 
pended close on &b may serve to remind us that we are still awaiting the 
eternal courts of God, the eternal liturgy of heaven. With one exception, 
the accented syllable is always higher than the following syllable. 

K. L. translates and explains Tollite hostias thus: "Take unto your- 
selves the hosts!" 



NINETEENTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST 

INTROIT 

1. Salus populi ego sum, dicit 1. / am the salvation of the 

Dominus: 2. de quacumque trihu- people, saith the Lord: 2. in what- 

latione clamaverint ad me, exaudi- ever tribulation they shall cry to me, 

am eos: 3. et ero illorum Dominus I will hear them: 3. and I will he 

in perpetuum. Ps. Attendite popule their Lord forever. Ps. Attend, O 

meus, legem meam: * inclinate my people, to my law: * incline 

aurem vestram in verba oris mei. your ears to the words of my mouth. 

The Introits after Pentecost thank God for graces bestowed and 
rejoice in His splendor and greatness. At the same time they are often 
prayers of petition and supplication; in fact, all those from the second 
Sunday on are of this kind. Today, on the nineteenth Sunday, as also 
on the twenty-third Sunday, God answers all these cries; He responds 
to the petition of Psalm 34: "Say to my soul, 'I am thy salvation'. " 
Today He says: "I am the salvation of the people," and on the twenty- 
third Sunday: "I think thoughts of peace." On both Sundays God Him- 
self speaks^ — both times with the same introductory formula: dicit 
Dominus. The Introit for the twenty-third Sunday is more intimate, for 
not only is the Lord Himself speaking, but He is speaking directly to us, 
is addressing us. Today's chant, however, is more general in tone. 

Calmness and goodness are suggested by the seconds and the 
minor thirds in the first phrase: I am the salvation of the people, the 
savior in tribulation, the protector in dangers, the only true happiness 
of the people. In the Holy Eucharist God is "our salvation, our life, and 
our resurrection." He not only heals all the wounds of the soul; He im- 
plants in it the germ of immortality, of an eternal life in glory. The in- 
troduction shows some resemblance to the beginning of the Introit for 
the fourteenth Sunday after Pentecost. Similarly, ad me and eos in today's 



Nineteenth Sunday after Pentecost 327 

melody are related to una in the former; in perpe-ftuum) reminds us of 
super mil-(lia) in the same piece. Dominus finds a corresponding motive 
over (per)-petuum at the end of the melody. At the end of the first 
phrase, however, the clivis is converted to a pes, because the subsequent 
phrase begins on low d. The distribution of the neums over Dominus 
here and in the third phrase, as well as over perpetuum, results from the 
fact that plainsong is not fond of dactylic endings, but prefers spondees. 
{N. Sch. 233 f). 

The second phrase with its interval of a fourth and its harsh a h 
is not intended to portray distress, but rather to emphasize, clearly and 
definitely, that when the need is greatest God's assistance is nearest. 
Clamaverint ad me and exaudiam eos have almost the same melody: to 
the measure of our faith and confidence God's generosity will correspond. 
There is a slight but noteworthy difference, however. Over (ex)-äu- 
(diam) we might have sung g ga g as over (cla)-mä-(verint); the equal 
accentuation on the two words would have suggested this. Since, how- 
ever, a different construction was preferred, and the melody descends 
to e, the only one of this phrase, and has a quilisma after /, it is evi- 
dently intended to emphasize the words: "I will hear them." 

In its first half the third phrase harks back to the quiet style of the 
first. But there follows immediately a portrayal of God's eternal fidelity, 
of His indefatigable desire to help. Hence the fourth and the accent on 
high c. We may consider the closing neums over (Dömi)-nus as a varia- 
tion of those over (e)-go sum, ad me and eos. 

Since God declares Himself ready to assist us everywhere and at 
all times, we should also willingly accept the admonition: "Attend, O 
My people, to My law!" His law assures us of temporal and eternal 
happiness. And if He, the Lord, is so prepared to help us, then we ought 
to be proud to acknowledge His sovereignty always and in all things. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 140:2) 

1. Dirigatur oratio mea sicut in- 1. Let my prayer he directed as 

censum in conspectu tuo, Domine. incense in thy sight, O Lord, f 1. 

Si 1. Elevatio manuum mearum 2. The lifting up of my hands 2. as an 

sacrificium vespertinum. evening sacrifice. 

David is far from the sanctuary, sunk in poverty and distress. He 
yearns to offer a sacrifice to the Lord. But there is nothing at hand. 
Hence he lifts up his hands, his prayer, his whole soul, to God. 

We may look upon today's Eucharistie celebration as the solemn 
evening sacrifice at the close of the liturgical year. Just as formerly the 
Christians prayed with outstretched arms and extended hands, and as 



328 Nineteenth Sunday after Pentecost 

the priest still lifts up the sacrificial gifts, so do we now raise our hearts 
to God. This new oblation of ourselves, this new love for Him, should 
in this infinite Sacrifice ascend in His sight as clouds of aromatic in- 
cense. {W. K.). 

In imitation of incense, this energetic song strives higher, ever 
higher; it is tone-painting on grand lines. Upon Dirigatur with gd d d 
follows oratio mea with gc h d d e f, then sicut incensum with cd eg g; 
then in the verse Elevdtio with c d g f g a; similarly mdnum. As an anti- 
thesis to this we meet a rhythmic motive, generally in the lower part 
of the range, first at the close of (Dirigd)-tur as c d aa g, in like manner 
in the expanded (tu)-o, in the verse over Elevdtio f d cc a, again in the 
same word f g ee d, and finally over medrum with its diminished chord 

dfddh and the h which here serves as a leading tone, and which receives 
its natural resolution in the c immediately following. The same relations 
obtain at the conclusion, with (vesperti)-num. 

The corpus of the Gradual has five members; the last, however, is 
little more than a coda. At the end of the second and third phrases we 
find a forward-urging clivis. The fourth member corresponds to the 
first in its tendency to move in the lower part of the range. 

In the verse we have an evident enhancement of the melody. One 
might well think of Moses, who, praying on the mount with outstretched 
arms, procured victory for the Israelites. He was not allowed to drop 
his arms; similarly this present melody, although it sinks from time to 
time, always strives upward again with energetic accents, till medrum 
brings a relaxation of the tension. In the last phrase this upward ten- 
dency again becomes apparent twice. It is principally this which dif- 
ferentiates it from the almost identical close of the Gradual on Laetare 
Sunday. The entire melody of the verse has been adopted for that of 
the feast of the Sacred Heart. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 104: 1) 

1. Confitemini Domino, et in- 1. Give glory to the Lord, and call 

vacate nomen ejus: 2. annuntiate upon his name; 2. declare his deeds 
inter gentes opera ejus, among the gentiles. 

Most Alleluias reach their full development only in the verse. On 
the third Sunday after Pentecost and on the present Sunday, however, 
it takes place in the jubilus. And it is just today that the verse might 
well have lent itself to a solemn denouement. Who can suffi^ciently 
praise God's deeds of kindness! Formerly this song was sung in the 
Easter procession. How often in the course of centuries has God shown 



Nineteenth Sunday after Pentecost 329' 

Himself the salvation of His people! Who could number the times He 
did so, or thank Him sufficiently? How this song should resound through- 
out the entire earth, so that even the heathens (gentes) might hear it. 
But there are also various degrees in thanksgiving and praise, with cor- 
responding variance in form. Gratitude cannot always be jubilant, as 
the Confitemini on Holy Saturday is, for instance, or the Gradual for 
Easter Sunday. In the present instance the exultation confines itself to 
the range of a seventh and several times repeats the tonic and the do- 
minant, a and c respectively' — if we are really dealing here with the 
second mode. Perhaps it is fundamentally the key of F, with the con- 
clusion taking a chord in terce position. If in place of the do clef we were 
to substitute the fa clef on the same line, then the note h\? would occur 
over et (invocdte) and over the closely allied 6-(pera). To avoid having 
the notation set too low, the piece was transposed a fifth higher. 

The rendition should be cheerful and lively. In its first part the 
Alleluia resembles that for the feast of the Dedication of a Church 
(Adordho). Domino repeats the melody of Alleluia. There is very little 
difference between the two phrases; both close the first part on g. An- 
nuntiate is well drawn out. The clives which occur at the close hark back 
to a similar figure over (ohlivi)-scdris in the Gradual for the thirteenth 
Sunday after Pentecost. Throughout this chant the word-accents are 
given due prominence. This melody has been accomodated to the verse 
for the feast of St. John Capistran in Paschal time. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 137: 7) 

1. Si ambulavero in medio tri- 1. If I shall walk in the midst of 

hulationis, 2. vivificabis me, Do- tribulation, 2. Thou wilt quicken 
mine: 3. et super iram inimicorum me, Lord: 3. and Thou wilt 
meorum extendes manum tuam, 4. stretch forth Thy hand against the 
et salvum me fecit dextera tua. wrath of mine enemies, 4. and thy 

right hand shall save me. 

If in the Introit the Lord said: "I am the salvation of the people:: 
in their every distress will I hear them," then the Offertory says Amen 
to this assertion. And so it is: whatever be my distress and tribulation, 
in a world full of sensuality and allurements, at a time when many have 
lost the true life of the soul, sanctifying grace, or have not even a con- 
cept of it, being entirely destitute of the "wedding garme«it" — among 
so many who are estranged from Thee, Thou wilt yet save me, wilt 
preserve the life of my soul, and in the end grant me life eternal. The 
evening mood which pervades today's liturgy teaches us how we may 
use this Offertory as the evening-prayer of life. At the last hour we shall. 



330 Nineteenth Sunday after Pentecost 

experience the most dire distress; then the rage (ira) of our foes will be 
increased, for they are well aware that all depends on these final moments. 
But we place all our trust in the holy Viaticum. That will be our defense 
against the evil one and will lead us safely to eternal bliss. And when the 
priest extends his hand over us in Extreme Unction, then God's hand 
rests protectingly upon us (extendes manum tuam), so that we may 
happily attain our eternal salvation. 

Logically the first and second phrase belong together; they should 
therefore not be separated by too great a pause. Beginning and end of 
the two phrases are alike. In these two phrases, as well as in the later 
ones, we meet numerous fourths. These give life and buoyancy to the 
piece. To this must be added the strengthening of (vivifi)-cä-(his), which 
gives added impressiveness to our Amen. The third phrase has a be- 
ginning similar to the first, descending like it to low d. We are acquainted 
with the melody over extendes from the Offertory of Easter Monday: 
Surrexit. In the spirit of Easter, confident of victory, the singer bursts 
out into a joyous strain over manum tuam. He knows what it means to 
have God's almighty hand resting upon him. Tuam calls for a continua- 
tion. The simple recitative et salvum me which follows, set as it is in the 
midst of a florid melody, has an especial solemn character and must not 
be sung too rapidly. Over tua the melody is to be divided into two 
bistrophas and a clivis, followed by an energetic pressus. 

The same melody has been accommodated to a shorter text for the 
feast of St. Phihp Neri. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 118: 4, 5) 

1. Tu mandasti mandata tua 1. Thou hast commanded thy 

custodiri nimis: 2. utinam dirigan- commandments to he kept most dili- 

tur viae meae, ad custodiendas gently: 2. Oh, that my ways he di- 

justificationes tuas. rected to keep thy justifications. 

This song sets in on the dominant of the mode, thus emphasizing 
the first words: Thou hast given Thy commandments. Thou indeed hast 
a right to do this, for Thou art the Lord. But Thy commandments are 
the source of our joy and happiness. Would that we might ever realize 
this and ever walk faithfully along the way Thou hast marked out for 
us! Solemnity, even majesty, marks the beginning of the first phrase, 
and the quint with cu-(stodiri) emphasizes the same feeling. According 
to the annotated manuscripts the notes over (ni)-mis are to be given a 
broad rendition. 

By the frequent repetition oi h\? the second phrase is made tender, 
almost oppressively so, for the singer knows that he has not always di- 



Twentieth Sunday after Pentecost 331 

rected his steps according to God's ordinances. It pains him to realize, 
that, hke the men in today's Gospel, he has given more care to his fields 
and his business than to the invitation to the King's banquet. Bitterly 
he repents the fact that he has several times lost the wedding garment. 
Hence, filled with contrition and the consciousness of his own weakness, 
he asks for God's grace. In the spirit of the following Postcommunion 
he prays that the salutary effects of the Holy Eucharist may serve to 
free him from his evil inclinations, may renew him in Christ and make 
him imitate Christ, so that he may always cling to God's command- 
ments. The second half of the third phrase has seconds exclusively. 
Justificati-(6nes) faithfully repeats the melody of (cus)-todien-(das). All 
in all, it is a simple, humble prayer. 

* * * * 

TWENTIETH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST 

In the Epistle for today the Apostle gives us the guiding principles 
for all our work with ecclesiastical music: "Be ye filled with the Holy 
Spirit, speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns, and spiritual can- 
ticles, singing and making melody in your hearts to the Lord: giving 
thanks always for all things, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, to 
God and the Father" (Eph. 5: 18-20). 

INTROIT (Dan. 3: 31, 29, 35) 

1. Omnia quae fecisti nobis, Do- 1. All that thou hast done to us, 

mine, in vero judicio fecisti, 2. quia OLord, thou hast done in true judg- 
peccavimus tibi, et mandatis tuis ment: 2. because we have sinned 
non obedivimus: 3. sed da gloriam against thee and we have not obeyed 
nomini tuo, 4. et fac nobiscum se- thy commandments; 3. but give 
cundum multitudinem misericordiae glory to thy name, 4. and deal with 
tuae. Fs. Beafi immaculati in via: * us according to the multitude of thy 
qui ambulant in lege Domini. mercy. Ps. Blessed are the undefiled 

in the way: * who walk in the law 

of the Lord. 

It is rare that the preliminary prayers and the Introit accord, for 
in origin and development they are quite distinct from one another. On 
this Sunday, however, the agreement could scarcely be more manifest. 
At the foot of the altar the priest, bowing profoundly, prays: "I have 
sinned," while the choir sings: "We have sinned against Thee and have 
not obeyed Thy commandments." Thus prayed Azarias in the fiery 
furnace at Babylon, acknowledging his guilt together with that of his 



332 Twentieth Sunday after Pentecost 

people. He solemnly confesses also that God is absolutely just (in vero 
judicio) in punishing His sinful people with exile and all the hardships 
accompanying it. How much lamenting and murmuring would be 
stilled if we would contritely acknowledge our guilt and, like Daniel 
and the thief on the cross, humbly confess: We indeed suffer justly, for 
we receive the due reward for our deeds! 

Large intervals and strong emphasis on the dominant characterize 
the peculiar style of the first phrase. It is as though the singer felt the 
mighty hand of the Lord. To a great extent this phrase sounds like the 
second in the Introit for the tenth Sunday after Pentecost. 

The second phrase is more subdued. Only twice, in fact, does it 
reach the tenor: "We have sinned against thee and we have not obeyed 
thy commandments." In contrast to the c of the first phrase, a, a third 
below the dominant, here predominates. 

The third phrase and the beginning of the fourth, on the contrary, 
exhibit great solemnity in the slowly ascending seconds, in the stress on 
the dominant, in the repetition of the same, and the similar melodic 
lines over da gloriam and nomini: "Give glory to Thy name." But how 
can any new splendor be added to the name of God? How can it gain in 
dignity? In this, simply, that God pities and forgives, that He pours 
upon us the full measure of His mercy. Hence it is that the Introit prays 
so solemnly, so fervently, so earnestly, especially with the words et fac. 
Similar sentiments are expressed in the preliminary prayers: "Show unto 
us, O Lord, Thy mercy, and grant us Thy salvation." In order to lessen 
the monotony of the neums over secundum multitudinem within the tetra- 
chord e-a, it is well to stress the neums appearing over the word-accents. 
Misericordiae is much more effective: a longing expectation of God's 
mercy. If the first part of the Introit spoke of a just God, the second 
part turns to a merciful God. Before the beginning of the fourth phrase 
the melody descends to low d. Thus is created a contrast, which makes 
the following phrase so much the more effective, (cf. p. 4). 

Then the psalm-verse sings of the happiness attendant upon a 
spotless mode of life. To a certain extent such a life is a foretaste of the 
life to come, and this thought confers a special consecration and a solemn 
ring to our song of praise (Da gloriam nomini tuo). 

The syllables which carry the accent are higher in almost every 
instance than those immediately following; often also higher than the 
syllable which precedes the accented one. 

GRADUAL 

This melody was explained on the feast of Corpus Christi. Perhaps 
it is a remnant of a prayer at the agapae or love feasts, at which the 



Twentieth Sunday after Pentecost 333 

early Christians were wont to assemble at the close of the liturgical 
celebration. It sighs after the future heavenly country and its present 
guarantee, the holy Eucharist. (K. L.). 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 107: 2) 

1. Paratum cor meum, Deus, 1. My heart is ready, O Lord, my 
paratum cor meum: 2. cantabo et heart is ready: 2. / will sing, and 
psallam tibi gloria mea. will give praise to thee, my glory. 

Here we have an echo of the Epistle: "singing and making melody 
in your hearts to the Lord." The melody was explained on the fourth 
Sunday of Advent. With the present text the second paratum, in its 
repetition, receives a fine melodic augmentation. Sad to say, the number 
of those whose hearts are really so prepared is small. Even among those 
who have been called to sing in the house of God the heart often lags far 
behind the voice. 

This thought ought to spur us on to praise God with our whole 
heart. With good reason we sing twice: "My heart is ready!" We do not 
sufficiently realize the fact that God is our glory, that He, the infinitely 
sublime God, lowers Himself to our level, lifts us out of the dust, and 
makes us partakers of His divine life. This is so great an honor that no 
one in the whole wide world could bestow the like upon us, a nobility 
no one but God could confer. Thus He becomes our glory, our pride; 
and the very thought should urge us to sing of Him and to praise His 
goodness with all our heart. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 136: 1) 

1. Super flumina Babylonis, 2. 1. Upon the rivers of Babylon, 2. 

illic sedimus et flevimus, 3. dum there we sat and wept, 3. when we 
recordaremur tui, Sion. remembered thee, O Sion. 

Babylon and Sion — what a contrast! There heathenism with all its 
abominations; here the site of the holy temple of God in all its glory, 
with its many songs and festivities. There exile, a strange country, 
poverty and want; here home with its loved ones. In that far country 
homesickness was always gnawing at one's heart: how could one play 
or sing the songs of the Lord? 

But what is Babylon compared to the great Babylon of the Apo- 
calypse, and what is Sion compared to the heavenly City. The earthly 
Babel with its coarseness, its filth, its passions, its seductions- — and the 
heavenly Sion with its luminous beauty and purity, its peace, and its 
eternal Alleluia! He who is filled with a lively faith and has a deep un- 



334 Twentieth Sunday after Pentecost 

derstanding of all that Babel signifies, is seized with insatiable longing 
for the heavenly Sion. And especially now in late autumn, when the 
fading leaves fall from the trees, and when so much in nature is dying 
ofif, there wells up in the heart of the true child of God an intense yearn- 
ing for the home beyond, where all is different, where there is eternal 
spring, eternal life, eternal love. 

It is of this homesickness that our piece is singing. How beauti- 
fully have the two thoughts flumina Bahylonis and Sion at the beginning 
and at the end of the song been drawn out! And then this recurrent rise 
and fall of the melody, stretching out, as it were, toward eternal life, 
only to sink back again! Each of the three phrases reaches high c, but 
only in passing; it occurs only once in the middle phrase. The average 
pitch is a. No violence, no impassioned or explosive grief is expressed; 
only a very subdued wailing and weeping. Care must be taken that the 
tempo be not too slow. Bahylonis sounds a bit like restrained rage. Over 
illic both neums must be prolonged. As if pressed down by pain, the mo- 
tive over sedimus and flevimus sinks ever lower — d h c a, g a h\?a, f g a g. 
The closing cadence of flevimus continues that of flumina. Over recorda- 
remur (surely the appropriate spot!) the only high pressus occurs, tes- 
tifying to the unemotional character of the piece in general. One might 
wish that tui were more pregnant with meaning. In its very simplicity, 
however, with the repetition of the same motive, this song succeeds in 
telling us much. It was in Sion, above all places, that the singer wished 
to pour forth his grief and his yearning. He repeats the neums of dum 
recordaremur and, proceeding in almost dreamlike fashion, his voice dies 
away as if it were stifled in tears. We who are now singing are still in a 
strange land, but we are allowed these songs of home, these echoes of 
the heavenly songs, for they are to us a source of consolation. We know 
that through Christ we have become citizens of heaven and that He will 
come again into our hearts as a new pledge of future glory. In a few 
moments He will appear before our eyes in the mystery of the Mass; 
and in the sacrificial banquet we are united with Him and with all 
heaven. 

Babel sings and plays and shouts and dances, entirely oblivious of 
the heavenly Sion. But we want to belong to those who, homesick yet 
optimistic, are ever striving to reach the fatherland beyond. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 118: 49, 50) 

1. Memento verbi tui servo tuo, 1. Be thou mindful of thy word to 

Domine, in quo mihi spem dedisti; thy servant, Lord, in which thou 

2. haec me consolata est in humili- hast given me hope: 2. this hath 

■ täte mea. comforted me in my humiliation. 



Twenty-First Sunday after Pentecost 335 

In the Offertory there was a breath of Memento mori. Here we dare 
to ask God to remember us, but we do it humbly and reservedly, in the 
manner in which the repentant thief on the cross spoke his memento. It 
is a consolation for us to be allowed to pray thus. The three similar end- 
ings: Domine, dedisti, mea reflect quiet and confidence. The turning of 
the clivis over Dominimtoa pes is necessitated by the low d which opens 
the following melody. Large ascending intervals would be disturbing; 
hence the melody avoids them. Servo with its descending fourth gives a 
pleasing development: second a-g, third a-f, fourth g-d. The accentua- 
tion of the dominant is the only evidence that the heart of the singer is 
really beating somewhat more rapidly. With its h and its pressus, the 
second phrase has about it something new, something reassuring, which 
soars above the entire preceding melodic line. It restricts itself to in- 
tervals of seconds. The half-step progressions toward the end agree ad- 
mirably with the text. It is a humble prayer, one which encourages us 
to rely entirely on the grace of God. 

To the official at Capharnaum the Saviour spoke the consoling 
words: "Go thy way, thy son liveth." And he fulfilled His promise. This 
ought to enkindle confidence in our hearts; a firm hope in Him must re- 
vive and strengthen our weary soul. God keeps His word! May the Word 
of God, the Word Incarnate, which has entered our hearts in Holy Com- 
munion, grant us grace and strength to observe His word and keep also 
the word which we have pledged to Him. 

This piece well demonstrates how plainsong prefers to treat the 
principal word-accent lightly and briefly; thus verhi tui servo and mihi; 
this rule extends even to the secondary accent over consolata (Mocque- 
reau, Nombre II, 221). 

For the rhythm of the first phrase cf. N. Sch. ,34. 



TWENTY-FIRST SUNDAY AFTER 
PENTECOST 

INTROIT (Esther 13: 9, 10, 11) 

1. In voluntate tua, Domine, uni- 1. All things are in thy will, 

versa sunt posita, 2. et non est qui Lord, 2. and there is none to resist 

possit resistere voluntati tuae: 3. tu thy will: 3. for thou hast made all 

enim fecisti omnia, caelum et ter- things, heaven and earth, and all 

ram, et universa quae caeli ambitu things that are under the cope of 

continentur: 4. Dominus univer- heaven: 4. thou art the Lord of all. 



336 Twenty-First Sunday after Pentecost 

sorumtues. Fs.Beati immaculati in Ps. Blessed are the nndefiled in the 
via: * qui ambulant in lege Domini. way: * who walk in the law of the 

Lord. 

A fleeting glance at the melody shows that it attains to no great 
heights. The piece moves below the dominant of the fourth mode, below 
a, almost throughout. Not until the verse does the dominant play an 
important role. But this, in turn, necessitates a lower pitch for the anti- 
phon. An unmistakable gravity pervades the whole. A glance at nature 
out in the open, no doubt, will awaken the same feeling. Late autumn 
brings great changes: a multitude of beings vibrant with life must perish; 
violent gusts of wind sweep the withered leaves from the trees; many a 
flower has been vanquished by the frost and droops its head as if tired 
of life. Everywhere the picture of change, of death. One alone remains 
immutable, immortal, eternal: the God of peace. All things are in His 
hand; by His will are they directed and governed. 

Thoughts such as these help to give us some inkling of the mean- 
ing of the melody. This chant wished to sing of nothing but repose, re- 
minding us of the sea which, although it can rage and foam and toss, 
today is calm and placid, hardly disturbed by a ripple. 

The first phrase really has / for its dominant, like the Introits for 
the second Sunday of Lent, for Easter, and for the second Sunday after 
Easter. The first phrase confines itself to a third. Very slowly the melody 
begins to increase. The range of the first phrase is c-g, of the second 
d-a, of the third and fourth c-a; there is, therefore, some development 
in the melody. The accented syllables with few exceptions carry a pes 
or an expansion of the pes. But there are various degrees of accentuation, 
according as the first note of the pes is of the same pitch as the preceding 
one (voluntdti in the second phrase j, a second lower (voluntdte tua in the 
first phrase j, a second higher fthe first universa), or a third higher fthe 
second universa). Here, as in possit, the pes encompasses a third. Non 
is still more strongly accented. No one can long resist the divine will. 
Many indeed now shout out their "I will not serve"; they wish to dis- 
regard the admonition of the Apostle in today's Lesson: "Take unto 
you the armor of God, that you may be able to resist (resistere) in the 
evil day, and to stand in all things perfect." Against many such St. 
Stephen's complaint might well be directed: "You always resist the Holy- 
Ghost." But when the Lord will come at the last day for the universal 
judgment, then this non will receive an absolute value; no longer Wjjj 
anyone dare to offer any resistance. Such thoughts are suggested by tj^ 
liturgical year which is now rapidly coming to its close. 

The ascending fourth d-g over non is balanced by the descending 
<a-e over possit. Variation in the melody is secured by this e; any other 



Twenty-First Sunday after Pentecost 337 

interval would tire. The second phrase begins on the low d and is joined 
with the preceding by means of the ascending e /. 

The third phrase gives the reason why God can demand perfect 
obedience. Everything that the heavens and the earth contain owes its 
existence to His almighty will alone. Omnia and ambitu have a similar 
ring; caelum et terra and universa are practically identical, for they ex- 
press related thoughts. In the rendition these passages must follow ra- 
pidly one upon another with a strong, though not exaggerated, emphasis 
on the word-accent. The formula at the end of continentur always stands 
over the final syllable of a word (compare omnibus in the Introit for the 
second Sunday in Lent; and Israel, mihi, sibi in the Tract for Passion 
Sunday, where the formula is still more developed). 

Special solemnity should characterize the final phrase with its rever- 
ent close: Dominus universorum tu es. Care must be taken that the tempo 
be not too slow. Strangely enough, the climacus repeats the same notes, 
g f e, while similar passages, for example, the ending of the Introit for 
the second Sunday of Lent, have the much more pleasing formula ä g f 
g f e e. 

In the psalm-verse the good fortune of those is praised who dispose 
their entire lives according to the holy will of God. Thus was rewarded 
the fidelity of Mardochai, whose prayer is used as the antiphon of to- 
day's Introit. God averted from him and from his people the evil which 
Aman contemplated, and made them to see days of gladness. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 89: 1. 2) 

1. Domine, refugium f actus es 1. Lord, thou hast been our refuge, 

nobis, 2. a generatione et progenie. 2. from generation to generation. 

^. 1. Priusquam monies 2. fierent, i'. 1. Before the mountains 2. were 

aut formaretur terra et orbis; 3. a made or the earth and the world was 

saeculo, 4. et in saeculum tu es formed; 3. from eternity 4. and to 

Deus. eternity thou art God. 

Perhaps someone is tempted to see tone-painting in the florid melody 
over montes — the rising mountains, the depressed valleys, and finally 
the highest peaks. In Graduals, however, one must be extremely care- 
ful about making pronouncements of this kind, and more especially here, 
for our present chant is entirely typical; a melody frequently used and 
here adopted note for note. It was explained on the first Sunday of Lent. 

The Gradual-verse belongs to that small number of pieces in which 
the phrasing is not entirely satisfactory, since the divisions of the text 
and the melody do not correspond. The words Priusquam montes fierent 
belong together, but the melody makes an extended cadence over monies 



338 Twenty-First Sunday after Pentecost 

and begins a new melodic part with fierent. Farther down one feels in- 
stinctively that, after the large cadence over terra, et orhis limps along 
without much meaning. As a matter of fact, all Graduals of this type 
begin a new division with the bistropha which is here placed over et. In 
Paleographie musicale (II, 43) the following musical division is indicated: 
Priusquam montes \ fierent aut formaretur terra et orhis; it places the large 
cadence, which the Vatican Gradual sets over terra, on the word orhis. 
Codices 339 of St. Gall'« and 121 of Einsiedeln have the same phrasing 
as the Vatican Gradual. 

One easily notes the relation between the Gradual and the preceding 
Epistle. In the latter St. Paul writes to the Ephesians concerning our 
struggle against the deceits of the devil, who comes armed with fiery 
darts. Where shall we find a shelter to protect ourselves? The Gradual 
presents uncounted multitudes to our gaze: generations upon genera- 
tions come before God's throne as if to offer thanks, and they make this 
profession: "Thou, Lord, hast become our shelter, our place of refuge. 
Under Thy protection we were shielded against all the enemies' thrusts. 
For who could have harmed us, seeing that Thou wast for us? Thou art 
the eternal God, who wast before the hills were made, and unto all ages 
is Thy might." 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 113: 1) 

1. In exitu Israel de Aegypto, 2. 1. When Israel went out of 

domus Jacoh de populo harharo. Egypt, 2. the house of Jacoh from 

a harharous people. 

As has already been mentioned in the introduction, no inner rela- 
tionship exists between the Graduals and the Alleluia- verses. On the 
present Sunday, however, one may be established. The Gradual treats 
of God's benign dealings with all peoples, while the Alleluia speaks of 
His loving care for one nation. That Israel was allowed to depart from 
Egypt, from the nation under whose dominion it had to suffer terribly; 
that the opposition of a Pharaoh (cf. the Introit) was broken; and, to 
supplement the thought from the second verse of the psalm, that it could 
enter the Promised Land — all this was the ordinance of God. Formerly 
this song was sung in the procession of thanksgiving which each day in 
Easter Week led the neophytes to the baptismal font. There they had 
been freed from the Egypt of unbelief and darkness and from the slavery 
of the prince of this world, and had been led into the Promised Land of 
the Church, whose means of grace offer infinitely more than the land 
flowing with milk and honey. But the procession itself also has a sym- 
bolic meaning. It represents the departure from this world of ours and 



Twenty-First Sunday after Pentecost 339 

the entrance into the heavenly Jerusalem. For this reason Psalm 118, 
the first verse of which is here employed, is sung in some localities at 
funerals. This eschatological conception fits extremely well to the 
thoughts which permeate the close of the liturgical year. 

Psalm 113, from which this verse is taken, was among those said at 
the eating of the Paschal lamb, which Christ Himself therefore sang 
with His Apostles at the Last Supper before His exitus, before His de- 
parture from this earth. 

Cardinal Schuster (The Sacramentary, III, 180) comments strikingly 
on the words de populo harbaro: "As far as purely exterior culture is con- 
cerned, the Egyptians were far in advance of the Jews. And yet the sub- 
jects of the Pharaohs are called a barbarous people by the Scriptures. 
For material and artistic progress is not the only criterion of true culture, 
but rather spiritual life and spiritual development. From this standpoint 
the Israelites far surpassed the most famous nations of antiquity and 
thereby proved that their faith was supernatural." 

The melody over the word alleluia sounds as if it might have been 
borrowed from the fourth mode. As a matter of fact, the Alleluia Amavit 
eum from the Mass for a Doctor has almost an identical tone-sequence. 

Twice more in the juMlus we meet the pressus dd c; it confers a strong 
accent. In every instance, however, it is introduced differently, thus 
avoiding monotony. The juhilus has two parts, the first of which has 
three subdivisions: the fourth in subdivision b is rounded out by means 
of connecting notes in b^; in c the motive thus produced appears a second 

higher. We shall have to consider the repetition of d ff an augmentation 
rather than an echo. 

Neither alleluia nor its verse is conspicuous for any particular ardor. 
But a lively tempo is to be recommended, for we are singing a song of 
thanksgiving. Very striking is the development over ex Aegypto with a 
fifth on the insignificant ex and then the descending fourth. We are to 
consider, it seems, what the words "out of Egypt" really signify. The 
chord of resolution over populo has a joyous ring. 

OFFERTORY (Job 1) 

1. Vir erat in terra nomine Job, 1. There was a man in the land 

2. simplex et rectus, ac timens whose name was Job, 2. simple and 

Deum: 3. quem Satan petiit, ut upright, and fearing God: 3. whom 

tentaret: 4. et data est ei potestas a Satan sought that he might tempt: 

Domino in facultate et in came 4 and power was given him from 

ejus: 5. perdiditque omnem sub- the Lord over his possessions and 

stantiam ipsius, et filios: 6. car- his flesh: 5. and he destroyed all 



340 Twenty-First Sunday after Pentecost 

nem quoque ejus gravi ulcere vul- his substance and his children: 6. 
neravit. and wounded his flesh also with a 

grievous ulcer. 

With its purposely restricted range, this piece expresses heartfelt 
sympathy for the patient Job. This compsasion must be all the more 
noble, since here are portrayed the sufferings of a man who was "simple 
and upright, and fearing God," who really had not deserved his mis- 
fortunes personally, and who stands before us exhibiting an imcompar- 
able greatness of soul. When we regard this melody we can understand 
why the ancients called the second mode elegiac and used it extensively 
in the antiphons of the Office of the Dead. 

The Vatican Gradual divides this piece into six phrases, of which 
the first, third, and fifth begin with almost the same motive. The similar 
passages over simplex and rectus serve to emphasize the same thought. 
This similarity holds good of facultdte and et in came further on. In the 
Introit we were able to point out a like procedure. With quem Satan the 
melody takes on a new and tenser turn, even though the formula over 
tentdret, which recurs over filios, over vulnerdvit, and in an expanded 
form over Domino, again relaxes the tension somewhat. So much more 
effective is the fourth phrase, et data, in whose first half high d plays the 
role of dominant. The twofold division in facultdte and et in came is more 
fully developed in the fifth and sixth phrases. A deep melancholy is 
manifested in the final phrase with its prominent accents, its repetition 

of the same motive ccb ag a, which was heard over ut in the third phrase. 

The piece has been transposed by a fifth, most probably only for 
practical reasons, in order to render ledger lines unnecessary. 

At the present time we have just this one verse. In the Antiphonary 
of St. Gregory several more verses follow, in which the dramatic element 
becomes almost passionate. This is apparent even exteriorly from the 
frequent textual repetitions, which are otherwise quite rare in plainsong. 
The last verse, a vehement cry for the joy which every human heart 
demands, nine times repeats the words ut videam bona (cf. Wagner, I, 
110, and especially III, 430 f.). 

Job is a figure of Christ, and his sufferings are a type of Christ's 
sufferings. For this reason the Book of Job was read during Holy Week. 
Even on his couch of suffering Job protests his innocence, but his friends 
do not believe him and assert that his sins are the cause of this awful 
visitation of God's justice, which afflicted him so much that he had to 
cry out in his distress. In the same manner Christ, who is Holiness it- 
self, suffers for our sins, which He took upon Himself in merciful love. 
He too is jeered at in His agony. If with this Offertory we enter the in- 



Twenty-First Sunday after Pentecost 341 

ner circle of the sacrificial action in which Christ renews the sacrifice of 
the cross upon the altar, then we may not entirely forget the sufferings 
which the delicate and tender body of Christ and the soul of "the most 
beautiful of the children of men" had to undergo upon the cross. We shall 
again draw new strength and courage from holy Mass in order to bear 
all our sufferings and trials with perfect resignation to God's will. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 118: 81, 84, 86) 

1. In salutari tuo anima mea, et 1. My soul is in thy salvation 

in verhum tuum speravi: 2. quando and in thy word have I hoped: 2. 
fades de persequentibus me judi- when wilt thou execute judgment on 
ciumi 3. iniqui persecuti sunt me, them that persecute mel 3. the 
adjuva me, Domine Deus meus. wicked have perscuted me: help me, 

Lord my God. 

The phrase has a quiet melody. It is not so expressive of longing 
and yearning as of childlike confidence which places all things in the 
hands of God. One would hardly suspect, from the mood of this phrase, 
that a storm, such as the second and third phrases speak of, can still 
disturb the soul. The inception on the dominant a over quando and the 
tarrying on this note are like an urgent knocking at the door of mercy. 
How often has this quando, "when" — "when, Lord, will our deliver- 
ance come?" — risen in fervent pleading to heaven! We have here an 
instance in which an extremely common form, the recitation on a single 
note, becomes the means of powerful expression, for all the other words 
of this text touch the dominant only transiently, while over quando it 
receives particular stress. Thus the second phrase and the still more 
climactic third phrase sound like the cry of a hunted soul which finds 
shelter only with its Lord and God. 

In the third phrase, first half, we find the formula of psalmody 
proper to the Introit-verses of the first mode. And it is precisely here 
that the piece reaches its climax. 

It seems that the similar closes of the phrases over speravi, judi- 
cium, and meus are to breathe calm into the turbulent soul. The qui- 
lisma over (judl)-ci-(um) is very striking. 

We are making this a Communion song; for now the "salvation of 
God" is come to us, and we may place all our trust in the incarnate Word 
of God now dwelling within us. No matter how long the time of proba- 
tion and trial, how numerous or unjust our aggressors may be, the Lord 
will come on His great day to judge them all. 



342 Twenty-Second Sunday after Pentecost 

TWENTY-SECOND SUNDAY AFTER 
PENTECOST 

INTROIT (Ps. 129:3, 4) 

1. Si iniquitates ohservaveris Do- 1. // thou shall observe iniquities, 

mine, Domine quis sustinebiti 2. O Lord, Lord, who shall endure itl 

quia apud te propitiatio est, Deus 2. for with thee is propitiation, 

Israel. Ps. De profundis clamavi ad God of Israel. Ps. From the depths 

te Domine: * Domine exaudi vo- I have cried to thee, Lord: * Lord, 

cem meam. hear my voice. 

How difficult we find it to forgive and forget! What efforts it costs us 
to condone a wrong, and to bear no malice when a request for forgive- 
ness is made! What if God were to treat us in this manner! What if He 
would immediately mete out punishment after every sin? Who would 
be able to stand it? God indeed looks upon (ohservaveris) our sins and 
weighs them in the balance of His holiness and justice, but His mercy 
prevents His justice from punishing sin on the instant and also from 
punishing a repented sin in the manner it deserves. Thus also this In- 
troit, like that of last Sunday, shows us God's absolute greatness, but 
here it is pictured in the pleasing light of comprehending love that is 
both merciful and forgiving. 

The divisions of the melody are evident enough. To the soaring 
ascent of the first phrase, a second, filled with rest and relaxation, an- 
swers. All three members of the first phrase close on the half tone b c. 
Domine here carries the same melody as in the Introit for the twentieth 
Sunday after Pentecost, with this difference that there it closes with 
c h, instead of with b c as in the present melody. There the second phrase 
begins with a higher note; here on a lower. The very same reason holds 
for the close of sustinehit. Here again the following phrase sets in a third 
lower. It might also be pointed out that we have to do with a question, 
and that the tension contained in a question naturally evolves itself in 
an ascending melodic movement. If we could have had our own way 
about it, we should perhaps have given more prominence to the signi- 
ficant quis than is done here. If the first half of the phrase has c for its 
dominant, then the second receives special force from its dominant d. 
Care must be taken that the recitation be not too precipitous on this 
d; in fact, a moderate martellato might be recommended. It seems as if a 
trembling before God's holiness pervades the melody. 

The second phrase, however, brings rest. It never extends beyond 
c and has only minor thirds and seconds in the beginning. Over the 
accented syllable of propitidtio the melody becomes an expression of 



Twenty-Second Sunday after Pentecost 343 

fervent thanks; it comes to full bloom in the more florid melismas over 
the word Deus. Only with God can we find such judgment and forgive- 
ness. The final groups of neums are frequently seen at the close of the 
Introits of the third mode (cf. the Introit for the fifth Sunday after 
Easter and that for the tenth after Pentecost). The last two groups of 
neums represent a rhythmically united and inseparable whole; they 
always occur over the two final syllables. That explains the peculiar 
treatment accorded Israel. All in all, this Introit well agrees with the 
spirit of All Souls' Day and is very fitting at the end of the liturgical year. 

With the same confidence with which we sing the Introit we are 
also to sing the psalm- verse. And though I should be sunk in the abyss 
of utter need and utter helplessness, still shall I cry to Thee, God, 
and Thou wilt not despise my humble supplication. 

The Introit also teaches us to look with humble confidence to that 
great day, mentioned twice in today's Epistle, when Christ Jesus will 
reappear on earth. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 132: 1, 2) 

1. Ecce quam honum, et quam 1. Behold how good and how 

jucundum habitare fratres in unum! pleasant it is for brethren to dwell 
jl. 1. Sicut unguentum in capite, together in unity, f. 1. It is like 
2. quod descendit in harham, 3. the precious ointment of the head, 
harbam Aaron. 2. that ran down the beard, 3. the 

beard of Aaron. 
The Epistle shows with what "tender love" the Apostle regarded 
the community at Philippi, what heartfelt wishes for this community 
inspired him — an ideal picture of shepherd and flock. Would that it 
were so everywhere! Would that all who congregate in the churches on 
Sundays were bound together spiritually in an enduring bond! This is 
the happy condition which the Gradual tries to portray. 

Ecce at the beginning of the piece is full of meaning; the melody 
has something important to tell us. Habitare with its quint is just as 
pregnant. In this phrase, a is a sort of tonic supporting the ascending 
melody. Unum receives prominence from its pressus; the two subse- 
quent notes, a g, are to be sung broadly according to the annotated 
manuscripts. The closing melisma with the rhythm efdfagagefg 
is an abbreviation of the ornate formula which ends the first part of 
the Gradual on the seventeenth Sunday after Pentecost. This first part 
has also been adopted as the Gradual for the vigil of the feast of the 
Immaculate Conception. 

Florid melismas and a rising melodic line characterize the verse. 
On All Saints' Day we meet the neums which occur here over (unguent)- 



344 Twenty-Second Sunday after Pentecost 

tum over (iniquiren)-tes. The coda of (cäpi)-te belongs to the wandering 
melismas and occurs in almost all modes in the form of a cadence. The 
ornate melody over (Aa)-ron frequently closes Graduals (compare 
Timete for All Saints' Day and Domine praevenisti for the feast St. of 
Joseph and in the Common of Abbots). A typical Alleluia melody of 
the third mode, illustrated on the twentieth Sunday after Pentecost, 
has the same ending. 

The melody of the verse is in no way tone-painting; it is almost too 
imposing for the text which it accompanies; it disregards the typical in 
the text; it practically disregards Aaron himself, the one on whom the 
balsam flowed from beard to garment on the day of his consecration. It 
aims primarily at portraying the blessings of the Communion of Saints, 
the unity of the Church, the streams of grace and holiness and glory 
which flow from the mystic Head, Christ, in loving generosity and with 
unutterable sweetness upon all His members. 

In the ancient manuscript this melody is assigned to the feast of 
the martyrs John and Paul (June 26); it was also sung — according to 
Codex 121 of Einsiedeln — in a votive high Mass De Caritäte: for Charity. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 113: 11) 

1. Qui timent Dominum, sperent 1. They that fear the Lord, let 

in eo: 2. adjutor et protector eorum them hope in him: 2. he is their 
est. helper and protector. 

Compare the melody of the Alleluia- verse for the sixteenth Sunday 
after Pentecost with that of today. Without doubt we should have given 
melodic preponderance to the second phrase of our present text. The 
melody does not sound like an exhortation, but speaks rather of a com- 
forting sense of security under the protecting hand of God. 

St. Paul opened the Epistle with the words: "We are confident in 
the Lord Jesus, that He who hath begun a good work in you will perfect 
it unto the day of Christ Jesus." The verse generalizes this same thought. 
If the fear of God brings forth the same fruits as it did with the Philip- 
pians; if it leads to this, that "charity may more and more abound in 
knowledge and in all understanding"; if one is "sincere and without 
offense unto the day of Christ," filled with the fear of the Lord — then 
this fear serves "unto the glory and praise of God," then there is good 
reason for the confidence which regards God as the indefatigable Helper 
and universal Protector unto the day of the coming of Christ. 

OFFERTORY (Esther 14: 12, 13) 

1. Recordare mei, Domine, omni 1. Remember me, O Lord, thou 

potentatui dominans: 2. da ser- who rulest above all power: 2. and 



Twenty-Second Sunday after Pentecost 345. 

monem rectum in os meum, ut pla- give a well-ordered speech in my 
ceant verba mea 3. in conspectu mouth, that my words muy he 
principis. pleasing 3. in the sight of the 

prince. 

Everything, her own welfare as well as that of her people, depended 
on the audience which Esther was to have with the king; of this she was 
well aware. For this reason she turned in fervent prayer to Him who 
exercises dominion over all rulers, who knows also how to direct the 
heart of kings according to His own will. The melody emphasizes the 
words Recorddre and still more Domine. Then it lingers on g with stately 
solemnity, here again stressing God's immensity and majesty. This first 
phrase, as well as the first half of the second, which repeats motives 
taken from the second part of the first phrase, moves quite sedately. 
Now, however, the unrest in Esther's heart can no longer be concealed. 
"0 Lord, I rely entirely upon Thee and upon Thy wisdom. Place the 
right words on my lips that I may find favor." These words are brought, 
out with a vivacity that is almost dramatic. (Plä)-ceant repeats the mo- 
tive of me-(um), but this renders the petition all the more impressive. 
The melodic finale is composed of two words. Over conspectu, however, 
the melody is drawn out indefinitely. Such drawing out comes as a sur- 
prise at the end of an Offertory which has this florid closing melisma as 
its most prominent feature, and especially since there seems to be prac- 
tically no development of the melody at hand. The melisma has the 
following grouping: a b a c d(= ^b). Here there is need for clear division, 
correct accent, and dynamic shading. In group a, a torculus with an 
apostropha is to be sung, then a torculus and a tristropha. As far as pos- 
sible, / ought to recede in favor of the other notes. In groups b and d, 
however, when the note / occurs with the pressus, it is to be stressed. 
In c, the note g may receive an accent. In d, the growth of the intervals 
■ — third, fourth, fifth — demands an increase in volume. Perhaps we may 
consider this somewhat strange passage as a repeated impulse to self- 
encouragement, for the interview at the palace, and a diminution of 
energy, for purposeful reflection, until in the final member with its 
pressus and growing intervals, the clivis g f and the podatus f g (both of 
which are to be well accented) definitely bring back the feeling of full, 
determination. 

Now Esther is the Church. She acts as our mediatrix. With her 
and in her Christ, who lives forever, prays, in order to intercede for us 
in the holy Sacrifice of the Mass. He knows which word finds favor in 
the Father's sight; for He Himself is the Word of the Father, that most 
beloved Son in whom the Father is well pleased. 



346 Twenty-Third Sunday after Pentecost 

We singers of the Church's chants, however, shall cry out: Give me 
to sing worthily, O Lord! The words which we pronounce are such as 
can please Thee, for they are mostly Thy words, words which Thou hast 
spoken or inspired. But also our melodies must ring true if they are to 
please Thee. And they will have the correct ring if we but conform our 
lives to that which we say with our lips. 

COMMUNION (Ps. 16:6) 

1. Ego clamavi, quoniam exau- 1. / have cried, for thou, God, 

disti me Deus: 2. inclina aurem hast heard me; 2. Oh, incline thine 
tuam, et exaudi verba mea. ear, unto me and graciously hear 

my words. 

In the first phrase the singer gratefully acknowledges that as often 
as he called upon God he found relief. The descending melody over 
clamavi sounds like the confession of one's own helplessness and insuf- 
ficiency. So much the more surely and convincingly does it soar up 

over quoniam, using the motive of ego: f g, g a, g a h, hh c, a d d, with a 
slight bending back of the melodic curve. The melody should therefore 
be rendered accordingly. Now follows the almost turbulent petition, in 
which the melody soars a third above the dominant of the eighth mode: 
"Oh, incline also today Thine ear to me and graciously hear my prayer. 
Behold, I now bear Thy beloved Son in my heart. I pray in His name, 
in union with Him, and He intercedes for me. Do Thou hear Him!" 
On exaudisti there is an ascending fourth, a-d, and over exaudi a descend- 
ing fourth, d-a. 

If a song is supposed to be natural, direct, alive, true, and warm, 
then this song meets all the requirements. It is, therefore, hard to under- 
stand why this expressive melody was appropriated for the text used 
on the feast of the Holy Shroud (celebrated in some places on the Fri- 
day after the second Sunday of Lent): "Joseph buying fine linen, and 
taking him down, wrapped him up in the fine linen." 



TWENTY-THIRD SUNDAY AFTER 
PENTECOST 

INTROIT (Jer. 29: 11, 12, 14) 

1. Dicit Dominus: Ego cogito co- 1. The Lord saith: I think thoughts 

gitationes pads, et non afflictionis: of peace, and not of affliction: 2. 



Twenty-Third Sunday after Pentecost 347 

2. invocabitis me, et ego exaudiam You shall call upon me, and I will 
vos: 3. et reducam captivitatem hear you: 3. and I will bring back 
vestram de cunctis locis. Ps. Bene- your captivity from all places. Ps. 
dixisti Domine terram tuam: * Lord, thou hast blessed thy land: * 
avertisti captivitatem Jacob. thou hast turned away the captivity 

of Jacob. 

The words of today's Introit are an excerpt from the letter which 
the Prophet Jeremias wrote at God's behest to the captive Jews at 
Babylon. They must have been a soothing balm for those tired and 
wounded hearts, God had experienced untold infidelities and offenses 
at the hands of His chosen people, and yet He thinks thoughts of peace 
and not of affliction. He still promises to hear their prayers, still promises 
to bring them back from their captivity into the Promised Land. 

We are not yet in the Promised Land. The deathlike picture of all 
nature in this bleak November vividly brings the fact home to us. We 
know it also from the affliction of heart which frequently weighs more 
heavily upon us than captivity: we are exiles, living in that state of flux 
called time. Suddenly a word strikes our ear, enters our heart; a word 
not spoken by man, for men are powerless: it is the Lord, and He speaks 
of peace. He pronounced this word when He sent His beloved Son upon 
earth; He published it by the mouth of an angel on Christmas night. 
And how often Christ the Saviour uttered His Pax vobisl He is still 
uttering it today, and suiting the action to the word. 

Majesty marks the opening of the melody; the theme is blessed 
peace. Over cogitati6-(nes) the motive of the beginning is repeated, fol- 
lowed by the bright major chord; then its tones sink again, sweetly, 
blissfully, like rays of sunshine into our heart. God thinks thoughts of 
peace. Would that we, too, might always think them! But how often 
we fail to recognize what serves unto our peace, and thus force the Lord 
to discipline us (affiictionis), until, made homesick once more by our 
desolation of soul or by some external affliction, we transfer our affec- 
tion and longing to Him who alone can be our peace, our happiness. The 
cadence over affiictionis is the same as that which is repeated twice in 
the Introit Requiem. It places before him who is conversant with plain- 
song the thought of those stfll awaiting the full peace of the Lord in 
purgatory. All the melodic pauses and incisions in this first phrase fall 
on the note /. The melody loses somewhat in variety thereby, but it 
preserves the quiet feeling which is proper to this phrase. This phrase, 
moreover, towers far above the other two: its text is longer, its range is 
more extended, its neums are more ornate. The usual thing in chant, 
however, is to have the phrases more nearly in climactic order. 



348 Twenty-Third Sunday after Pentecost 

The second phrase is restricted to a fifth. A contrast is formed by 
the h in the first phrase and 6b in the second. There is a certain unrest 
in invocdhitis ("you shall call upon me") which soon is eased by the 
dominant-like fivefold 6b which seems to say: Be comforted, the Lord 
will grant your prayer; you have, it is true, often forgotten Him, have 
despised and deserted Him, but He thinks only of your peace. 

In the third phrase, with its range of an octave, the tonic / plays a 
prominent part. Perhaps this is to indicate the oppression of captivity, 
just as is done with the same word in the Offertory for the third Sunday 
of Advent by lingering on the dominant. In the second half of the phrase, 
however, de cunctis rises with such firm assurance that neither men nor 
circumstances can weaken it. Even to those who have gone farthest 
astray, the road to their fatherland, to reconciliation, to peace, will not 
be closed. Indeed, the Lord Himself proffers His guiding and protecting 
hand (reducam); He Himself wishes to lead them home (cf. Reck, II 
378). Happy he who grasps this hand! 

First the Lord says: "I will hear; I will bring back." With the aban- 
don of faith the congregation immediately responds with words which 
assume that the promise is already fulfilled: "Lord, Thou hast blessed 
the land: Thou hast turned away the captivity of Jacob." The church 
into which we are now filing is already heaven for the community; the 
processional entrance itself becomes in a certain sense an anticipation 
of the procession of the just, when, after the Last Day, they will follow 
Christ into full glory. The house of God, into which we enter now for 
the celebration of the sacred Mysteries, is heaven upon earth. We are 
coming closer to the Parousia: though it is still sacramentally veiled, it 
is already pre-realized in the Eucharist (Jahrbuch fuer Liturgiewissen- 
schaft, IV, 148 f.). 

This is the Lord's promise: "I will hear; I will bring back." And in 
the regions of bliss— for it is November, the month of All Saints — thous- 
ands of the blessed make joyous melody, because He has led them to 
eternal peace, to freedom, and to the glory of the children of God. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 43:8, 9) 

1 . Liherasti nos, Domine, ex 1 . Thou hast delivered us, Lord, 

affligentihus nos: 2. et eos qui nos from them that afflict us: 2. and 
oderunt, confudisti. jl. 1. In Deo hast put them to shame that hate 
laudahimur tola die, 2. et nomini us. f. 1. In God we will glory all 
tue confitehimur in saecula. the day, 2. and in thy name we will 

give praise for ever. 



Twenty-Third Sunday after Pentecost 349 

In the Epistle we heard the words: "But our conversation is in 
heaven; from whence also we look for the Saviour, our Lord Jesus 
Christ, who will reform the body of our lowness, made like to the body 
of His glory." With unhesitating faith, as if this were already effected, 
Holy Church sings in the Gradual a spirited song of freedom and thanks- 
giving. All those who opposed and hated her have fallen. Even our 
bodies, which were the source of untold miseries, may now, in recom- 
pense for renunication and suffering and mortification, expectantly look 
forward to the transfiguration of Christ. If we read in the same Epistle 
of the enemies of Christ, that their glory is in their shame, then God is 
the pride and glory of His children; Him will they praise for all eternity. 

The two phrases of the corpus of the Gradual place the activity of 
God at the beginning and at the close: Liberdsti — confudisti. Those who 
afflict and hate are in the center. In both phrases the psalmodic con- 
struction of the melody with intonation, recitation on c, a sort of middle 
cadence with its close on the dominant d or the mediant b respectively, 
and final cadence on the tonic, is still recognizable. The formula over 
the first nos recurs in the verse over (tu)-o, while the neums over confu- 
(disti) remind us of those over (D6mi)-ne. The ending over (confu)-disti 
employs a motive frequently heard in Graduals of the fifth mode. Com- 
pare the passage terra in the Gradual for the third Mass for Christmas. 
Here the motive sets in on g, but has instead of the half tone c b (in the 
fifth mode) the full tone d c. 

The verse has the same florid melisma over Deo as the Gradual- 
verse for the third Sunday of Advent (q.v.). Rightly does lauddbimur 
tola die mark the climax of the piece. The second part of the verse is 
comparatively simple and quiet, the chant being almost syllabic. The 
motive over confitebimur is repeated over in saecula. We find the same 
closing m«lisma on the Sunday within the octave of Epiphany. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Ps. 129: 1, 2) 

1. De profundis clamavi ad te, 1. From the depths I have cried to 

Domine: Domine exaudi vocem thee, O Lord, Lord, hear my voice, 
meam. 

The words Alleluia and De profündis and Domine of the verse have 
the intonation of the ornate Introit-psalmody as their model. Conse- 
quently there is hardly any justification for speaking of tone-painting 
with the words De profündis in spite of the upward movement. Its form 
a b b b^ c c^ resembles that of the Alleluia for the Sunday after Christ's 
ascension. In b^, however, the pressus does not occur on e, but on c. The 
melody of the verse has two independent members, of which each has 
an intonation, a sort of middle cadence, and a closing cadence. Exaudi 



350 Twenty-Third Sunday after Pentecost 

is an enhanced form of the supplicating clamavi. It was sung in the 
same spirit on the seventeenth Sunday after Pentecost; the Alleluia- 
verse for the eleventh Sunday likewise bears considerable resemblance 
to our present one. 

If we say that today's Gradual is sung by the choir of the blessed, 
by the Church triumphant, then the Alleluia with its verse is sung by 
the Church militant and the Church suffering. We have not yet reached 
the goal of perfect liberty. Many things handicap us. And a great many 
children of the Church have drawn far away from God. But no abyss is 
so deep that God's merciful love cannot reach down to its very bottom. 
God will stretch forth His helping hand to everyone who proves that 
he has at least some good will. For He heals those who have been afflicted 
for many years, as the Gospel says; even the dead He brings back to 
life. 

There is nothing oppressive about the melody; in fact, there is a 
certain throb and swing in it. As to the text, we must think not so much 
of the Office of the Dead as rather of one of the songs which the Jews 
sang on their pilgrimage to Jerusalem. And for our dear departed we 
have but one wish: that they may complete their pilgrimage to the 
heavenly Jerusalem as soon as possible. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 129: 1, 2) 

1. De profundis clamavi ad te, 1. From the depths I have cried 

Domine: 2. Domine exaudi oratio- out to thee, O Lord: 2. Lord, hear 

nem meam: 3. de profundis clamavi my prayer: 3. from the depths I 

ad te, Domine. have cried to thee, O Lord. 

The Offertory has almost the same text as the Alleluia-verse; here, 
however, we have the word orationem instead of vocem. A much more 
earnest tone pervades the melody. Out of the depths the melodic line 
comes forth, almost as in the Offertory for the first Sunday of Advent. 
As in the former melody, so here, too, it strives upward. But repeatedly 
it sinks back to the tonic, on which all the pauses are made, and even 
below it. There is something almost painful in te with its b, which is 
generally avoided in Offertories of the second mode. In the ancient an- 
notated manuscripts each note over clamavi, with the exception of the 
quilisma, carries a broad marking. It is a cry coming from a heart bur- 
dened with grief. In the second phrase the melody twice begins with 
the dominant and rises above it. As in the Alleluia so here, too, the cli- 
max occurs on the word exaudi. In both pieces clamavi has a similar 
melody. (Ex)-äudi repeats the form of Domine; the florid meam is char- 
acteristic of Offertories. To the ascending motive over De profundis the 



Twenty-Third Sunday after Pentecost 351 

descending /d c a at the end of meam comes as an answer; it then bends 
upward to c c d to prepare for the low beginning of the third phrase, 
which is an exact repetition of the first. Formerly the two following 
verses of Psalm 129 (Fiant aures tuae and Si iniquitdtes) were also sung 
with this Offertory; between each pair were interpolated the words De 
profündis clamdvi at te, Domine, which also brought the whole to a close. 
These verses only tended to increase the earnestness of the composition. 
With the Gospel as a background (the healing of the woman troubled 
with an issue of blood and the awakening of the daughter of Jairus) our 
cry ascends to the Lord. In a life filled with sickness, disease, lamenta- 
tion for the dead, our yearning for perfect redemption and absolute 
freedom from all species of misery is most intense. This longing comes to 
the fore in spite of all the self-denial and willing submission we may have. 
It will accompany our every good deed. I am still wandering in the 
depths; my life is spent in a desert where tears and sorrows are my lot. 
But some day I shall be quiet and happy, and like the healed woman 
and the child of Capharnaum brought back to life, I shall thank the 
Saviour, and I shall live on with all the others who have arisen. 

COMMUNION (Mark 11: 24) 

1. Amen dico vohis: quidquid 1. Amen I say to you: Whatso- 

orantes petitis, credite quia ac- ever you ask when you pray, he- 
cipietis, et fiet vohis. lieve that you shall receive, and it 

shall he done to you. 

In the two half-phrases which constitute this song, the first part in 
both instances extends above the range of the second part. Each incep- 
tion, if we disregard the introductory formula, is on the dominant: 
quidquid, credite, et; this gives the piece an added feeling of assurance. 
The endings show a descending line: vohis = a, petitis = g, accipietis=f 
vohis=ed. It is to be noted that the accented syllables are always higher 
than the succeeding syllables, and generally carry several notes. Amen 
is a striking exception. The form d a 5b, over its second syllable, is in 
all other cases on the accented syllable, for example, Suscepimus, Gau- 
deamus, Praeceptor. The same might easily have been done here. Perhaps 
the Greek pronunciation of Amen, which accents the second syllable, 
influenced the present arrangement. But more important than this de- 
tail is the bold continuation the melody makes with its leap of a fourth. 

August majesty marks the beginning of this chant. Here He speaks 
who rules over all things, who has in His hand life and death, time and 
eternity, who needs but will and things are made, who can grant all 
that is asked of Him. Here is the answer He makes to our petitions in 



352 Twenty-Third Sunday after Pentecost 

the Alleluia-verse and in the Offertory. Here He renews the promise 
given in the Introit: "You shall call upon me, and I will hear you." But 
we must pray, pray with confidence, with full certainty of being heard. 
Now at the end of the liturgical year, when the Apostle admonishes us 
in the Epistle to "stand fast in the Lord," a great need makes itself felt: 
the prayer for perseverance, the prayer for life eternal, the prayer that 
our names also may be inscribed in the Book of Life (Epistle). He has 
again heard the petition of the Lord's Prayer: "Give us this day our 
daily bread." We have received Him (accipietis), the Bread of Life. He 
has come into our hearts in Holy Communion. That is our guarantee 
that sometime we may also enter upon eternal life. 



special Feasts Of Our Lord 
And The Saints 

(Proprium de Sanctis; 

ST. ANDREW, APOSTLE 

(Nov. 30) 

INTROIT (Ps. 138: 17) 

1. Mihi autem nimis honor ati 1. To me thy friends, O God, are 

sunt amici tui, Deus: 2. nimis con- made exceedingly honorable: 2. 

fortatus est principatus eorum. their principality is exceedingly 

Ps. Domine, prohasti me, et cog- strengthened. Ps. Lord, thou hast 

novisti me: * tu cognovisti sessio- proved me and known me: * thou 

nem meam, et resurrectionem meam. hast known my sitting down, and 

my rising up. 

At the Last Supper Christ said to His Apostles: "I will not now call 
you servants: for the servant knoweth not what his Lord doth. But I 
have called you friends: because all things whatsoever I have heard of 
My Father, I have made known to you" (John 15: 15). He initiated 
them into those profound mysteries of His divinity, otherwise imper- 
vious to the mind of man. He imparted to them powers that not only 
pierced but elevated into the very heavens. Never was there a truer 
friend and never has friend given so generously as Christ gave to His 
Apostles. 

Christ's Bride, the Church, shares the sentiments and emotions of 
her divine Founder. And hence she exclaims on the feasts of the holy 
Apostles: "To me Thy friends, O God, are made exceedingly honor- 
able." With splendor she honors the Apostles in her divine services, al- 
though the feasts of the Apostles are no longer days of obligation. 
Numberless churches have been dedicated to their memory! Together 
with the Queen of the Apostles, their name is daily invoked during the 
sacrifice of the Mass! 

Solemn and ever-increasing awe pervades the melody until it reaches 
its proper climax on the accented syllable of honordti. It is a truly festal 
melody requiring a worthy, joyful rendition. The feeling of awe is even 
more vividly expressed in the preceding nimis with its descending in- 



354 St. Andrew, Apostle 

terval of a fourth, which recurs again at the words (tu)-i, De-(us), and 
introduces the modulation to c. 

The second phrase is characterized by a strong accentuation of the 
tenor /, which is here the true dominant. The power which God has given 
his Apostles and through them to the Church will endure to the end of 
days, and no other power either on earth or in hell will prevail against 
it. With an interval of a fourth the second nimis begins immediately on 
the dominant, while confortdtus repeats the motive of hono-(räti). Twice 
the melody ascends to a, where it is particularly effective over eorum. 
The triple repetition of c d f g over the words Mihi autem ni-('mis), 
(a)-mici tui, and (prin)-cipdtus is so skillfully interwoven with the whole 
that it is scarcely noticeable. 

In the psalm-verse the Apostle himself prays to the Lord. It was a 
source of wonderful consolation to him to know that amid all his toils 
and labors the eye of his beloved Master followed him and saw all that 
he had done and suffered for Him. In a martyr's death the Apostle has 
stood the test (prohdsti me) victoriously. 

This Introit is sung also on the feasts of the Apostles SS. Thomas, 
Matthias, Barnabas, within the Octave of SS. Peter and Paul, James 
the Elder, Bartholomew, Luke, Simon, and Jude. 

The melody was made use of extensively in the Introits for the feasts 
of St. Ignatius the Martyr, of the Stigmata of St. Francis of Assisi, and 
of the Holy Innocents. Compare also the Gradual for the feast of St. 
Matthias, 

For an explanation of the Gradual Constitues see the feast of SS, 
Peter and Paul. 

ALLELUIA VERSE 

1. Dilexit Andream Dominus 1. The Lord loved Andrew 2. in 

2. in odor em suavitatis. the odor of sweetness. 

In the oldest manuscripts we find this melody given for the present- 
day Alleluia Justus ut palma in the Common of Abbots. It is difficult to 
determine which of the texts inspired the melody. We might conceive the 
florid melisma over the word odorem as tone-painting of the word cedrus 
in the Alleluia Justus ut palma, imitative of the giant growth and the 
wide spread of the branches of this tree. The melody for today's Gradual 
is the same as that on the feast of the Purification and on the Friday 
and Saturday of the Pentecostal Ember Days. 

The melody of Alleluia tends to reach a climax. This climax, which 
is repeated by the melody, is indicated by the climacus at the beginning 



St. Andrew, Apostle 355 

of the juhilus. The varied progression of the second cUmacus, first / g 
and then c d, is charming indeed. The pressus is characteristic of the 
second and third members of the juhilus. The figure d f e d c in the sec- 
ond member becomes g af e din the third member, which latter, besides 
being strengthened, is provided with an upbeat in the fourth member. 

The verse sets in with grand solemnity on the dominant a. Dilexit — 
Andrew was beloved of the Lord- — is expressive of something great and 
happy. The melodic turn over (Andre)-am Do- was noted previously in 
the last member of the juhilus. The extended melisma over odorem is of 
pellucid construction. A suggested grouping might combine the second 
clivis with an unextended cli7nacus where a division point is then ob- 
served, thus: cegab\?gäefed \ fegefec\edfd. Several of the 

old manuscripts declare in favor of this method of phrasing. The joining- 
of climacus and clivis rounds off the melody in a pleasing manner. Care- 
ful examination, however, shows that all annotated manuscripts declare 
in favor of the phrasing given in the Vatican Gradual. The first note of 
every second clivis is lengthened. Thus, before resting on the tonic d 
of this descending curve, the voice imparts a special relief to the clives 
a-e, g-e and f-d, thereby adding particular charm to the melody. Odo- 
(rem) is sung with a crescendo which diminishes as we approach the final 
f-d. The repetition is sung in the same manner. The two accordant 
groups which follow are subjoined in a fervent and delicate manner so 
as to make the effect of the whole that of sweet-scented balsam. These 
and other considerations might induce us to consider Dilexit Andreanh 
an original composition. 

Revue gr., 8, 135 ff.; 9, 58 ff. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 138: 17) 

1. Mihi autem nimis honorati 1. To me thy friends, God, are 

sunt amici tui Deus: 2. nimis con- made exceedingly favorable: 2. their 
fortatus est principatus eorum. principality is exceedingly strength- 

ened. 

Holy Mother Church finds it difficult to realize fully the dignity 
and power which Christ bestowed upon His Apostles. For this reason 
the same text that we have in the Introit is repeated here. The melodic 
development is also very much the same, although the Offertory, as 
becomes its meditative character, is more impressive. As in the Introit, 
the first phrase up to nimis shows a gradual development. The melody 
then descends, giving the following honorati, which is inclosed within 
the limits of an interval of a fourth, an opportunity to develop more fully. 



356 St. Andrew, Apostle 

The second half of the first phrase in both Introit and Ofifertory is serene 
and thetic in character. A solemn reverential awe pervades the nimis 
of the second phrase, which reaches its climax over confortatus est and 
£6rum. 

The powerful motive over autem nimis with its resolved major 
chord f a c, its tristropha cec and the extended intervals of a fourth 
c-g-c are heard again over (confor)-tdtus est, and with a slight variation 
over (princi)-pdtus eorum. The three first syllables of confortatus and 
principätus employ the same melodic figure; likewise the closing figures 
of the first (ni)-mis and (eö)-rum, (De)-us and est. 

COMMUNION (Matt. 4: 19, 20) 

1. Venite post me: faciam vos 1. Come ye after me: I will make 

fieri piscatores hominum: 2. at Uli you to he fishers of men: 2. And 

continuo, relictis retihus et navi, they immediately, leaving their nets, 

secuti sunt Dominum. and their boat, followed the Lord. 

In the first sentence the Lord summons Peter and his brother An- 
drew, while the second sentence relates how both of them immediately 
heeded His call. The Lord calls them from the midst of their life occu- 
pation- — they were at the moment letting down their nets into the sea — 
to an entirely new vocation, one which as yet lay veiled before them. This 
new calling demanded of them numerous sacrifices and labors and bitter 
disappointments — innumerably more than their previous vocation — 
and finally determined their death on the cross. Hearing the word of 
Christ and obeying it was for them, however, but the work of a moment. 
The melody beginning on the dominant emphasizes this thought, and its 
continuance on the dominant realizes for us the enduring sacrifice they 
are bringing. It is not difficult to conceive that they were very fond of 
their fishing nets and intimately attached to their little ship! Although 
the word navi does not occur in the Gospel, we are grateful for its inser- 
tion here so that, realizing the greatness of their sacrifice, we may ap- 
preciate it the more fully. The first phrase is the more quiet, although 
there is a certain solemnity in the twofold descent of the interval g-d 
and the ascending g-c: here the Lord, the King of the Apostles, is speak- 
ing. 

This expressive melody is as a fresh breeze from the sea. Together 
with the Communion of the Vigil Dicit Andreas, it forms one of the 
gems of the Graduale. 



The Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary 357 

FEAST OF THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION 

OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY 

(December 8) 

INTROIT (Isa. 61: 10) 

1. Gaudens gaudebo in Domino, 1. / will greatly rejoice in the 

et exsultabit anima mea in Deo meo : Lord, and my soul shall he joyful in 

2. quia induit me vestimento sa- my God: 2. for he hath clothed me 

lutis: et indumento justitiae cir- with the garments of salvation: and 

cumdedit me, 3. quasi sponsam with the rohes of justice he hath 

ornatam monilihus suis. Ps. Exal- covered me, 3. as a hride adorned 

taho te, Domine, quoniam suscepisti with her jewels. Ps. / will extol thee,, 

me: * nee delectasti inimicos meos Lord, for thou hast upheld me: * 

super me. and hast not made my enemies to 

rejoice over me. 

The Immaculate Virgin herself, radiant in the light of grace, soar- 
ing guiltless over a world laden with sin, the very spouse of God adorned 
with all-wonderful jewels, introduces today's festal Mass. She knows, 
however, the source of her beauty and is aware of her singular dignity. 
She knows that great things have been done unto her. Sin, which up to 
that time had infected every human being born into this world, was 
held in abeyance from the time of her conception; while the earth was 
covered with darkness, the Almighty clothed her in light. Hence in the 
Introit she chants her gratitude to God, a Magnificat, as it were, in its 
original setting. Today she sings: Gaudens gaudeho in Domino; later on: 
Magnificat anima mea Dominum. Today we hear: Et exsultdhit anima 
mea in Deo meo, while the mountains of Judea re-echo the words: Et 
exsuldtvit spiritus meus in Deo salutdri meo. Today it is Quia induit me; 
later on: Quia fecit mihi. 

How shall this melody be rendered? Without doubt it should have 
a ring of sincerity and graciousness emanating most tenderly from the 
depths of the soul; it should be characterized by solemnity yet be joy- 
ful, coming withal from a being all light, all grace, elevated to the prox- 
imity of God. 

The melody, however, was not originally intended for this text. 
Excepting the neums of the last few words, it is taken from the Introit 
of the fifth Sunday after Easter. There it is a song of victory, of liberty, 
of thanksgiving, which we fittingly place today on the lips of the Blessed 
Virgin. For this reason also text and melody are of the same mold. 



358 The Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary 

The first sentence begins softly and tenderly on the half step e-/ 
and the minor third, whence the intervals are extended to the dominant 
c. Domine is full of joyful movement, designating as it does the source 
from which all this happiness emanates. Summarizing it all in a word, 
we might exclaim: Joy in the Lord! The second half of the first phrase 
reflects the parallelism of the text (gaudebo — exsultahit) in the melody, 
which becomes more fervent over the words Deo meo. Here the soul 
fuses, as it were, with its God. And well may Mary sing in this singular 
strain, for the angel will shortly say unto her: "The Lord is with thee!" 

Like the various members of the first phrase, so the second phrase 
and the first half of the third phrase form parallel verses. The initial 
motive is similar to that at the beginning of the Introit. In a word, with 
the argument which it introduces, a more definite sounding double / 
replaces the corresponding tender e f. The interval of the fourth a-d 
leading over to the dominant creates a bold transition. In the first phrase 
this transition is soon abandoned, while here it is made the continual 
support of a new movement, which has a tense preparation over vesti- 
mentis, reaches its climax on the tor cuius c e d, and then closes with un- 
diminished power. These phrases are an outcry of ecstatic jubilation 
over the salvation that has come to the Blessed Virgin. She is indeed 
the first and most beautiful fruit of salvation; Christ has clothed her 
with the mantle of justice. In the first phrase the closing cadences over 
Domino and meo were on e, over salutis and me they are on g. 

The melody of quasi sponsam offers a new thought. The Blessed 
Virgin is represented as "a bride adorned with her jewels." These words 
are sung on the descending melody with such charming humility as only 
the ancilla Domini, the handmaid of the Lord could sing them. And not- 
withstanding the miracles of grace which had been wrought upon her, 
she ever remained the humble handmaid of the Lord. Unceasing grati- 
tude, however, urges her on, and once more she receives the great graces 
of which she has been made the recipient, once more she gives vent to 
her feelings of amazement, joy, and gratitude. 

In the psalm-verse the Blessed Virgin addresses her God directly: 
*'I will extol Thee, O Lord, for Thou hast not made my enemies to re- 
joice over me." Reference is here made to the hereditary foe of the hu- 
man race, the devil, who in hellish glee mars newly created souls with 
the stain of sin. Today, however, his song of triumph is silenced, for, 
with his head crushed, he lies powerless under the foot of the Virgin. 
The repetition of the Introit fittingly projects the image of the Mother 
of God into the background of this picture and completes it in every de- 
tail. 



The Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary 359 

GRADUAL (Jud. 13:23) 

l.Benedicta es tu,Virgo Maria, a 1. Blessed art thou, Virgin 

Domino Deo excelso, 2. prae omni- Mary, by the Lord the most 



bus mulieribus super terram. ^. 1. God, 2. above all women upon the 
Tu gloria Jerusalem, 2. tu laetitia earth, f. 1. Thou art the glory of 
Israel, 3. tu honorificentia populi Jerusalem, 2. thou art the joy of 
nostri. Israel, 3. thou art the honor of our 

people. 

The text of the Gradual is intimately connected with the high 
honor paid to Judith after her victory over Holofernes. In like manner 
Mary is presented to us in the role of victor over sin. She is the solitary 
boast of our tainted nature, the blessed among women. Hence, mil- 
lions salute her today in terms of highest reverence and glowing love: 
Thou art our pride, our joy, our crown of honor. 

In the Introit Mary was the person speaking; in the Gradual she is 
the person spoken to. 

The present melody was composed for the text Constitues of the 
feast of SS. Peter and Paul. The adaptation could not have been more 
happy. The text of the day imparts to the melody fresh energy, a full- 
ness of joy and enthusiasm. How full of reverence the words Benedicta es 
tu, how ardent and lovely the Marial The extended development due to 
the word-painting over omnem terram in the original fits perfectly to the 
word excelso. Gloria Jerusalem revels in astonishment, admiration, and 
delight. 

ALLELUIA VERSE (Cant. 4: 7) 

1. Tota pulchra es, Maria: 2. et 1. Thou art all fair, O Mary: 2. 

macula originalis non est in te. and there is in thee no stain of 

original sin. 

In relation to the preceding Gradual, it is rather difficult to assign 
a definite position and sentiment to the present chant and to character- 
ize it properly. It must be sung neither heavily nor slowly, but rather 
with a spirit of naive joy and admiration. The melody is not original to 
this text, but was sung in the 12th century on the feasts of the 
Assumption and St. Agnes. 

If we combine alleluia and jubilus into one in accordance with the 
pauses, there will be four members. Alleluia is amplified in the second 
member and repeated at the end of the third and fourth members as a 
soft refrain. The -luia is characterized by a contrary ascending move- 
ment, being somewhat extended at the beginning of the third member 



360 The Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary 

and correspondingly abbreviated at the beginning of the fourth member. 
The pressus serve to enliven the melody. A comparison might be drawn 
between the ascending melody previous to the refrain and the last 
Kyrie of Masses 9 and 10. 

The first phrase of the verse is beautifully rounded off. Tota pre- 
pares for the spiritual warmth given pulchra, while Maria ends the 
phrase like to the glow of a mild sunset. How beautiful is Mary, imma- 
culately conceived! Indeed, she has been the inspiration of a Murillo 
and numberless others, and yet the essence of her beauty defies the skill 
of every artist. 

The first and only express mention of original sin in today's feast is 
made in the second phrase. The groups ag ach g over ori- correspond to 
geh cde a over macula. Most singers will be obliged to breathe at this 
place. What follows presents some further difficulties as to comprehen- 
sion and rendition. The torculus and climacus must be considered as 
organic, linking elements. The sentence is to be taken as a whole. The 
emphasis on macula must not be wrongly interpreted, for we might em- 
phatically exclaim: Original sin — is not in thee! 

Revue, 6, 160; 26, 277 ff.; Analyses, 8, 25 ff. 

OFFERTORY (Luke 1:28) 

1. Ave Maria, gratia plena: 2. 1. Hail Mary, full of grace: 2. 

Dominus tecum: 3. henedicta tu in the Lord is with thee: 3. blessed art 
mulierihus. Alleluia. thou among women. Alleluia. 

We have here the rare instance where a new melody has been com- 
posed for the Mass text of a later feast. The melody was written by the 
Benedictine Dom Fonteinne and adapted by his confrere Dom Pothier. 
Fervor, delicacy, and sublimity combine to effect an harmonious whole. 

Ave begins soft and tender, reverently continuing the salutation of 
the Angel which concludes the Gospel of today's feast. With what joy 
might God Himself today have saluted Mary who, like an early morn- 
ing dawn, shedding light in the wake of a receding darkness, prefigures 
the dissolution of the dark night of sin at the approach of the Sun of 
salvation. We, too, greet thee, mild and gracious Lady, in thy imma- 
culate conception and in thy life of motherly solicitude to become an 
eternal dispenser of grace and mercy. As in the Gradual, Alleluia, and 
Communion, the word Maria is here treated with evident love. 

Gratia begins in a somewhat dreamy mood, but waxes increasingly 
powerful, as though the singer had joyfully glimpsed in Mary's soul the 
broad, shoreless expanse of her many graces. Part of the melody is 



The Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary 361 

reminiscent of Maria in the Gradual. The modulation to c is likewise 
peculiar to chants of the fifth mode. 

The second phrase is more serene, never going beyond c. It contains 
a mysterious allusion to the dignity of that divine motherhood which 
conveniently demanded the immaculate conception of the Blessed Vir- 
gin. 

The third phrase, on the other hand, sets in with brilliance imme- 
diately. Thou art the promised one, the blessed, the chosen among all 
the daughters of Eve. Be thou praised, alleluia! The melody over this 
last word is similar to that over Maria of the first phrase. The descent 
to low d is peculiar to the eighth mode. The piece might be more effec- 
tive if low d did not occur in each of the three phrases. 

Comparison of today's Ave Maria with that of the fourth Sunday 
in Advent will be very instructive. The final phrase of that composition 
is lacking here. The fact that mulieribus there is not final, as it is in the 
present case, would make the use of its melody for today impossible. 
This may also have occasioned the new composition for this f^ast. 

COMMUNION 

1. Gloriosa dicta sunt de te, 1. Glorious things are told of- 

M aria: 2. quia fecit tibi magna qui thee, Mary: 2. for he who is 
potens est. mighty hath done great things unto 

thee. 

The melody was originally composed for the text Dico autem vohis 
of the Mass Sapientiam for the Common of many Martyrs. In the early 
ages it was the melody for the Communion of the feast of St. Hippo- 
lytus, who is commemorated two days before the feast of the Assump- 
tion of the Blessed Virgin. It may possibly have been borrowed from the 
former for the Communion Optimam partem of the Assumption, and 
thence transferred to today's feast. Here there is a more faithful ad- 
herence to the original than on the Assumption, where the text of the 
second phrase is somewhat abbreviated. The festive, serene character of 
the melody seems to have been inspired by the text. The motive gab 
egg over the third syllable of Gloriosa undergoes a slight change over 
magna and enlarges over qui potens est. The descent to low d over tibi, 
a fourth below the tonic, which is characteristic of the eighth mode, 
forms the antithesis to the interval g-c. This formula is well known 
from the psalmody of the first mode with final cadence D ad lib. Anno- 
tated manuscripts have leniter — gliding downward gently — written at 
this point. On the feast of the Immaculate Conception the Communion 
closes with an accent on the third last syllable, necessitating a slight; 



362 St. Thomas, Apostle — Purification of the Blessed Virgin 

change in the melody. On the feast of the Assumption and in the original 
melody the close is more energetic and effective. 

Scripture, the Church in her liturgy, and her saints speak in glow- 
ing terms of the Blessed Virgin. And yet it is impossible to narrate and 
portray all the great things that God has wrought in and through Mary 
from the day of her conception and how she has proved herself to be 
the Mother of mercy. The closing phrase of the Communion reminds us 
once more that it was only the omnipotence of God which made it pos- 
sible for Mary to enter this world pure and without the stain of original 
sin on her soul. 

Having received our Lord in Holy Communion we should with 
grateful hearts repeat the words of the Magnificat: "The Lord hath done 
great things unto me." Surely, it is a wonderful condescension that 
God almighty deigns to come into our souls. 



ST. THOMAS, APOSTLE 
(December 21) 

When this feast is of the second class only, it is not celebrated on a 
Sunday of Advent. 

For the Introit refer to the feast of St. Andrew, and for the Gradual 
to that of St. Matthias. The Alleluia is proper. Its opening melody oc- 
curs on the feast of the Holy Innocents. The Offertory is sung on the 
feast of St. James (July 25). The Communion is the same as that on 
Low Sunday, Alleluia being omitted. 



PURIFICATION OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN 
OR CANDLEMAS 

(February 2) 

The first chant of today after the blessing of the candles extols 
Christ as the light of the gentiles. The procession as also the liturgy of 
the Mass, would glorify Him as the King of light. True, He makes his 
entrance into the Temple as a babe in arms, clinging and looking to His 
mother. Similarly our own thoughts and sentiments revert to that same 
blessed Mother. It is not without reason that the Church has chosen 
the title "Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary" for today's feast. 



Purification of the Blessed Virgin or Candlemas 363 

LUMEN (Luke 2: 32) 

Lumen ad revelationem gentium, A light to the revelation of the 

et gloriam plehis tuae Israel. gentiles, and the glory of thy people 

Israel. 

Both parts of this vigorous antiphon are well balanced. In the sec- 
ond half/ a serves merely as an introduction for the accent on gl6riam= 
Lumen. The first half closes with a g ä g f, the second half with ä ah a g. 

A kind of rondo form results from the repetition of this antiphon 
after each of the verses of the Nunc dimittis (Luke 2: 29-31), which has 
ever been heard in the Church since the day the aged Simeon sang it in 
the joy of the Holy Ghost. 

1. Nunc dimittis servum tuum, 1. Now thou dost dismiss thy 
Domine * secundum verhum tuum servant, O Lord * according to thy 
in pace. word in peace. 

2. Quia viderunt oculi mei * sa- 2. Because my eyes have seen * 
lutare tuum; thy salvation. 

3. Quod parasti * ante faciem 3. Which thou hast prepared * 
omnium populorum: before the face of all peoples: 

4. Gloria Patri .... 4. Glory he to the Father .... 

(The customary intonation must be omitted at the beginning of 
the third verse on account of the brevity of the text.) 

It is somewhat surprising that the final cadence G, that is, c b c a g 
is employed, since in the Antiphonale the cadence c a c d c is used for 
this antiphon (the fourth in Lauds for February 2) and as often as the 
antiphon begins on c. 

The present feast is a connecting link between Epiphany and Easter. 
Today. Christ, the Light, enters the Temple, where at some future time 
He will solemnly proclaim: I am the Light of the world. Mankind, how- 
ever, prefers darkness to the light and is bent upon extinguishing it in 
its heart. Christ became a sign unto many, but was contradicted; at the 
crucifixion the Light of the world was overshadowed by darkness. On 
Holy Saturday, however, the triumphant cry Lumen Christi, followed 
by a grateful Deo grdtias, is heard. 

EXSURGE DOMINE (Ps. 43: 26) 

Exsurge, Domine, adjuva nos: et Arise, Lord, help us, and de- 

lihera nos propter nomen tuum. Ps. liver us, for thy name's sake. Ps. 

Deus, aurihus nostris audivimus: * We have heard, O God, with our 

patres nostri annuntiaverunt nohis. ears: * our father shave declared to us. 



364 Purification of the Blessed Virgin or Candlemas 

The first notes of this antiphon are well known to us from the Per 
omnia saecula. Similar melodic treatment are accorded ddjuva nos and 
the definitive libera nos: the e following the former acts as an impellent 
for the latter. The present Exsurge is devoid of the stormy excitement 
and the feeling of abandonment by God depicted in the Introit of Sexa- 
gesima. True, today's chant is impressive— the repetition of the same 
formula emphasizes this — but it is simpler, more ardent, more confident. 
It is also sung on Rogation Days immediately before the procession. 

Of the various antiphons sung during the procession, we take note 
of the following one only. 

ADORNA 

In the first two phrases the second half repeats the melody of the 
first half. 

1. Adorna thalamum tuum, Sion O Daughter of Sion, adorn thy 
et suscipe Regem Christum: 2. bridal chamber, and welcome Christ 
amplectere Mariam, quae est cae- the King: 2. greet Mary with loving 
lestis porta: 3. ipsa enim portat embrace, for she, who is the very 
Regem gloriae novi luminis: sub- gate of heaven, 3. bringeth to thee 
sistit Virgo, adducens manibus Fi- the glorious King of the new light. 
Hum ante luciferum genitum: 4. Though in her arms she bears a Son 
quern accipiens Simeon in ulnas begotten before the day star, yet ever 
suas praedicavit populis Dominum she remaineth a pure virgin. 4, 
eum esse vitae et mortis, et salva- Hers was the Child whom Simeon, 
torem mundi. taking up into his arms, declared 

unto all peoples to be the Lord of 
life and death, the Saviour of the 
world. 

Sion, in the first verse, refers to the Church. In the second verse the 
singer is inspired by the thought of the "King of the new light," and 
thenceforward the melody becomes brighter. 

Special emphasis is given the word eum, for He is the Lord. The 
whole produces the effect of a royal hymn, a festive echo of Christmas- 
tide, which delighted in singing of Christ the King. The identical form 
of the motive over Sion recurs four times; that over gloriae three times; 
that of novi luminis over (ad)-dücens manibus, and again with a slight 
change over Dominum eum esse. 

According to Wagner (I, 51, and 207) these chants are of Greek 
origin. Rass. gr., is of a different opinion (8, 193, and 438 ff.; 9, 51 ff.). 



Purification of the Blessed Virgin or Candlemas 



365 



RESPONSUM (Luke 2: 26, 27, 28, 29) 



1. Responsum accepit Simeon a 
Spiritu Sancto, non visurum se 
mortem, nisi videret Christum Do- 
Tnini: 2. et cum inducer ent puerum 
in templum, accepit eum in ulnas 
ßuas, 3. et benedixit Deum, et dixit: 
4. Nunc dimittis servum tuum, 
Domine, in pace. 



Simeon received an answer from 
the Holy Ghost, that he should not 
see death before he had seen the 
Christ of the Lord; 2. and when they 
brought the Child into the temple, 
he took him into his arms, 3. and 
blessed God, and said: 4. Now dost 
thou^ dismiss thy servant, Lord, in 
peace. 



In comparison with the foregoing, the present chant is much more 
quiet and reserved. It reflects the reverent, serene happiness of the aged 
Simeon. The motive over the word Simeon with its pressus, swelled as 
it were with ardent desire, recurs over Sancto and templum. A second 
motive appears over Domini and dixit, which is somewhat more de- 
veloped over Domine and artistically so over pace. In the same manner 
the aged Simeon feels himself rich with the fullness of divine peace. A 
third motive introduces the second and third phrases, and partly also 
the fourth phrase. 

On re-entering the church, the following Responsory is sung. 
OBTULERUNT 



A. Obtulerunt pro eo Domino par 
turturum, aut duos pullos columbar- 
um: * Sicut scriptum est in lege 
Domini. 

B. I. Postquam impleti sunt dies 
purgationis Mariae, secundum le- 
gem Moysi, 

II. tulerunt Jesum in Jerusalem, 
ut sister ent eum Domino. 



A. 
Patri . 



Sicut scriptum est, . .Gloria 



A. They offered for Him to the 
Lord a pair of turtledoves, or two 
young pigeons: * As it is written in 
the law of the Lord. 

B. I. After the days of the puri- 
fication of Mary, according to the 
law of Moses, were fulfilled, 



II. they carried Jesus to Jerusa- 
lem, to present Him to the Lord. 



A. * As it 
to the Father . 



written. . .Glory be 



5 4 3 2 1 5 4321 

The division of syllables eum Domino and (Spi)-ritui Sancto is 
readily recognized. The construction is identical with that of the Re- 



366 Purification of the Blessed Virgin or Candlemas 

sponsories Emendemus on Ash Wednesday and Ingrediente on Palm 
Sunday. The melody is closely related to that of the former. Compare 
also the Response In monte Oliveti of Palm Sunday. 

Let us attend the holy Sacrifice with the same disposition that 
Mary had when offering her Child in the Temple. 

INTROIT (Ps. 47: 10, 11) 

1. Suscepimus, Deus, misericor- 1. We have received thy mercy, 

diam tuam in medio templi tui: 2. God, in the midst of thy temple: 2. 

secundum nomen tuum Deus, ita et according to thy name, God, so 

laus tua in fines terrae: 3. justitia also is thy praise unto the ends of 

plena est dextera tua. Ps. Magnus the earth; 3. thy right hand is full of 

Dominus, et laudabilis nimis: * in justice. Ps. Great is the Lord and 

civitate Dei nostri, in monte sancto exceedingly to he praised: * in the 

ejus. city of our God, in his Holy Moun- 
tain. 

With these words the priest might have greeted the first entrance 
of our Lord in the arms of His Mother into the Temple; with the sound 
of the trumpets the Levites might have saluted Him, and with jubila- 
tion the entire populace might have bade Him welcome. But, alas! the 
priests know no songs to honor Him, the trumpets of the Levites are 
silenced and the people have no word of welcome to offer. Simeon alone 
sings his immortal Nunc dimittis, and the prophetess Anna rejoices 
with him — then silence again in the Temple. 

In this majestic melody, the Church offers that which Sion denied 
its King. She values the fact that He came with a heart full of tender 
mercy and that she is privileged now to receive Him for whom the cen- 
turies had prayed: "Show us, O Lord, Thy mercy." In the Postcommun- 
ion of the first Sunday of Advent she still prayed: "May we receive. . . 
Thy mercy," and continued this petition throughout the week. Today 
her prayer is heard, and with a grateful heart she cries: Suscepimus — 
we have received. In like manner, to the Advent petition Veni — Come, 
she could joyfully respond on Epiphany: Ecce advenit — Behold He is 
come. 

Let the very confines of the earth resound with His praises. And 
even though the infant hand be small, it embodies within itself the full- 
ness of that righteousness from which we also have received, and by 
which we are made children of God. For this reason, despite His humble 
appearance, the Church greets Him with the words of the psalm- verse i 
"Great is the Lord, and exceedingly to be praised." 



Purification of the Blessed Virgin or Candlemas 36T 

At first glance our attention is attracted by the extended intervals 
at the beginning of the second phrase. It would seem as though the singer 
wished to clarify our notion of the majestic essence of God. The entire 
middle phrase overtops the first and third phrases rather prominently. 
The cadence over fines terrae, which forms the close of the first phrase 
as well, imparts to both a well-rounded finish. 

In the first phrase a is the predominant note, c being sounded only 
in passing. The second phrase is dominated by c, the third by /. Briefly, 
we might say that the first phrase is characterized by f-a, the second 
by a-c, the third by d-f. An apparently insignificant but important note 
forms the transition to the third phrase. Despite an indicated major 
pause here, the note effecting the transition makes for a short rest only. 
Codex 121 of Einsiedeln inserts at this place "st" {statim, at once) 
which in modern music corresponds to an attaca subito. The third 
phrase should be rendered in broad, full tones, every word being given 
due prominence. 

Today's Introit forms the favorite chant of many singers. K. K.y 
23, 3 ff.; Revue gr., 9, 136 ff. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 47: 10, 11, 9) 

1. Suscepimus, Deus, misericor- 1. We have received thy mercy, 

diam tuam in medio templi tui: 2. God, in the midst of thy temple: 

secundum nomen tuum, Deus, ita 2. according to thy name, God, so 

et laus tua in fines terrae. ^. 1. also is thy praise unto the ends of 

Sicut audivimus, 2. ita et vidimus, the earth. S^. 1. As we have heard, 

2. in civitate Dei nostri, in monte 2. so we have seen, in the city of our 

sancto ejus. God, and in his holy mountain. 

This corpus repeats the text of the first two phrases of the Introit 
and bears some melodic similarity to it: (tu)-am tem-(pli), secundum 
no-(men). In general, this part is characterized by solemn serenity. The 
melody of the verse is practically the same as that of Maundy Thurs- 
day. The florid melisma over ilium of the latter is unhappily wanting 
here. 

The prophecy of Malachias (Lesson of the feast) has been realized,, 
and "we have received Thy mercy, God." In His holy temple we be- 
hold Him, the Angel of the covenant, the Angel of the great counsel 
(Introit of the third Mass of Christmas). And this is the house of God, 
in which we render Him homage and offer Him our worship of adora- 
tion. 



368 Purification of the Blessed Virgin or Candlemas 

ALLELUIA VERSE 

1. Senex puerum portahat: 2. 1. The old man carried the Child: 

Puer autem senem regehat. 2. but the Child governed the old man. 

The melody was explained on the feast of St. Andrew. 

Like Simeon we also should be governed by the divine Child; He 
alone should be our Lord and our King. Our soul in consequence will 
he endowed with a maturity attained comparatively seldom even by 
advanced age; it will radiate inner purity, sound judgment, and stead- 
fastness. We can then apply to it the words of St. Ambrose speaking of 
St. Agnes: "a brilliance of mind unrestrained." In all humility let us 
pray as did Cardinal Newman even before his conversion: "I loved to 
choose and see my path; but now, lead Thou me on." 

The TRACT which is sung while the blessed candles are being 
distributed has the same text and the same divisions as the Nunc di- 
mittis. The Antiphon Lumen is added as a fourth verse. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 44:3) 

1. Diffusa est gratia in labiis tuis 1. Grace is poured abroad in thy 

2. propter ea benedixit te Deus in lips: 2. therefore hath God blessed 
aeternum, 3. et in saeculum saeculi. thee forever, 3. and for ages of ages. 

At the beginning of the Christmas season we referred these words 
to the charm and beauty of the divine Child (see Gradual of the Sunday 
after Christmas). Today, at the close of the Christmas season, these 
same words glorify the Mother of the divine Infant. It has ever been the 
wish of the artist to portray the exterior charm of the blessed Mother, 
but never has the ideal conception of her been successfully materialized. 
To comprehend fully the beauty of her soul one would needs require 
eyes of faith and a soul as pure and rich in graces as Mary's. The Arch- 
angel Gabriel at first sight of her exclaims: Ave, gratia plena — "Hail, 
full of grace." This angelic salutation is developed and paraphrased in 
the first phrase of the Offertory. The term plena corresponds to diffusa. 
Would that we might sing this melody with the reverence and glowing 
love of the Archangel! Following the low-pitched and rather reserved 
introduction, gratia continues in a bright, ascending melody. The cli- 
macus here and over läbi-(is) later must be sung crescendo. Tuis modu- 
lates into a full step below the tonic. The second phrase, which is a 
development of the Archangel Gabriel's benedicta tu, terminates in the 
same manner. Following the ascending intervals of a fourth in the first 
phrase we have here descending intervals of a fourth. The melody 



Purification of the Blessed Virgin or Candlemas 369 

c d cc g a is re-echoed in the following g h aa g g a. Deus should be given 

the expression it demands. The word aeternum is accorded particular 
splendor. The preceding torculi c d c reach their climax in d e c. The 
final cadence should be sung broadly. 

In the third and final phrase the singer, dwelling emphatically on 
high c, would conclude his pean by describing for us eternity, endless 
in extent. As in the second phrase, the neums here should be given pre- 
cedence over the bistropha and tristropha. This finale is well rounded 
off, having a conclusion similar to that of the first two phrases. The 
Lessons of some feasts of the Blessed Virgin ascribe to her the words: 
*'I shall not cease in all eternity." And truly, she will be blessed for all 
eternity and will ever be the dispenser, the mediatrix of blessings. She 
will never cease to console, to succor, and to heal. 

The present feast invests the person of the Mother of God with a 
peculiar charm. She appears as if transfigured by sorrow. She realizes 
what the offering of her Son in the temple presages, for she hears there 
the ominous words: "And thy own soul a sword shall pierce." And addi- 
tional beauty and charm is imparted to her soul by the royal response: 
Fiat — Be it done. As the Mother of Sorrows she becomes the fountain- 
head of blessing and consolation for mankind. 

In the oldest manuscripts this melody is noted on the feast of St. 
Agnes (January 21). The tempo should be bright, the rendition light 
and airy. 

COMMUNION (Luke 2: 26) 

Responsum accepit Simeon a Spi- Simeon received an answer from 

ritu Sancto, nan visurum se mor- the Holy Ghost, that he should not 
tern, nisi videret Christum Domini. see death, until he had seen the 

Christ of the Lord. 

The melody is narrative in character. Its musical fine is defined by 
the word-accents. 

As in response to his ardent expectation and prayer, Simeon re- 
ceived a special inspiration of the Holy Ghost, and what thus far he had 
beheld merely in spirit became for him today a blessed reality. He was 
privileged before his death to look upon the "Christ of the Lord," to 
take Him into his arms, to press Him to his bosom. In Holy Communion 
we too may look upon Christ and receive Him into our hearts. My Blessed 
Saviour, be Thou my light and consolation in the hour of death and re- 



370 St. Matthias, Apostle 

ceive me into eternal bliss! And Thou, O Mother of God, from whose 
hands Simeon received the Saviour, be Thou to me at that moment the 
Mother of light! Amen. 



ST. MATTHIAS, APOSTLE 
(February 24; in leap years, February 25) 

The INTROIT is the same as on the feast of St. Andrew. 
GRADUAL ((Ps. 138: 17, 18) 

1. Nimis honorati sunt amici tui 1. Thy friends, God, are ex- 

Deus: 2. nimis confortatus est prin- ceedingly honorable: 2. Their prin- 

cipatus eorum. 'f. 1. Dinumerdbo cipality is exceedingly strengthened, 

eos: 2. et super arenam multiplica- jl. 1. / will number them: 2. and 

huntur. they shall he multiplied above the 



The melody was explained on the first Sunday of Lent. In the 
original Hebrew version these verses are referred to the mysterious coun- 
sels of God and to the power by which they are realized. Who is there 
to number them, who can fathom their depths, or who can fully appre- 
ciate them for the blessings they bring? Certainly no one was so thor- 
oughly imbued with their spirit as the Apostles to whom the Saviour 
revealed all that He had received from His Father (John 15: 15). 

He shared with them His rights of sovereignity. They became 
founders of holy catholic Church, whose children are as numerous as 
the sands on the sea. 

TRACT (Ps. 20:3, 4) 

1. Desiderium animae ejus tri- 1. Thou hast given him his souVs 

buisti ei: f et voluntate labiorum desire: f and hast not withholden 

ejus non fraudasti eum. 2. Quoniam from him the will of his lips. 2. For 

praevenisti eum in benedictionibus thou hast prevented him with bless- 

dulcedinis. 3. Posuisti in capite ings of sweetness. 3. Thou hast set 

ejus t eoronam de lapide pretioso. on his head f a crown of precious 

stones. 

The present melody should be compared with that of the Tract on 
the feast of St. Joseph. Several formulas are repeated: Tribuisti e-(i) in 
the first verse is identical with in benedicti6-(ne) of the second verse, 



St. Matthias, Apostle 371 

-rum ejus in the first verse with coronam of the third verse; eum in the 
first verse is similar to -one of the second verse. 

We might conjecture that St. Matthias, on the morning when 
Christ chose His Apostles, entertained a secret desire to become an in- 
timate friend of the Master and be numbered among the twelve. Our 
Lord tendered him a cordial invitation, and by selecting him to supplant 
Judas, placed on his head a crown of precious stones. 

The OFFERTORY is the same as that on the feast of the Apostles 
SS. Peter and Paul (q.v.). 

COMMUNION (Matt. 19: 28) 

1. Vos, qui secuti estis me, sede- 1. You who have followed me 

Mtis super sedes, 2. judieantes shall sit on seats, 2. judging the 
duodecim trihus Israel. twelve tribes of Israel. 

The melody places special stress on the word vos. You, My faithful 
Apostles, in company with Me shall one day judge the world. The mel- 
ody over tri-(hus) is extended over super — possibly a matter of tone- 
painting, as in the Gradual of the third Sunday of Advent over the 
same word. The climax of the entire melody is realized over sedes, where 
there is question of the thrones of the Apostles. The word-accents over 
judieantes and duodecim are well defined. Preceded by a pressus the 
melody descends twice to low c, followed both times by an interval of a 
fourth. This cadence is very effective wherever an independent thought 
is brought to a close. This is not the case here, however, especially over 
the word duodecim. With the special prominence given the dominant / 
we should expect the second mode rather than the first. This melody is 
not found in manuscripts 339 of St. Gall's, 121 of Einsiedeln, or H. 159 
of Montpellier. 

The text, with an additional dicit Dominus: "saith the Lord," 
forms the Communion for the feast of St. Bartholomew. The melody 
there, in the second mode, is very simple and almost entirely syllabic; 
nevertheless it accentuates the words super sedes, and particularly the 
important word judieantes (by means of recitation on high g). 

Christ is speaking to His faithful Apostles. He to whom the Father 
hath given all judgment (John 5: 22), could not bestow a greater dis- 
tinction than to assign them thrones next to His own seat of judgment, 
thus making them participants in His judicial power. He who has said: 
"Who heareth you, heareth Me," promises by the mouth of His Apostles 
eternal salvation to all who hear and observe their teaching, and eternal 
damnation to all who despise it, because in so doing they despise Christ. 



372 St. Joseph, Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Confessor 

ST. JOSEPH, SPOUSE OF THE BLESSED 
VIRGIN MARY, CONFESSOR 

(March 19) 

INTROIT (Ps. 91: 13, 14) 

1. Justus ut palma florebit: sicut 1. The just shall flourish like the 

cedrus Libani multiplicahitur: 2. palm tree: he shall grow up like the 

plantatus in domo Domini, in atriis cedar of Lihanus: 2. planted in the 

domus Dei nostri. Ps. Bonum est house of the Lord, in the courts of 

confiteri Domino: * et psallere no- the house of our God. Ps. It is good 

mini tuo, Altissime. to give praise to the Lord: * and to 

sing to Thy name, most High. 

St. Joseph is the ideal just man. Already the Gospel calls him just, 
thereby proclaiming his saintliness. His soul reflects the Sun of justice. 
He is like the palm tree, modest, deriving next to nothing from the 
earth, rising from comparatively barren soil, but growing heavenwards 
and absorbing the light of the sun. In childlike simplicity he gave him- 
self entirely to God. Fond of silence, not a single word of his is recorded. 
Like a flower which blossoms forth and displays its beauty in silence, so 
his life unfolded itself in its accomplishments in all quietness. Like the 
cedar which spreads its branches far and wide in protection, his life was 
characterized by faithfulness and firmness of character. 

The second phrase indicates the fountainhead from which such a 
life can draw its great beauty and power; it is none other than the temple 
of God, the union with God and His holy will, the life in heaven. How, 
wonderfully the holiness of Joseph developed when Providence trans- 
planted him into God's garden at Nazareth, into the most intimate 
union with Jesus and Mary. He was privileged to pray, to speak, to as- 
sociate and to labor with them for many years. That was the court of 
heaven, the house of God on earth (domus Dei nostri). 

There, in company with Jesus and Mary, Joseph celebrated liturgy 
and glorified the name of the most High. Certainly if any prayer was 
ever good and perfect, it was that of the Holy Family. 

Transplanted into heaven, this saint has all the more become like 
the palm tree which refreshes us with its luscious fruit. There he is be- 
come like the cedar under whose spreading branches the great family of 
the Church is well protected. 

Both phrases contain parallelisms quite characteristic of Hebrew 
poetry. The word palma corresponds to cedrus, florebit to multiplicdbitur, 



St. Joseph, Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Confessor 373 

domo to dtriis. Both phrases have practically also the same divisions. 
The first part of the first phrase rests on /, the second part on a. In the 
second phrase / is again predominant, g occurring occasionally. 

Peace and serenity, which are the prerogatives of the just man, 
pervade the entire antiphon. Justus fashions a motive of its own and 
forms the grammatical as well as the spiritual subject of the Introit. 
The melody of this Introit must not be rendered in a heavy manner but 
rather airily and at the same time with great delicacy. The strophici 
over florebit should be sung decrescendo. The motive over ut palma is 
amplified over cedrus Libani; c d f f becomes c d f g a a. The tarrying on 
the dominant a might suggest the idea of multiplicity, extension, and 
expansion of branches. The first syllable of multiplicähüur forms a rhyth- 
mic upbeat followed by several groups of two notes: da, dc, da, ga, gg, 

fg, fg- 

The second phrase is characterized by serene quiet and firmness. 
The melody over domo (Domini) is echoed over domus (Dei), while that 
of the reverential Dei is repeated over nostri. 

In the old manuscripts this melody occurs on the feast of St. Ste- 
phen, Pope. It will be instructive to compare the first phrase with the 
Offertory of the feast of St. John the Apostle. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 20:4-5) 

1. Domine, praevenisti eum in 1.0 Lord, thou hast prevented 

henedictionihus dulcedinis: 2. po- him with blessings of sweetness: 2. 

suisti in capite ejus coronam de Thou hast set on his head a crown 

lapide pretioso. jl. 1. Vitam petiii of precious stones, jll. 1. He asked 

a te, 2. et tribuisti ei longitudinem life of thee, 2. and thou hast given 

dierum in saeculum saeculi. him length of days forever and ever. 

St. Joseph was privileged to see and to hear the divine Saviour. 
Many kings, however, as an indulgenced prayer mentions, looked in 
vain for Him whom they so ardently desired to hear but were not per- 
mitted to hear. St. Joseph, moreover, was not only privileged to see and 
hear Him, but also to carry Him in his arms, to kiss Him, to clothe and 
protect Him— indeed, a singular blessing. Beyond doubt, his life was 
not devoid of sacrifice and suffering. He experienced great anxiety the 
night he fled with the Child to evade the evil eye of Herod. Herod lost 
his crown, but St. Joseph now wears a crown of precious stones the like 
of which has never been worn by an earthly king. In union with Jesus 
and Mary he enjoys a bliss which is eternal and indestructible. 

In manuscript 339 of St. Gall's this Gradual is assigned to the 
feast of St. Adrian. Later it was embodied in the Common of holy Abbots. 



374 St. Joseph, Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Confessor 

The first phrase of the corpus ascends majestically when telling of 
the blessing which surpasses all understanding. The distribution of notes 
■over henedictionihus is striking. Principal as well as secondary accents 
have each only one note, whereas in each case the syllable following has 
2, 5, and 5 notes respectively. The motive over (praeve)-nisti eum is re- 
peated in practically the same form over pretioso and in accordantly ex- 
tended form over -bus dulcedinis and ejus coronam. Over -(tü)-dinem in 
the verse, this motive assumes the form fdec c. In place of the descend- 
ing fourth g-d, posuisti and Vitam have the fourth a-e. The melody over 
posuisti repeats itself over lapide. The last three groups of neums over 
-(6)-so form the jubilus in the typical Alleluia of the fourth mode which 
is sung, for example, on the third Sunday of Advent. The pressus, how- 
ever, is missing here before the last note. 

The high c over vitam should be sustained rather than abbreviated. 
The tempo is gradually accelerated; the last three notes, however, are 
retarded. The Alleluia of the Tuesday after Easter greets the risen Sa- 
viour (Surrexit) with the same melisma. The melody over et trihuisti ei 
recurs over dierum in saeculum. An attempt at tone-painting reveals 
itself in the retarded notes over (longi)-tüdinem. The Gradual of the 
twenty-second Sunday after Pentecost, and with minor variations the 
Alleluia-verse of the fourth Sunday of Advent and the twentieth Sun- 
day after Pentecost, close with the melody over saeculum. This verse is 
written in the first mode, which also prevails in the corpus. The final 
comes somewhat as a surprise. 

TRACT (Ps. Ill: 1-3) 

l.Beatus vir, qui timet Dominum: 1. Blessed is the man that feareth, 

t in mandatis ejus cupit nimis. the Lord: f he shall delight exceed- 

2. Polens in terra erit semen ejus: ingly in his commandments. 2. His 

generatio rectorum henedicetur. 3. seed shall he mighty upon earth: 

Gloria et divitiae in domo ejus: et the generation of the righteous shall 

justitia ejus manet in saeculum he hlessed. 3. Glory and wealth shall 

saeculi. be in his house: and his justice re- 

maineth forever and ever. 

In its second half each verse has the same formula which, descend- 
ing to the tonic, sets in one syllable before the word-accent: -tis ejus, 
rec-torum, -a ejus. The first and second verse have the same final cadence, 
a change from & to 61? being introduced. The melodies of the second and 
third verse are identical up to the florid close over saeculum saeculi. 

Happy St. Joseph, who in the fear of the Lord, even at the cost of 
great sacrifice, promptly and joyfully carried out every commandment 



St. Joseph, Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Confessor 375 

of God. Can we find another house or home possessing the fame and 
spiritual wealth of the house of Nazareth? What great and innumerable 
blessings have been bestowed upon the entire world by this house! 

The old manuscripts assign this composition to the feast of Pope 
Gregory the Great. 

OFFERTORY (Ps. 88: 25) 

1. Veritas mea et misericordia 1. My truth and my mercy are 

mea cum ipso: 2. et in nomine meo with him: 2. and in my name his 
exaltahitur cornu ejus. horn shall he exalted. 

This piece marks the only place in the Gradule where the Fa clef 
is on the fourth line. This would indicate that the melody has a strong 
tendency to descend. The first half of the first phrase with a range of but 
five note moves in intervals of seconds and thirds (repercussion); the 
second half has one interval of a third, with the other intervals seconds. 
Over the word ipso the melody modulates to a full step below the tonic 
— a turn much favored by the second mode. The second phrase has a 
range of an octave and comparatively large intervals; there are, how- 
ever, fewer neums on individual syllables than in the first phrase. The 
melody over -cordia recurs over mea, and in an abbreviated form over 
ejus. 

The melody is solemn and well sustained, which is all the more 
fitting particularly when the word of God is quoted. 

God redeemed His promises in the mystery of the Incarnation and 
thereby exemplified His fidelity and mercy. St. Joseph was chosen the 
guardian of this mystery. The text, however, may also bear a particular 
application to the saint. He possesses the Truth of that God who said: 
"I am the Truth." With him are the merciful Heart of Jesus and she 
whom we greet as the Mother of mercy. He was privileged to spend 
years in the most intimate companionship of Jesus and Mary. God 
ordained him (Preface of feast) to be the Spouse of the Virgin Mother 
of God and placed him, his faithful and prudent servant, at the head of 
the family, that he might be the foster father of the Only-Begotten, 
conceived of the Holy Ghost. The eternal decrees provided for the exal- 
tation of this humble and hidden Saint of God, and determined him the 
protector of the universal Church. Such is the providence of God, por- 
trayed by the triumphant ring of the melody with its major chord over 
nomine meo. 

The old manuscripts assign this number to the feast of Pope St. 
Marcellus. 



376 The Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary 

COMMUNION (Matt. 1: 20) 

1. Joseph, fill David, noli timer e 1. Joseph, son of David, fear not 

accipere Mariam conjugem tuam: to take unto thee Mary thy wife: 2. 

2. quod enim in ea natum est, de for that vjhich is horn in her is of 

Spiritu Sando est. the Holy Ghost. 

Both phrases have similar divisions. The first phrase begins on g~c, 
tarries on d and g, and concludes on the tonic. The second phrase begins 
on g-d, makes a half-pause on d and with a florid melisma closes on the 
tonic. The significant words Maria and Spiritu are well emphasized in 
both phrases. The melodic distinction given to est at the end of the two 
half-phrases is conspicuous and provocative of thought. The original is 
embodied in the Communion Eruhescant of the Monday of Holy Week. 
The first phrase develops freely in its first half. After that there is an 
apparent correspondence between various members of today's Com- 
munion and the Communion Eruhescant: accipere Ma-(riam) and gra- 
tulantur ma-(lis), (c6n)-jugem tuam and (ma)-lis meis, in 'ea natum and 
(indu)-dntur pudore, est and (-ti) -a. Spiritu is again treated more freely, 
while Sancto est corresponds to (ad)-versum est. 

Indeed, the Communion text holds glad tidings for St. Joseph, fol- 
lowing as they do the painful anxieties and doubts and fear he experi- 
enced. Now he will not need to separate himself from her whom he re- 
garded as the purest of Virgins and whom he loved with the chastest 
love. The close relation with the supernatural and miraculous paralyzed 
his soul, St. Bernard says. (Oberhammer, II, 247). He has been initiated 
by the Angel into the mystery of the Incarnation, into the miraculous 
operation of the Holy Ghost in the womb of his Spouse — the Holy Ghost 
ever co-operates at the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. May He also 
prepare our hearts that they become worthy to receive the Son of the 
purest of Virgins! 



THE ANNUNCIATION OF THE BLESSED 
VIRGIN MARY 

(March 25) 

This is one of the most ancient feasts of the Church and can be 
traced back to the fifth century. Its chants are contained in the oldest 
manuscripts, while the Mass as such is post-Gregorian. 



The Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary 377 

INTROIT (Ps. 44: 13, 15, 16) 

1. Vultum tuum deprecabuntur 1. All the rich among the people 

omnes divites plehis: 2. adducentur shall entreat thy countenance: 2. 

regi virgines post earn; proximae after her shall virgins he brought to 

ejus adducentur tibi in laetitia et the King: her neighbors shall he 

exsuUatione. Ps. Eructavit cor meum brought to thee in gladness and re- 

verbum bonum: * dico ego opera joicing. Ps. My heart hath uttered 

mea regi. a good word: * I speak my works ta 

the King. 

The words of the psalm-verse are heard frequently during the course 
of the ecclesiastical year, bur scarcely ever are they so full of meaning as 
today. Most ardently heaven and earth awaited the word which the 
Virgin of Nazareth was to utter! And today it is spoken, a good word, 
a word which drew down from heaven the Son of God and gave us in 
Mary a loving Mother; a word, which imparts to her soul a new beauty. 
And when the Word was made flesh, Mary became the Mother of God. 
Truly sublime in her dignity of motherhood, she is almost more noble 
when uttering the simple words: Ancilla Domini — "I am the handmaid 
of the Lord." She is not only prepared to give the Word of God a human 
body, human life, but also ready to share with Him poverty, persecu- 
tion, insults, and suffering. 

Heaven and earth vie with one another in paying her homage. 
While the mighty of heaven salute her in the Archangel Gabriel, the 
kings of earth prostrate themselves before her, offer their crowns at her 
shrine, and implore her blessing. 

As if in deferential obeisance, the melody descends gracefully and 
ascends in a similar manner. The whole is characterized by a suppressed 
affection, a holding of one's breath, as it were, in the presence of the 
majesty of Him whom Mary carries in her womb: super quern Reges 
continehunt os suum. 

The second phrase introduces a new line of thought. The angel de- 
clares unto Mary, but she avows that she knows no man. What an ideal 
of perfect virginity to strive for! Following in her footsteps (post earn),, 
countless virgins (virgines) have given their hearts and their undivided 
love to the King of Kings. The accented syllable here, as is frequently 
the case, has but one note while the syllable following has several. The 
same holds good with regard to the secondary accent on deprecabuntur 
and adducentur. The melody moves in simple fashion within the tetra- 
chord d-g. The first half of the third phrase likewise confines itself to a 
tetra chord (c-f). The interval of a fourth over adducentur harks back to 
(di)-vites of the first phrase. Over laetitia a bright joy characterizes the 



378 The Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary 

melody and depicts for us the serene happiness that the chaste soul of 
the Mother of God experiences when immersed in the contemplation 
of the Deity. 

In the oldest manuscripts this Introit is assigned to the first of 
January, and bears the superscription Statio ad Sanctam Mariam; it is 
likewise assigned to today's feast, to the feast of the Assumption of the 
Blessed Virgin, and, as if by way of illustrating the second and third 
phrases, to the feasts of St. Agnes (January 21) and St. Euphemia 
(September 16). It forms the Introit of the second Mass in the Common 
of a Virgin at the present time. 

GRADUAL (Ps. 44:3, 5) 

1. Diffusa est gratia in Idbiis tuis: 1. Grace is poured abroad in thy 

2. propter ea henedixit te Deus in lips; 2. therefore hath God blessed 
aeternum. ^. 1. Propter veritatem, thee forever, jl. 1. Because of truth 
et mansuetudinem, et justitiam: 2. and meekness, and justice; 2. and 
et deducet te mirabiliter dextera tua. thy right hand shall conduct thee 

wonderfully. 

The words of the Gradual refer in the first place to the Messias; a 
part of them is thus sung on the Sunday within the octave of the Na- 
tivity. Considering the close relation which exists between Child and 
Mother, however, the Liturgy refers them to the Mother also. 

Mary has on this day proffered a wonderful word which has won for 
her a further blessing, yea, the plenitude of all blessings. The eternal 
Son of God will become her Child. 

Her word a blessing to the world imparts; 
Mankind it saves from Satan's fiery darts. 
— G. Dreves 

The text of the corpus forms the Offertory for the feast of the Puri- 
fication, the Alleluia-verse for the feast of St. Lucy (December 13), and 
the Communion for the feast of St. Anne (July 26). The first phrase 
rises to unwonted heights. A particularly happy coincidence is the fact 
that just today the words Idbiis tuis are sung with such intensity of ex- 
pression. The tonal as well as the harmonic foundation of the second 
half of the second phrase is formed by /, and the high point of the mel- 
ody which heretofore was b, now becomes 6b. 

The text of today's verse introduces also the Gradual on the feast 
of the Assumption and forms likewise the Alleluia-verse for the Mass of 
a Virgin not a Martyr. The introductory is known to us from the verse 
of the second Sunday of Lent. The melody forms a splendid climax over 



The Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary 379 

the final syllable of mansuetudinem, then returns deftly to the tonic. 
The et justitiam is reminiscent of Epiphany; that which follows, of the 
feast of the Assumption; the conclusion, of the second Mass of Christmas. 

TRACT (Ps. 44, 11—13, 10, 15, 16) 

1. Audi, filia et vide, et inclina 1. Hearken, daughter, and 

aurem tuam: f quia concupivit rex see and incline thy ear: f for the 
( — ) speeiem tuam. 2. Vultumtuum king hath greatly desired ( — ) thy 
deprecahuntur omnes f divites beauty. 2. Thy countenance entreat 
plebis: f filiae regum in honore shall all f the rich among the 
tuo. 3. Adducentur regi virgines people: t the daughters of kings in 
post eam: f proximae ejus ( — ) the honor. 3. After her shall virgins 
afferentur tibi. 4. Adducentur in be brought to the king: f her neigh- 
laetitia, et exsultatione: f adducen- bors ( — ) shall be brought to thee. 4. 
tur in templum regis. They shall be brought with gladness 

and rejoicing: f Ihey shall be 
brought into the temple of the king. 

The first verse is identical with the verse of the Gradual on the feast 
of the Assumption. The last three verses are practically the same as the 
text of the Introit. 

As usual, the middle cadence precedes the sign (f), while the cae- 
sura precedes the sign ( — ). 

DURING PASCHAL TIME 

FIRST ALLELUIA VERSE (Luke 1: 28) 

1. Ave Maria, gratia plenxi, Do- 1. Hail, Mary, full of grace: the 

minus tecum: 2. benedicta tu in Lord is with thee: 2. Blessed art 
mulieribus. Alleluia. thou among women. Alleluia. 

This text with its melody is already found in Codex 121 of Ein- 
siedeln. Most likely it was original to the ninth Sunday after Pentecost. 

SECOND ALLELUIA VERSE (Num. 17: 8) 

1. Virga Jesse floruit: 2. Virgo 1. The rod of Jesse hath blos- 

Deum et hominem genuit: 3. pacem somed: 2. a virgin hath brought 
Deus reddidit, in se reconcilians forth God and man: 3, God hath 
ima summis. Alleluia. given peace, reconciling the lowest 

with the highest in himself. Alleluia. 



380 The Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary 

The text as such forms a beautiful panegyric, and, coupled with its 
sweet melody, is like a bouquet of fragrant blossoms which becomes a 
genuine delight to the singer. Alleluia with its juhilus forms the theme, 
and is repeated with variations in the verse. The introductory resembles 
the Alleluia Dulce lignum on May 3. The first half of the melody over 
-lu- is repeated over virga, is developed over se reconcili-(ans), and sim- 
plified over (reddi)-dit. The second half of the same melody terminates 
phrases and half-phrases no less than five times, and yet this repetition 
is ever delightful; in most cases these phrases have a varied introduction. 
The first part of the juhilus has an interval of a fifth; the concluding 
part has the same range. This interval reappears over Jesse and over 
pacem. All combine and effectively depict for us how^ God alone can grant 
the inestimable treasure of peace. The second part of the juhilus produ- 
ces an after-effect at (Vir)-go. 

Today, in the womb of the purest Virgin, abject human nature is 
espoused to the Word of the Most High, and thus, "reconciling the low- 
est with the highest in Himself, God hath given peace" to the disturbed 
world. 



OFFERTORY— COMMUNION 

Both of these chants are identical with those of the fourth Sunday 
of Advent: Ave Maria and Ecce Virgo. At Mass the priest introduces the 
Pater noster with the words: "Taught by the precepts of salvation, and 
following the divine commandment, we make bold to say: Our Father 
. . . ." Instructed by a like divine command the Archangel Gabriel ap- 
proaches Mary with the salutation Ave. Filled with reverence for the 
Virgin he dares pronounce these words only as God's messenger. We 
likewise should pray and sing these words imbued with the sentiments 
of the Archangel. 

Today is realized the first part of the Communion text, for on this 
day the Angel declared unto Mary and she conceived of the Holy Ghost. 
Today the Word was made flesh, became our Emmanuel, God with us, 
and dwells among us. This union of Divinity and humanity in the per- 
son of the divine Word is indissoluble. The soul indeed separates from 
the body on Golgotha, but Divinity and humanity can never be separ- 
ated in Christ. Thus has human nature been elevated to a place of singu- 
lar dignity and blessing. And in Holy Communion this same Christ 
comes into our hearts with His Divinity and with His humanity. 



St. Mark, Evangelist — SS. Philip and James the Younger 381 

ST. MARK, EVANGELIST 
(April 25) 

The Introit opens with the word Protexisti. In it the Evangelist 
gives expression to his gratitude to God for the protection which he has 
been given against his enemies and persecutors (particularly at his 
martyrdom). The melody repeats identical and similar forms and re- 
quires lively rendition. The tonic of the seventh mode is found only at 
the beginning and at the end of the antiphon. 

The first ALLELUIA VERSE and the OFFERTORY are the 
same as those on the feast of the Apostles Philip and James (May 1). 

The second ALLELUIA VERSE Posuisti describes in a beautiful 
and tuneful melody how God has placed on the head of the saint a crown 
of precious stones. The verse repeats the motives of Alleluia and its 
juhilus: abed. Posuisti corresponds to a, Domine to b c and the first 
part of a; ejus is an extended form of c, a free repetition of which is given 
over coronam; de läpide pretiöso repeats the entire melody of alleluia and 
the juhilus. 

The melody dates back to the twelfth century. 

The COMMUNION Laetdhitur Justus belongs to the most effective 
and worth-while chants of the Graduale. It rouses to the height of en- 
thusiasm. The introductory motive / gga gf becomes fa ag cc a eg over 
in Dö-(mino), and Jac e^d^c^ over et sperdbit. Such is the song of a faith 
that knows neither enemy nor difficulty. After a quiet, contrasting me- 
lodic descent, the jubilant Alleluia with its fac^ dV^eVe^d^c^ brings the 
piece to a close. Even as the beginning of the members of each phrase 
depict exuberant joy, so the final groups with their rhymes -mino, corde, 
-luia and the sequences recti and -Mia with ca&bc&l? ga h\>a g fg dgf 
breathe the peace of a soul united to God.